TABLE OF CONTENTSSection                                                                                                  ...
This page intentionally blankii      TABLE OF CONTENTS            APRIL 2011
Mission Overview                                 Expeditions 27 and 28 The International Space Station is featured in this...
The Expedition 27 and 28 crews, comprised         first space shuttle flight. Russian cosmonautof a total of nine resident...
Expedition 27 crew members from top, Russian cosmonaut Andrey Borisenko, NASA astronaut Ron Garan, and cosmonaut and Soyuz...
Garan, 49, is embarking on the second              demonstrations ranging from recyclingmission of his NASA career. Garan ...
Even though the space station orbits in             station or visiting vehicles such as thewhat most people on Earth woul...
At its current altitude, the space station        mounted to the station’s truss structureuses about 19,000 pounds (8.6 ki...
NASA astronaut Mike Fossum (right), Expedition 28 flight engineer and Expedition 29   commander; along with Russian cosmon...
Two Progress resupply craft are scheduled         commercial spacecraft, they will begin flyingto deliver about two tons o...
Attired in Russian Sokol launch and entry suits, Russian cosmonaut        Andrey Borisenko (right), Expedition 27 flight e...
This page intentionally blank10        MISSION OVERVIEW           APRIL 2011
Expedition 27/28 Crew                                        Expedition 27                                      Expedition...
Expedition 27 crew members take a break from training at NASA’s Johnson Space     Center to pose for a crew portrait. Pict...
Expedition 28                                   Expedition 28 PatchIn the foreground of the Expedition 28               ea...
Expedition 28 crew members take a break from training at NASA’s Johnson Space   Center to pose for a crew portrait. Pictur...
Expedition 27                                     Dmitry KondratyevDmitry Kondratyev, 41, will serve as the              C...
Cady ColemanThis is the third spaceflight mission for             than 500 hours in space. She was aNASA astronaut Cady Co...
Páolo NéspoliEuropean    Space     Agency    astronaut          corps. He flew as a mission specialist onPáolo Néspoli, 53...
Expedition 28                                Alexander SamokutyaevAlexander Samokutyaev, 41, flight engineer          time...
Andrey BorisenkoThis will be the first spaceflight for                 onboard systems operation analysis board.Andrey Bor...
Ron Garan Jr.Ron Garan, 49, will be embarking on the             20 hours and 32 minutes of extravehicularsecond mission o...
Sergei VolkovVolkov, 38, a colonel in the Russian Air           International Space Station commanderForce, was selected a...
Mike FossumFossum, 53, a colonel in the USAF, was                 spaceflights, STS-121 in 2006 andselected as an astronau...
Satoshi FurukawaFurukawa, 47, will be serving his first             Space Station. He was certified as anspaceflight as a ...
This page intentionally blank24              CREW                 APRIL 2011
EXPEDITION 27 AND 28 MILESTONESApril 26     41 Progress undocks from the Pirs docking compartment 1April 27     42 Progres...
This page intentionally blank26           MILESTONES              APRIL 2011
Expedition 27/28 Spacewalks    Attired in a training version of his Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit,     NASA...
The focus of the spacewalk − Russian             In addition to all this, the cosmonauts willspacewalk 29 − will be the re...
Russian SoyuzThe Soyuz-TMA spacecraft is designed to            into the station. The rendezvous antennaeserve as the Inte...
crew member’s couch/seat, which are              which has a cooling area of 86 square feet.individually molded to fit eac...
The Soyuz TMA-01M vehicle integrates              increased safety, especially in descent andthose systems. The majority o...
Soyuz Launcher                                   The basic Soyuz vehicle is considered a                                  ...
Second Stage                                       plotting is performed for flight following an                          ...
Soyuz Booster Rocket Characteristics     First Stage Data - Blocks B, V, G, D     Engine                                  ...
Prelaunch Countdown Timeline    T- 34 Hours     Booster is prepared for fuel loading    T- 6:00:00      Batteries are inst...
Prelaunch Countdown Timeline (concluded)     T-   3:15      Combustion chambers of side and central engine pods purged    ...
Orbital Insertion to Docking Timeline    FLIGHT DAY 1 OVERVIEW    Orbit 1        Post insertion: Deployment of solar panel...
FLIGHT DAY 1 OVERVIEW (CONTINUED)     Orbit 4         Crew report on burn performance upon AOS     (continued)     - HM an...
FLIGHT DAY 2 OVERVIEW (CONTINUED)    Orbit 18 (2)      Post burn and manual maneuver to +Y Sun report when AOS            ...
FLIGHT DAY 3 AUTO RENDEZVOUS SEQUENCE (CONCLUDED)     Orbit 32 (16)   Terminate +Y solar rotation, reactivate MCS and esta...
Typical Soyuz Ground TrackAPRIL 2011                   RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA   41
Soyuz Landing          The Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft is seen as it lands with Expedition 24      commander Alexander Skvorts...
Baikonur Cosmodrome          in   Kazakhstan       houses the engines and avionics, willabout 17 days later.              ...
before landing, allowing the descent                As always is the case, teams of Russianmodule to right itself to a ver...
Expedition 27/28 Science Overview   NASA astronaut Mike Fossum (left background), Expedition 28 flight engineer and       ...
sciences, physical sciences and Earth             that explain this apparent asymmetryobservation, and conduct technology ...
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Satoshi Furukawa,    Expedition 28/29 flight engineer, participates in...
the space shuttle Columbia (STS-107)                 metallic alloys in microgravity. CETSOL willaccident; and others are ...
NASA astronaut Mike Fossum (left), Expedition 28 flight engineer and Expedition 29    commander; along with Russian cosmon...
world, effectively providing for researchers      •   ESA Columbus Control Center (Col-CC)and the station crew around the ...
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station
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Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station

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NASA press kit for the Expedition 27 and 28 crews and missions aboard the International Space Station. Expedition 27 crew began with the Soyuz undocking on March 16, 2011. Three new crew members arrived April 6, 2011.

Expedition 28 begins with the Soyuz undocking May 23, 2011. Three new crew members will arrive on a Soyuz set to launch June 7.

