Audio and Video Tape Composition


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Audio and Video Tape Composition

  1. 1. Audio and Video Tapes<br />Chemical and Physical Properties<br />By Jonas T. Sahagun<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Brief Background<br />Composition and properties<br /><ul><li>Binder
  3. 3. Base
  4. 4. Back coating</li></ul>Tape housing<br /><ul><li>Open spool
  5. 5. Cassette
  6. 6. Cartridge</li></li></ul><li>Brief Background<br />Magnetic media are one of the most widespread carriers for audio and video data.<br />They are also used for the storage of large quantities of computer data.<br />Beyond specific audio and video formats, magnetic media are the most prominent storage media of the IT world.<br />
  7. 7. Background (cont’d)<br />For the purpose of this report, we will concentrate on the “traditional” magnetic carriers: the audio and video tapes.<br />All audio-specific magnetic tape formats are now, in practice, dead (Schüller, 2008).<br />Video-specific magnetic tape formats are still in wide use, but a similar development to that which happened in the audio world is foreseeable (Schüller, 2008).<br />
  8. 8. Composition and properties<br />Magnetic tape is composed of three layers:<br />Binder/oxide coating (magnetic layer)<br />Base film<br />Back coating (not on all tapes)<br />(Hess, 2008, p.242)<br />
  9. 9. Composition (cont’d)<br />Layered structure of the magnetic tape:<br />(Dumont, Johansen, Kilander, 1992, p.42)<br />
  10. 10. Binder/oxide coating<br /><ul><li>The information carrier: comprising of a magnetizable element (40%), binder (40%) and minute pores (20%).
  11. 11. Different ferromagnetic materials are used, including pure iron oxide, iron oxide doped with cobalt, chromium dioxide with iron oxide, metallic alloys, and pure metal.</li></li></ul><li>Binder/oxide (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>The oxide consists of a mix of magnetic particles that retain the magnetism impressed on them by the recording head.
  12. 12. The binder is the “glue” or matrix that holds the oxide particles to the base film.
  13. 13. A lubricant is added to the binder/oxide mix to reduce friction and wear.</li></li></ul><li>Base film<br />The base film is the foundation of the tape.<br />It provides structural integrity to the tape.<br />In the sequence of the development of magnetic tapes, the following materials were used:<br />Acetate<br />Polyvinyl chloride<br />Polyester<br />
  14. 14. Base (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Cellulose Acetate [AC] (1935-1972/73)</li></ul>AC is derived from the naturally occurring organic compound cellulose, main structural ingredient of plants.<br /> It is manufactured out of wood pulp by purification process. It is a renewable and biodegradable substance.<br />AC is generally robust but deteriorates with time; it becomes brittle and shrinks.<br />Acetate tapes residing in collections are over 30-years-old, with the oldest being over 60-years-old.<br />
  15. 15. Base (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Polyvinyl chloride [PVC] (1944-1972), also known as Luvitherm</li></ul>PVC is an inexpensive plastic. It is one of the first synthetic product ever patented.<br /> It is not biodegradable.<br /> Have not yet shown to have systematic chemical deterioration.<br /> All PVC tape is more than 30 years old, and some of it is more than 60 years old.<br />
  16. 16. Base (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Polyethylene terephthalate [PET] (1953-present) also known as Mylar, Polyester, Tenzar</li></ul> PET has gradually replaced AC and PVC tapes from the late 1950s onward.<br /> It is a polyester material that is most often used to make fibers.<br /> It is mechanically robust and chemically very stable.<br /> As of approximately 1972 became the sole base film used in audio tape manufacture.<br />
  17. 17. Back coating<br />Tape back coating has been claimed to do several things:<br />Provide a smoother wind<br />Provide better grip for tape movement<br />Provide for electrostatic drain<br />Reduce print-through<br />Back coatings generally contain carbon black and add a little strength to the overall tape.<br />
  18. 18. Tape housing<br />There are three basic methods for the immediate storage of tape:<br />Open spool<br />Cassette<br />Cartridge<br />
  19. 19. Open spool<br />The tape on an open spool has to be threaded on to the machine and the free end secured on a second spool by hand.<br />(Nixdorf, 2004)<br />© Jean-Marc Fontaine<br />
  20. 20. Open spool (cont’d)<br />Open spools were until recently the main form of tape used for professional audio recordings.<br />Some expensive professional digital audio formats like DASH (Digital Audio Stationary Head) and PD (ProDigi) use reel-to-reel tape and stationary head technology.<br />
  21. 21. Cassette<br /><ul><li>Tape in a cassette is enclosed in a shell and the two ends of the tape are securely fixed to captive spools.</li></ul>© Jean-Marc Fontaine<br />
  22. 22. Cassette (cont’d)<br />They range from the Compact Audio Cassette or Musicassette through the many types of video cassette to the latest Digital Audio Tapes with rotary heads (R-DAT).<br />© Jean-Marc Fontaine<br />(Yaoleilei, 2005)<br />
  23. 23. Cassette (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>The many types of video cassette:</li></ul>(Liftarn, 2007)<br />(Yerrick, 2007)<br />(YStevo81989, 2008)<br />
  24. 24. Cartridge<br /><ul><li>A cartridge is also fully enclosed but the tape is in the form of a continuous loop.</li></ul>© Jean-Marc Fontaine<br />(Benedict, 2004)<br />
  25. 25. Cartridge (cont’d)<br />The primary use for cartridges is for storing computer data but a variant was extensively used to record short sound sequences for commercials, station identifications and the like.<br />(Wheeler, 2007)<br />(Field, 2008)<br />
  26. 26. REFERENCES<br />Dumont, J., Johansen, J. & Kilander, G. (1992). Handling and storage of recoded videotape. Retrieved from<br />Hess, R.L. (2008). Tape Degradation Factors and Challenges in Predicting Tape Life. ARSC Journal, 39 (2), 240-274. Retrieved from EBSCOhost<br />Schüller, D. (2008). Audio and video carriers. Retrieved from<br />Van Bogart, J. W.C. (1995). Magnetic Tape Storage and Handling: A Guide for Libraries and Archives. Retrieved from<br />Tape%20Storage.pdf<br />________. [2008]. Old IFLA website. Retrieved from<br />