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition27/index.html

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition28/index.html

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Press Kit for the Expedition 27/28 Mission to the International Space Station

  1. 1. TABLE OF CONTENTSSection PageMission Overview ................................................................................................................ 1Expedition 27/28 Crew ........................................................................................................ 11Mission Milestones ............................................................................................................. 25Expedition 27/28 Spacewalks ........................................................................................... 27Russian Soyuz ...................................................................................................................... 29 S o y uz B oo s ter R oc k et Cha r act er is t ic s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 P r e la u nc h Cou n td ow n T im e line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 35 As c e n t/ I ns er t io n T im elin e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 36 O rb it a l I ns er t ion T o D oc k ing T imeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 37 S o y uz L a nd ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Expedition 27/28 Science Overview ................................................................................. 45 R es e arc h E xp er im e nts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 51NASA’S Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) ...................................... 73Media Assistance ................................................................................................................ 75Expedition 27/28 Public Affairs Officers (PAO) Contacts ............................................. 77APRIL 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS i
  2. 2. This page intentionally blankii TABLE OF CONTENTS APRIL 2011
  3. 3. Mission Overview Expeditions 27 and 28 The International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an STS-133 crew member on space shuttle Discovery after the station and shuttle began their post-undocking relative separation. Undocking of the two spacecraft occurred at 7 a.m. (EST) on March 7, 2011. Discovery spent eight days, 16 hours, and 46 minutes attached to the orbiting laboratory. Photo credit: NASAThe primary goals of Expedition 27 and 28 The comings and goings of the final twoare to continue world-class research while space shuttle missions, STS-134 andpreparing the International Space Station STS-135, will keep the station’s six-person(ISS) for a future without space shuttles, crew busy for much of the summer, whileprovisioning it with enough supplies and the departure of four cargo ships turnedspare parts to support the orbiting outpost trash trucks and the activation ofuntil all of its new resupply spacecraft are Robonaut 2 fill the rest of its busy schedule.ready.APRIL 2011 MISSION OVERVIEW 1
  4. 4. The Expedition 27 and 28 crews, comprised first space shuttle flight. Russian cosmonautof a total of nine residents over a span of Yuri Gagarin’s flight lifted off from the sameseven months, will continue to support launch pad as Garan, Borisenko andresearch into the effects of microgravity on Samukotyaev on April 12, 1961, while NASAthe human body, biology, physics and astronauts John Young and Robert Crippenmaterials, and expand its scope to the launched from Kennedy Space Center onmysteries of the cosmos with the Alpha STS-1 on April 12, 1981, aboard spaceMagnetic Spectrometer. shuttle Columbia.As Expedition 26 Commander Scott Kelly Coleman, a retired U.S. Air Force colonel,and Flight Engineers Alexander Kaleri and has been on the space station sinceOleg Skripochka departed in mid-March, Dec. 17, 2010. She was a mission specialistcosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev became on STS-73 in 1995 and STS-93 in 1999, acommander of the three-person Expedition mission that deployed the Chandra X-Ray27 crew that also includes NASA’s Catherine Observatory. She also served as the backupColeman and the European Space Agency’s U.S. crew member for Expeditions 19, 20,Paolo Nespoli. For about two weeks, the trio and 21.maintained station operations and researchbefore being joined by another American Kondratyev, selected as a test-cosmonautand two more Russians. candidate of the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center Cosmonaut Office inNASA’s Ron Garan and Russians Andrey December 1997, trained as a backup crewBorisenko and Alexander Samokutyaev member for Expedition 5 and Expedition 20.joined Kondratyev, Coleman and Nespoli He also served as the Russian Spacewhen their Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft Agency director of operations stationed atdocked with the station April 6, following an the Johnson Space Center from May 2006April 4 launch from the Baikonur through April 2007. He conducted twoCosmodrome in Kazakhstan. United, they spacewalks in January and February.comprise the full Expedition 27 crew.Kondtatyev, Coleman and Nespoli launched Nespoli was selected as an astronaut by theto the station Dec. 15, 2010, aboard the Italian space agency in July 1998 and oneSoyuz TMA-20 spacecraft. month later joined ESA’s European astronaut corps. He flew as a missionLess than two weeks after the arrival of specialist on STS-120 in October 2007,Garan, Borisenko and Samokutyaev, the which delivered the Italian-built Harmonysix-person crew celebrated the module to the space station. Prior to this50th anniversary of the first human mission, Nespoli had accumulated morespaceflight and the 30th anniversary of the than 15 days of spaceflight experience.2 MISSION OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  5. 5. Expedition 27 crew members from top, Russian cosmonaut Andrey Borisenko, NASA astronaut Ron Garan, and cosmonaut and Soyuz commander Alexander Samokutyaev wave farewell from the bottom of the Soyuz rocket prior to their launch to the ISS fromthe Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on April 5, 2011 (Kazakhstan time). The Soyuz, which has been dubbed “Gagarin,” is launching one week shy of the 50thanniversary of the launch of Yuri Gagarin from the same launch pad in Baikonur on April 12, 1961 to become the first human to fly in space. Photo credit: NASA/Carla CioffiAPRIL 2011 MISSION OVERVIEW 3
  6. 6. Garan, 49, is embarking on the second demonstrations ranging from recyclingmission of his NASA career. Garan to robotics. Seventy-three of thesecompleted his first spaceflight in 2008 on experiments are sponsored by NASA,STS-124 as a mission specialist and has including 22 under the auspices of thelogged more than 13 days in space and U.S. National Laboratory program, and20 hours and 32 minutes of extravehicular 38 are sponsored by international partners.activity in three spacewalks. Garan is a More than 540 hours of research areretired colonel in the U.S. Air Force and has planned. As with prior expeditions, manydegrees from the SUNY College at Oneonta, experiments are designed to gatherEmbry-Riddle Aeronautical University and information about the effects ofthe University of Florida. long-duration spaceflight on the human body, which will help us understandSamokutyaev, 41, flight engineer for complicated processes such as immuneExpeditions 27 and 28, is on his first systems with plan for future explorationmission. Before becoming a cosmonaut, missions.Samokutyaev flew as a pilot, senior pilot anddeputy commander of air squadron. Aside from research, Expeditions 27 and 28Samokutyaev has logged 680 hours of flight are all about making room for the suppliestime and performed 250 parachute jumps. and equipment to be delivered on theHe is a Class 3 Air Force pilot and a final shuttle missions by putting as muchqualified diver. Since December 2008, he trash and packing material as possiblehas trained as an Expedition 23/24 backup into departing cargo vehicles. The emptiedcrew member, Soyuz commander and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency-Expedition 24 flight engineer. provided Konotouri2, or H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV2) departed the station on March 28.Borisenko, 46, graduated from the Leningrad The 41st Russian Progress cargo craft isPhysics and Mathematics School No. 30 scheduled to undock on April 22. Theand, working in a military unit, started his European Space Agency-launchedcareer at RSC Energia in 1989 where he Johannes Kepler Automated Transferwas responsible for the Mir motion control Vehicle 2 (ATV2) is slated to depart on Junesystem and took part in the Borisenko was a 20. The 43rd Russian Progress cargo craft isshift flight director at the MCC-M starting in scheduled to undock on Aug. 29. All four will1999, first for the Mir space station and then be commanded to make fiery re-entries thatfor the International Space Station. destroy the spacecraft and the refuse insideBorisenko will serve as a flight engineer on as they fall back to Earth.Expedition 27 and commander onExpedition 28. Before Johannes Kepler departs, its thrusters and propellant will be used to boostThe Expedition 27 and 28 crews will work the space station to its normal plannedwith some 111 experiments involving altitude of 248 miles, or 400 kilometers. Theapproximately 200 researchers across a main reason for increasing the standard orbitvariety of fields, including human life from 220 statute miles, or about 350sciences, physical sciences and Earth kilometers, is to cut the amount of fuelobservation, and conduct technology needed to keep it there by more than half.4 MISSION OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  7. 7. Even though the space station orbits in station or visiting vehicles such as thewhat most people on Earth would consider space shuttle, Progress resupply vehicles,to be the “vacuum of space,” there are still or ATVs, are fired periodically to “reboost”enough atmospheric molecules contacting the station. These reboosts, however, comethe station’s surfaces to change its speed, at the cost of propellant, that must beor velocity. The station is so large (as big as launched from Earth at significant cost.a football field with the end zones included) Raising the space station’s altitude meansthat the cumulative effect of these tiny that visiting vehicles will not be able to carrycontacts reduces its speed and causes a as much cargo as they could if they wereminute but continuous lowering of its launching to the station at a lower altitude,altitude, or height above the Earth. To fight but it also means that not as much of thatthis tendency, thrusters on the space cargo needs to be propellant. NASA astronaut Mike Fossum (right foreground), Expedition 28 flight engineer and Expedition 29 commander; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Satoshi Furukawa (center foreground), Expedition 28/29 flight engineer; NASA astronaut Ron Garan (left background), Expedition 27/28 flight engineer; and NASA astronaut Chris Ferguson (right background), STS-135 commander, participate in a training session in an ISS mock-up/trainer in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Fossum and Garan are attired in training versions of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit. Photo credit: NASAAPRIL 2011 MISSION OVERVIEW 5
  8. 8. At its current altitude, the space station mounted to the station’s truss structureuses about 19,000 pounds (8.6 kilograms where it will use the power generated byof propellant a year to maintain a consistent the station’s solar arrays to supportorbit. At the new, slightly higher altitude, observations of cosmic rays. Looking atthe station is expected to expend about various types of unusual matter found in the8,000 pounds (3.6 kilograms) of propellant universe will allow AMS researchers toa year. And that will translate to a study the formation of the universe andsignificant amount of food, water, clothing, search for evidence of dark matter andresearch instruments and samples, and antimatter.spare parts that can be flown on the cargovehicles that will keep the station In addition, STS-134 will deliver ExPRESSoperational until 2020 and beyond. Logistics Carrier 3 (ELC-3), which will hold a variety of spare parts. The STS-134Another important task for the new crew will mission will include four spacewalks tobe to install infrastructure upgrades to the lubricate the port Solar Alpha Rotary Jointsstation’s command and control computers (SARJs) that allow the station’s solar arraysand its communications systems. The to track the sun as they generate electricity,year-long upgrade process started during install ammonia jumper hoses for theExpedition 26. Upgrading the computers station’s cooling system, stow the Orbiterand communications network will double Boom Sensor System outside the stationthe speed of data that can be transferred to for future use as an inspection tool, andand from the station, and add two additional retrieve a set of materials exposurevideo and two additional audio channels. experiments for return to Earth.The upgrades will help transmit scientificexperiment data to researchers through The final flight of the space shuttle fleet,control centers around the world, and help STS-135/ULF7, is scheduled to launchshare the crew’s activities with the public. June 28, and dock to the station three daysThe goal is to increase the high-speed later. Also known as Utilization anddownlink levels from 150 to 300 megabits a Logistics Flight 7, Atlantis’ last mission willsecond, which will allow the station to carry the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logisticsalmost continually downlink telemetry data Module to deliver supplies, logistics andon all of its systems. The upgrade also will spare parts to the station. The four-personstandardize the video system at shuttle crew also will fly a system tohigh-definition television quality levels. investigate the potential for remote- controlled robot refueling of satellites andEndeavour’s final mission, STS-134/ULF6, spacecraft in orbit and return a failedalso known as Utilization and Logistics ammonia pump module to help NASAFlight 6, is scheduled to launch April 29, better understand the failure mechanismand will deliver the Alpha Magnetic and improve pump designs for futureSpectrometer (AMS). The AMS will be systems.6 MISSION OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  9. 9. NASA astronaut Mike Fossum (right), Expedition 28 flight engineer and Expedition 29 commander; along with Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov (center) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, both Expedition 28/29 flight engineers, pose for a photo during a docking timeline simulation training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASAAPRIL 2011 MISSION OVERVIEW 7
  10. 10. Two Progress resupply craft are scheduled commercial spacecraft, they will begin flyingto deliver about two tons of supplies, routine cargo missions to the station.equipment, fuel and other consumablesduring the summer. Progress 42 is The six-person Expedition 27 crew willscheduled to launch from the Baikonur spend about two months together beforeCosmodrome on April 27 and dock with the Kondratyev, Coleman and Nespoli climbstation’s Pirs port two days later, and into their Soyuz, undock and head for a lateProgress 43 is scheduled to launch from May landing in Kazakhstan. That will leaveKazakhstan on June 21, and dock on Borisenko, Garan and Samokutayev as theJune 23 to the aft port of Zvezda, which will sole occupants of the station for aboutbe vacated by ATV2. Progress 43’s stay is two weeks as the first set of threeexpected to be relatively brief, with crewmembers that make up Expedition 28.Progress 44 scheduled to launch Borisenko will become the Expedition 28Aug. 30 and dock to the same Zvezda port commander when Kondratyev departs. Theon Sept. 1. rest of the Expedition 28 crew – NASA’s Mike Fossum, JAXA’s Satoshi FurukawaOne flight of the new commercial resupply and Russia’s Sergei Volkov – arrivevehicles, named Dragon, designed and approximately two weeks after Kondratyev,tested for station support by Space Coleman and Nespoli depart. They areExploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX), scheduled to launch June 7 aboard theis scheduled to pass within a few miles of Soyuz TMA-02M spacecraft from Baikonurthe station during the summer. The and be a part of the six-person crew for thedemonstration flight is part of NASA’s rest of the summer until Borisenko, GaranCommercial Crew and Cargo Program, and Samokutayev depart on Sept. 16.which also involves future demonstration Fossum will become Expedition 29flights by Orbital Sciences Corp.’s commander when Borisenko leaves forCygnus spacecraft. Once the test flights home.demonstrate the capabilities of the new8 MISSION OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  11. 11. Attired in Russian Sokol launch and entry suits, Russian cosmonaut Andrey Borisenko (right), Expedition 27 flight engineer and Expedition 28 commander; along with Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev (center) and NASA astronaut Ron Garan, both Expedition 27/28 flight engineers, take a break from training in Star City, Russia to pose for a portrait. Photo credit: Gagarin Cosmonaut Training CenterAPRIL 2011 MISSION OVERVIEW 9
  12. 12. This page intentionally blank10 MISSION OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  13. 13. Expedition 27/28 Crew Expedition 27 Expedition 27 PatchThe Expedition 27 patch depicts the with two resupply vehicles docked at eachInternational Space Station prominently end of the station. The Southern Crossorbiting Earth, continuing its mission for Constellation is also shown in thescience, technology and education. The foreground and its five stars, along with thespace station is an ever-present reminder sun, symbolize the six international crewof the cooperation between the United members who live and work on the spaceStates, Russia, Japan, Canada and the station. The Southern Cross is one of theEuropean Space Agency − and of the smallest modern constellations, and alsoscientific, technical and cultural one of the most distinctive. It has culturalachievements that have resulted from that significance all over the world and inspiresunique teamwork. The station is shown in teams to push the boundaries of theirits completed status with the latest addition worlds, both in space and on the ground.of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer andAPRIL 2011 CREW 11
  14. 14. Expedition 27 crew members take a break from training at NASA’s Johnson Space Center to pose for a crew portrait. Pictured from the right are Russian cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev, commander; Russian cosmonaut Andrey Borisenko; NASA astronaut Catherine Coleman; Russian cosmonaut Alexander Samokutyaev; European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Paolo Nespoli; and NASA astronaut Ron Garan, all flight engineers. Photo credit: NASA12 CREW APRIL 2011
  15. 15. Expedition 28 Expedition 28 PatchIn the foreground of the Expedition 28 each partner to build, improve and use thepatch, the International Space Station is space station. Prominently displayed in theprominently displayed to acknowledge the background is our home planet, Earth − theefforts of the entire International Space focus of much of our exploration andStation team − both the crews who have research on our outpost in space. Alsoassembled and operated it, and the team of prominently displayed in the background isscientists, engineers and support personnel the moon. The moon is included in theon Earth who have provided a foundation design to stress the importance of ourfor each successful mission. Their efforts planet’s closest neighbor to the future ofand accomplishments have demonstrated our world. Expedition 28 is scheduled tothe space station’s capabilities as a occur during the timeframe of the 50thtechnology test bed and a science anniversary of both the first human inlaboratory, as well as a path to the human space, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin,exploration of our solar system and beyond. and the first American in space, astronautThis Expedition 28 patch represents the Alan Shepard. To acknowledge theteamwork among the international partners significant milestone of 50 years of human− USA, Russia, Japan, Canada and the spaceflight, the names “Гагарин” andESA − and the ongoing commitment from “Shepard” as well as “50 Years” are included in the patch design.APRIL 2011 CREW 13
  16. 16. Expedition 28 crew members take a break from training at NASA’s Johnson Space Center to pose for a crew portrait. Pictured from the right (front row) are Russian cosmonaut Andrey Borisenko, commander; Russian cosmonaut AlexanderSamokutyaev and NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, both flight engineers. Pictured from the left (back row) are Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronautSatoshi Furukawa, NASA astronaut Ron Garan and Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov, all flight engineers. Photo credit: NASAShort biographical sketches of the crew the following Web site:follow with detailed background available at http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/14 CREW APRIL 2011
  17. 17. Expedition 27 Dmitry KondratyevDmitry Kondratyev, 41, will serve as the Cosmonaut Training Center CosmonautSoyuz commander for the December Soyuz Office in December 1997. He trained as alaunch and landing in May. He will join the backup crew member for Expedition 5Expedition 26 crew as a flight engineer and and Expedition 20. He also served asthen transition to Expedition 27 as the crew the Russian Space Agency director ofcommander. Kondratyev was selected as a operations stationed at the Johnson Spacetest-cosmonaut candidate of the Gagarin Center from May 2006 through April 2007.APRIL 2011 CREW 15
  18. 18. Cady ColemanThis is the third spaceflight mission for than 500 hours in space. She was aNASA astronaut Cady Coleman, 49, a mission specialist on STS-73 in 1995 andretired U.S. Air Force colonel. Coleman and STS-93 in 1999, a mission which deployedher crewmates launched to the space the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. She alsostation on Dec. 13, 2010. She will serve as served as the backup U.S. crew membera flight engineer for both Expedition 26 and for Expeditions 19, 20 and 21.Expedition 27. Coleman has logged more16 CREW APRIL 2011
  19. 19. Páolo NéspoliEuropean Space Agency astronaut corps. He flew as a mission specialist onPáolo Néspoli, 53, will serve as a flight STS-120 in October 2007. During theengineer for Expedition 26 and 27, his mission, which delivered the Italian-builtsecond spaceflight mission. Néspoli was Node 2 Harmony to the space station,selected as an astronaut by the Italian Néspoli accumulated more than 15 days ofspace agency in July 1998 and one month spaceflight experience.later joined ESA’s European astronautAPRIL 2011 CREW 17
  20. 20. Expedition 28 Alexander SamokutyaevAlexander Samokutyaev, 41, flight engineer time and performed 250 parachute jumps.for Expeditions 27 and 28, is on his first He is a Class 3 Air Force pilot and amission. Before becoming a cosmonaut, qualified diver. Since December 2008, heSamokutyaev flew as a pilot, senior pilot has trained as an International Spaceand deputy commander of air squadron. Station 23/24 backup crew member, SoyuzSamokutyaev has logged 680 hours of flight commander and 24 flight engineer.18 CREW APRIL 2011
  21. 21. Andrey BorisenkoThis will be the first spaceflight for onboard systems operation analysis board.Andrey Borisenko, 46. After graduating Borisenko was a shift flight director at thefrom the Leningrad Physics and MCC-M starting in 1999, first for the MirMathematics School No. 30 and working in space station and then for the Internationala military unit, Borisenko started his career Space Station.at RSC Energia in 1989 where he wasresponsible for the Mir motion control Borisenko will serve as a flight engineersystem and took part in the MCC-M on Expedition 27 and commander on Expedition 28.APRIL 2011 CREW 19
  22. 22. Ron Garan Jr.Ron Garan, 49, will be embarking on the 20 hours and 32 minutes of extravehicularsecond mission of his NASA career. Garan activity in three spacewalks. Garan iscompleted his first spaceflight in 2008 on a retired colonel in the U.S. Air Force andSTS-124 as mission specialist 2 (flight has degrees from the SUNY Collegeengineer for ascent and entry) and has at Oneonta, Embry-Riddle Aeronauticallogged more than 13 days in space and University and the University of Florida.20 CREW APRIL 2011
  23. 23. Sergei VolkovVolkov, 38, a colonel in the Russian Air International Space Station commanderForce, was selected as a test-cosmonaut where he logged 12 hours, 15 minutescandidate of the Gagarin Cosmonaut of extravehicular activity time in twoTraining Center Cosmonaut Office in spacewalks and 199 days in space. He willDecember 1997. Volkov’s first spaceflight be serving as a flight engineer inwas the Soyuz 12 as commander and Expedition 28 on Soyuz 27.APRIL 2011 CREW 21
  24. 24. Mike FossumFossum, 53, a colonel in the USAF, was spaceflights, STS-121 in 2006 andselected as an astronaut in June 1998. STS-124 in 2008. On those two flightsBefore Fossum was selected, he served Fossum logged more than 636 hours inas a flight test engineer on the X-38, a space, including more than 42 hours inprototype crew escape vehicle for the new six spacewalks. He has been assigned to aspace station, and supported the Astronaut six-month stay on the space station, servingOffice as a technical assistant for the space as flight engineer on Expedition 28 andshuttle. Fossum is now a veteran of two commander on Expedition 29.22 CREW APRIL 2011
  25. 25. Satoshi FurukawaFurukawa, 47, will be serving his first Space Station. He was certified as anspaceflight as a crew member on astronaut in January 2001. Since 2001,Expedition 28 in Soyuz 27 to the Furukawa has been participating in spaceInternational Space Station. In 1999, station advanced training, as well asFurukawa was selected by the National supporting the development of theSpace Development Agency of Japan hardware and operation of the Japanese(NASDA) as one of three Japanese Experiment Module “Kibo.”astronaut candidates for the InternationalAPRIL 2011 CREW 23
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  27. 27. EXPEDITION 27 AND 28 MILESTONESApril 26 41 Progress undocks from the Pirs docking compartment 1April 27 42 Progress launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, KazakhstanApril 29 42 Progress docks to the Pirs docking compartment 1May 5 50th anniversary of the first American human spaceflight, Freedom 7, by astronaut Alan ShepardMay 15 Expedition 28 begins when 25 Soyuz/TMA-20 undocks from the Rassvet mini research module 1 and then lands (May 16 Kazakhstan time)May 23 Expedition 27 undocking from Rassvet Module/MRM1; Soyuz TMA-20/ 25 Soyuz (Kondratyev, Coleman, Nespoli) (6:06 pm CT, 3:06 a.m. Moscow time on May 24)May 23 Expedition 27 Landing; Soyuz TMA-20 / 25 Soyuz (Kondratyev, Coleman, Nespoli) (8:37 p.m. CT, 5:37 a.m. Moscow time on May 24)June 1 27 Soyuz/TMA-02M docks to the Rassvet Mini Research Module 1June 7 Expedition 28 Launch; 27 Soyuz/TMA-02M launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, KazakhstanJune 9 Expedition 28 Docking to Rassvet Module (3:59 p.m. CT)June 20 The European Johannes Kepler Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV2) undocks from the aft of the Zvezda service moduleJune 21 43 Progress launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, KazakhstanJune 23 43 Progress docks to the aft of the Zvezda service moduleJuly 26 Russian spacewalk No. 29Aug. 29 43 Progress undocks from the aft of the Zvezda service moduleAug. 30 44 Progress launches from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, KazakhstanSept. 1 44 Progress docks to the aft of the Zvezda service moduleSept. 16 Expedition 29 begins when 26 Soyuz/TMA-21 undocks from the Poisk MRM 2 and then landsAPRIL 2011 MILESTONES 25
  28. 28. This page intentionally blank26 MILESTONES APRIL 2011
  29. 29. Expedition 27/28 Spacewalks Attired in a training version of his Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit, NASA astronaut Ron Garan, Expedition 27/28 flight engineer, participates in a spacewalk training session in the waters of the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Divers are in the water to assist Garan in his rehearsal, which is intended to help prepare him for work on the exterior of the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASAThere are no U.S.-based spacewalks spacewalk. Volkov has 12 hours andcurrently scheduled for Expedition 27 or 28, 15 minutes of spacewalk experience fromthough Flight Engineers Ron Garan and the two spacewalks he performed onMike Fossum will perform one during Expedition 17 in 2008. Borisienko willthe STS-135 mission. However, Flight perform his first spacewalk.Engineer Sergi Volkov and CommanderAndrey Borisienko will don Russian Orlan Spacewalks 29 is currently planned for July,spacesuits for the station’s 29th Russian though the date is subject to change.APRIL 2011 SPACEWALKS 27
  30. 30. The focus of the spacewalk − Russian In addition to all this, the cosmonauts willspacewalk 29 − will be the relocation of one deploy an experiment called ARISSat-1,of the two Russian Strela cargo booms from or Radioskaf-V, a 57-pound nanosatellitethe Pirs docking compartment to the Poisk that houses congratulatory messagesmini research module, in preparation for the commemorating the 50th anniversary indeorbiting of the Pirs in late 2012. April 2011 of Yuri Gagarin’s launch to become the first human in space.Another task on the spacewalkers’ agendawill be the installation of an onboard laser The ham radio transmitter will enablecommunications terminal on the Zvezda communications with amateur radioservice module. This terminal will transmit operators around the world for three toinformation from the space station to six months. It is one of a series ofthe ground using optical communication educational satellites being developed inchannel assets. They will also install a partnership with the Radio Amateura platform with three Biorisk experiment Satellite Corp.; the NASA Office ofcontainers onto the Pirs docking Education International Space Stationcompartment. Biorisk studies the effect of National Lab Project; the Amateur Radio onthe space environment on various biological the International Space Station workingmaterials during long-term exposure, group; and RSC-Energia.particularly the way organisms like bacteriaand fungi might adapt or change. NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer and Expedition 29 commander, attired in a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit, awaits the start of a spacewalk training session in the waters of the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA28 SPACEWALKS APRIL 2011
  31. 31. Russian SoyuzThe Soyuz-TMA spacecraft is designed to into the station. The rendezvous antennaeserve as the International Space Station’s are used by the automated docking systemcrew return vehicle, acting as a lifeboat in − a radar-based system − to maneuverthe unlikely event an emergency would toward the station for docking. There isrequire the crew to leave the station. A new also a window in the module.Soyuz capsule is normally delivered to thestation by a Soyuz crew every six months, The opposite end of the orbital modulereplacing an older Soyuz capsule already connects to the descent module via adocked to the space station. pressurized hatch. Before returning to Earth, the orbital module separates fromThe Soyuz spacecraft is launched to the the descent module − after the deorbitspace station from the Baikonur maneuver − and burns up upon re-entryCosmodrome in Kazakhstan aboard a into the atmosphere.Soyuz rocket. It consists of an orbitalmodule, a descent module and an Descent Moduleinstrumentation/propulsion module. The descent module is where theOrbital Module cosmonauts and astronauts sit for launch, re-entry and landing. All the necessaryThis portion of the Soyuz spacecraft is used controls and displays of the Soyuz areby the crew while in orbit during free flight. located here. The module also contains lifeIt has a volume of 230 cubic feet, with a support supplies and batteries used duringdocking mechanism, hatch and rendezvous descent, as well as the primary and backupantennas located at the front end. The parachutes and landing rockets. It alsodocking mechanism is used to dock with contains custom-fitted seat liners for eachthe space station and the hatch allows entryAPRIL 2011 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA 29
  32. 32. crew member’s couch/seat, which are which has a cooling area of 86 square feet.individually molded to fit each person’s The propulsion system, batteries, solarbody − this ensures a tight, comfortable fit arrays, radiator and structural connection towhen the module lands on the Earth. the Soyuz launch rocket are located in this compartment.The module has a periscope, which allowsthe crew to view the docking target on the The propulsion compartment contains thestation or Earth below. The eight hydrogen system that is used to perform anyperoxide thrusters on the module are used maneuvers while in orbit, includingto control the spacecraft’s orientation, or rendezvous and docking with the spaceattitude, during the descent until parachute station and the deorbit burns necessarydeployment. It also has a guidance, to return to Earth. The propellants arenavigation and control system to maneuver nitrogen tetroxide and unsymmetric-the vehicle during the descent phase of the dimethylhydrazine. The main propulsionmission. system and the smaller reaction control system, used for attitude changes while inThis module weighs 6,393 pounds, with a space, share the same propellant tanks.habitable volume of 141 cubic feet.Approximately 110 pounds of payload can The two Soyuz solar arrays are attached tobe returned to Earth in this module and up either side of the rear section of theto 331 pounds if only two crew members instrumentation/propulsion module and areare present. The descent module is the linked to rechargeable batteries. Like theonly portion of the Soyuz that survives the orbital module, the intermediate section ofreturn to Earth. the instrumentation/propulsion module separates from the descent module afterInstrumentation/Propulsion Module the final deorbit maneuver and burns up in the atmosphere upon re-entry.This module contains three compartments:intermediate, instrumentation and TMA Improvements and Testingpropulsion. The Soyuz TMA-01M spacecraft is the firstThe intermediate compartment is where the to incorporate both newer, more powerfulmodule connects to the descent module. It computer avionics systems and new digitalalso contains oxygen storage tanks and the displays for use by the crew. The newattitude control thrusters, as well as computer systems will allow the Soyuzelectronics, communications and control computers to interface with the onboardequipment. The primary guidance, computers in the Russian segment of thenavigation, control and computer systems station once docking is complete.of the Soyuz are in the instrumentationcompartment, which is a sealed container Both Soyuz TMA-15, which launched to thefilled with circulating nitrogen gas to cool station in May 2009, and Soyuz TMA-18,the avionics equipment. The propulsion which launched in April 2010, incorporatedcompartment contains the primary thermal the new digital “Neptune” display panels,control system and the Soyuz radiator, and seven Progress resupply vehicles have used the new avionics computer systems.30 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA APRIL 2011
  33. 33. The Soyuz TMA-01M vehicle integrates increased safety, especially in descent andthose systems. The majority of updated landing. It has smaller and more efficientcomponents are housed in the Soyuz computers and improved displays. Ininstrumentation module. addition, the Soyuz TMA accommodates individuals as large as 6 feet, 3 inches tallFor launch, the new avionics systems and 209 pounds, compared to 6 feet andreduce the weight of the spacecraft by 187 pounds in the earlier TM. Minimumapproximately 150 pounds, which allows a crew member size for the TMA is 4 feet,small increase in cargo-carrying capacity. 11 inches and 110 pounds, compared toSoyuz spacecraft are capable of carrying a 5 feet, 4 inches and 123 pounds for the TM.limited amount of supplies for the crew’suse. This will increase the weight of Two new engines reduced landing speedsupplies the spacecraft is capable of and forces felt by crew members by 15 tocarrying, but will not provide any additional 30 percent, and a new entry control systemvolume for bulky items. and three-axis accelerometer increase landing accuracy. InstrumentationOnce Soyuz is docked to the station, the improvements included a color “glassnew digital data communications system cockpit,” which is easier to use and giveswill simplify life for the crew. Previous the crew more information, with handversions of the spacecraft, including both controllers that can be secured under anthe Soyuz TM, which was used from 1986 instrument panel. All the new componentsto 2002, and the Soyuz TMA in use since in the Soyuz TMA can spend up to one year2002, required Mission Control, Moscow, to in space.turn on the Soyuz computer systemsperiodically so that a partial set of New components and the entire TMA wereparameters on the health of the vehicle rigorously tested on the ground, in hangar-could be downlinked for review. In addition, drop tests, in airdrop tests and in spacein the case of an emergency undocking and before the spacecraft was declared flight-deorbit, crew members were required to ready. For example, the accelerometer andmanually input undocking and deorbit data associated software, as well as modifiedparameters. The new system will eliminate boosters (incorporated to cope with thethe need for the crew to perform these TMA’s additional mass), were tested onchecks and data updates, with the flights of Progress, the unpiloted supplynecessary data being automatically spacecraft, while the new cooling systemtransferred from the space station to the was tested on two Soyuz TM flights.Soyuz. Descent module structural modifications,The updates required some structural seats and seat shock absorbers weremodifications to the Soyuz, including the tested in hangar drop tests. Landinginstallation of cold plates and an improved system modifications, including associatedthermal system pump capable of rejecting software upgrades, were tested in a seriesthe additional heat generated by the new of air drop tests. Additionally, extensivecomputer systems. tests of systems and components were conducted on the ground.The majority of Soyuz TMA systems remainunchanged. In use since 2002, the TMAAPRIL 2011 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA 31
  34. 34. Soyuz Launcher The basic Soyuz vehicle is considered a three-stage launcher in Russian terms and is composed of the following: • A lower portion consisting of four boosters (first stage) and a central core (second stage). • An upper portion, consisting of the third stage, payload adapter and payload fairing. • Liquid oxygen and kerosene are used as propellants in all three Soyuz stages. First Stage Boosters The first stage’s four boosters are assembled laterally around the second stage central core. The boosters are identical and cylindrical-conic in shape with the oxygen tank in the cone-shaped portion and the kerosene tank in the cylindrical portion. An NPO Energomash RD 107 engine with four main chambers and two gimbaled vernier thrusters is used in each booster. The vernier thrusters provide three-axisA Soyuz TMA spacecraft launches from flight control. the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Oct. 12, 2008 carrying a Ignition of the first stage boosters and the new crew to the International Space second stage central core occurStation. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls simultaneously on the ground. When theThroughout history, more than boosters have completed their powered1,500 launches have been made with flight during ascent, they are separated andSoyuz launchers to orbit satellites for the core second stage continues totelecommunications, Earth observation, function.weather, and scientific missions, as well asfor human space flights. First stage booster separation occurs when the predefined velocity is reached, which is about 118 seconds after liftoff.32 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA APRIL 2011
  35. 35. Second Stage plotting is performed for flight following an initial performance assessment. All flightAn NPO Energomash RD 108 engine data is analyzed and documented within apowers the Soyuz second stage. This few hours after launch.engine differs from those of the boosters bythe presence of four vernier thrusters, Baikonur Cosmodrome Launchwhich are necessary for three-axis flight Operationscontrol of the launcher after the first stage Soyuz missions use the Baikonurboosters have separated. Cosmodrome’s proven infrastructure, andAn equipment bay located atop the second launches are performed by trainedstage operates during the entire flight of the personnel with extensive operationalfirst and second stages. experience.Third Stage Baikonur Cosmodrome is in the Republic of Kazakhstan in Central Asia betweenThe third stage is linked to the Soyuz 45 degrees and 46 degrees North latitudesecond stage by a latticework structure. and 63 degrees East longitude. TwoWhen the second stage’s powered flight is launch pads are dedicated to Soyuzcomplete, the third stage engine is ignited. missions.Separation of the two stages occurs by thedirect ignition forces of the third stage Final Launch Preparationsengine. The assembled launch vehicle is moved toA single-turbopump RD 0110 engine from the launch pad on a horizontal railcar.KB KhA powers the Soyuz third stage. Transfer to the launch zone occurs twoThe third stage engine is fired for about days before launch, during which the240 seconds, and cutoff occurs when the vehicle is erected and a launch rehearsal iscalculated velocity increment is reached. performed that includes activation of allAfter cutoff and separation, the third stage electrical and mechanical equipment.performs an avoidance maneuver by On launch day, the vehicle is loaded withopening an outgassing valve in the liquid propellant and the final countdownoxygen tank. sequence is started at three hours beforeLauncher Telemetry Tracking & Flight the liftoff time.Safety Systems Rendezvous to DockingSoyuz launcher tracking and telemetry is A Soyuz spacecraft generally takes twoprovided through systems in the second days after launch to reach the spaceand third stages. These two stages have station. The rendezvous and dockingtheir own radar transponders for ground are both automated, though once thetracking. Individual telemetry transmitters spacecraft is within 492 feet of the station,are in each stage. Launcher health status the Russian Mission Control Center justis downlinked to ground stations along the outside Moscow monitors the approach andflight path. Telemetry and tracking data are docking. The Soyuz crew has the capabilitytransmitted to the mission control center, to manually intervene or execute thesewhere the incoming data flow is recorded. operations.Partial real-time data processing andAPRIL 2011 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA 33
  36. 36. Soyuz Booster Rocket Characteristics First Stage Data - Blocks B, V, G, D Engine RD-107 Propellants LOX/Kerosene Thrust (tons) 102 Burn time (sec) 122 Specific impulse 314 Length (meters) 19.8 Diameter (meters) 2.68 Dry mass (tons) 3.45 Propellant mass (tons) 39.63 Second Stage Data - Block A Engine RD-108 Propellants LOX/Kerosene Thrust (tons) 96 Burn time (sec) 314 Specific impulse 315 Length (meters) 28.75 Diameter (meters) 2.95 Dry mass (tons) 6.51 Propellant mass (tons) 95.7 Third Stage Data - Block I Engine RD-461 Propellants LOX/Kerosene Thrust (tons) 30 Burn time (sec) 240 Specific impulse 330 Length (meters) 8.1 Diameter (meters) 2.66 Dry mass (tons) 2.4 Propellant mass (tons) 21.3 PAYLOAD MASS (tons) 6.8 SHROUD MASS (tons) 4.5 LAUNCH MASS (tons) 309.53 TOTAL LENGTH (meters) 49.334 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA APRIL 2011
  37. 37. Prelaunch Countdown Timeline T- 34 Hours Booster is prepared for fuel loading T- 6:00:00 Batteries are installed in booster T- 5:30:00 State commission gives go to take launch vehicle T- 5:15:00 Crew arrives at site 254 T- 5:00:00 Tanking begins T- 4:20:00 Spacesuit donning T- 4:00:00 Booster is loaded with liquid oxygen T- 3:40:00 Crew meets delegations T- 3:10:00 Reports to the State commission T- 3:05:00 Transfer to the launch pad T- 3:00:00 Vehicle 1st and 2nd stage oxidizer fueling complete T- 2:35:00 Crew arrives at launch vehicle T- 2:30:00 Crew ingress through orbital module side hatch T- 2:00:00 Crew in re-entry vehicle T- 1:45:00 Re-entry vehicle hardware tested; suits are ventilated T- 1:30:00 Launch command monitoring and supply unit prepared Orbital compartment hatch tested for sealing T- 1:00:00 Launch vehicle control system prepared for use; gyro instruments activated T - :45:00 Launch pad service structure halves are lowered T- :40:00 Re-entry vehicle hardware testing complete; leak checks performed on suits T- :30:00 Emergency escape system armed; launch command supply unit activated T- :25:00 Service towers withdrawn T- :15:00 Suit leak tests complete; crew engages personal escape hardware auto mode T- :10:00 Launch gyro instruments uncaged; crew activates onboard recorders T- 7:00 All prelaunch operations are complete T- 6:15 Key to launch command given at the launch site Automatic program of final launch operations is activated T- 6:00 All launch complex and vehicle systems ready for launch T- 5:00 Onboard systems switched to onboard control Ground measurement system activated by RUN 1 command Commanders controls activated Crew switches to suit air by closing helmets Launch key inserted in launch bunkerAPRIL 2011 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA 35
  38. 38. Prelaunch Countdown Timeline (concluded) T- 3:15 Combustion chambers of side and central engine pods purged with nitrogen T- 2:30 Booster propellant tank pressurization starts Onboard measurement system activated by RUN 2 command Prelaunch pressurization of all tanks with ni ogen begins T- 2:15 Oxidizer and fuel drain and safety valves of launch vehicle are closed Ground filling of oxidizer and nitrogen to the launch vehicle is terminated T- 1:00 Vehicle on internal power Automatic sequencer on First umbilical tower separates from booster T- :40 Ground power supply umbilical to third stage is disconnected T- :20 Launch command given at the launch position Central and side pod engines are turned on T- :15 Second umbilical tower separates from booster T- :10 Engine turbopumps at flight speed T- :05 First stage engines at maximum thrust T- :00 Fueling tower separates Lift off Ascent/Insertion Timeline T- :00 Lift off T+ 1:10 Booster velocity is 1,640 ft/sec T+ 1:58 Stage 1 (strap-on boosters) separation T+ 2:00 Booster velocity is 4,921 ft/sec T+ 2:40 Escape tower and launch shroud jettison T+ 4:58 Core booster separates at 105.65 statute miles Third stage ignites T+ 7:30 Velocity is 19,685 ft/sec T+ 9:00 Third stage cut-off Soyuz separates Antennas and solar panels deploy Flight control switches to Mission Control, Korolev36 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA APRIL 2011
  39. 39. Orbital Insertion to Docking Timeline FLIGHT DAY 1 OVERVIEW Orbit 1 Post insertion: Deployment of solar panels, antennas and docking probe - Crew monitors all deployments - Crew reports on pressurization of OMS/RCS and ECLSS systems and crew health. Entry thermal sensors are manually deactivated - Ground provides initial orbital insertion data from tracking Orbit 2 Systems Checkout: IR Att Sensors, Kurs, Angular Accels, “Display” TV Downlink System, OMS engine control system, Manual Attitude Control Test - Crew monitors all systems tests and confirms onboard indications - Crew performs manual RHC stick inputs for attitude control test - Ingress into HM, activate HM CO2 scrubber and doff Sokols - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Manual maneuver to +Y to Sun and initiate a 2 deg/sec yaw rotation. MCS is deactivated after rate is established Orbit 3 Terminate +Y solar rotation, reactivate MCS and establish LVLH attitude reference (auto maneuver sequence) - Crew monitors LVLH attitude reference build up - Burn data command upload for DV1 and DV2 (attitude, TIG Delta Vs) - Form 14 preburn emergency deorbit pad read up - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Auto maneuver to DV1 burn attitude (TIG - 8 minutes) while LOS - Crew monitor only, no manual action nominally required DV1 phasing burn while LOS - Crew monitor only, no manual action nominally required Orbit 4 Auto maneuver to DV2 burn attitude (TIG - 8 minutes) while LOS - Crew monitor only, no manual action nominally required DV2 phasing burn while LOS - Crew monitor only, no manual action nominally requiredAPRIL 2011 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA 37
  40. 40. FLIGHT DAY 1 OVERVIEW (CONTINUED) Orbit 4 Crew report on burn performance upon AOS (continued) - HM and DM pressure checks read down - Post burn Form 23 (AOS/LOS pad), Form 14 and “Globe” corrections voiced up - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Manual maneuver to +Y to Sun and initiate a 2 deg/sec yaw rotation. MCS is deactivated after rate is established External boresight TV camera ops check (while LOS) Meal Orbit 5 Last pass on Russian tracking range for Flight Day 1 Report on TV camera test and crew health Sokol suit clean up - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Orbit 6-12 Crew Sleep, off of Russian tracking range - Emergency VHF2 comm available through NASA VHF Network FLIGHT DAY 2 OVERVIEW Orbit 13 Post sleep activity, report on HM/DM Pressures Form 14 revisions voiced up - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Orbit 14 Configuration of RHC-2/THC-2 work station in the HM - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Orbit 15 THC-2 (HM) manual control test - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Orbit 16 Lunch - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Orbit 17 (1) Terminate +Y solar rotation, reactivate MCS and establish LVLH attitude reference (auto maneuver sequence) RHC-2 (HM) Test - Burn data uplink (TIG, attitude, delta V) - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Auto maneuver to burn attitude (TIG - 8 min) while LOS Rendezvous burn while LOS Manual maneuver to +Y to Sun and initiate a 2 deg/sec yaw rotation. MCS is deactivated after rate is established38 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA APRIL 2011
  41. 41. FLIGHT DAY 2 OVERVIEW (CONTINUED) Orbit 18 (2) Post burn and manual maneuver to +Y Sun report when AOS - HM/DM pressures read down - Post burn Form 23, Form 14 and Form 2 (Globe correction) voiced up - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Orbit 19 (3) CO2 scrubber cartridge change out Free time - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Orbit 20 (4) Free time - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Orbit 21 (5) Last pass on Russian tracking range for Flight Day 2 Free time - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Orbit 22 (6) - 27 Crew sleep, off of Russian tracking range (11) - Emergency VHF2 comm available through NASA VHF Network FLIGHT DAY 3 OVERVIEW Orbit 28 (12) Post sleep activity - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Orbit 29 (13) Free time, report on HM/DM pressures - Read up of predicted post burn Form 23 and Form 14 - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking Orbit 30 (14) Free time, read up of Form 2 “Globe Correction,” lunch - Uplink of auto rendezvous command timeline - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radar and radio transponder tracking FLIGHT DAY 3 AUTO RENDEZVOUS SEQUENCE Orbit 31 (15) Don Sokol spacesuits, ingress DM, close DM/HM hatch - Active and passive vehicle state vector uplinks - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radio transponder trackingAPRIL 2011 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA 39
  42. 42. FLIGHT DAY 3 AUTO RENDEZVOUS SEQUENCE (CONCLUDED) Orbit 32 (16) Terminate +Y solar rotation, reactivate MCS and establish LVLH attitude reference (auto maneuver sequence) Begin auto rendezvous sequence - Crew monitoring of LVLH reference build and auto rendezvous timeline execution - A/G, R/T and Recorded TLM and Display TV downlink - Radio transponder tracking FLIGHT DAY 3 FINAL APPROACH AND DOCKING Orbit 33 (1) Auto Rendezvous sequence continues, flyaround and station keeping - Crew monitor - Comm relays via SM through Altair established - Form 23 and Form 14 updates - Fly around and station keeping initiated near end of orbit - A/G (gnd stations and Altair), R/T TLM (gnd stations), Display TV downlink (gnd stations and Altair) - Radio transponder tracking Orbit 34 (2) Final Approach and docking - Capture to “docking sequence complete” 20 minutes, typically - Monitor docking interface pressure seal - Transfer to HM, doff Sokol suits - A/G (gnd stations and Altair), R/T TLM (gnd stations), Display TV downlink (gnd stations and Altair) - Radio transponder tracking FLIGHT DAY 3 STATION INGRESS Orbit 35 (3) Station/Soyuz pressure equalization - Report all pressures - Open transfer hatch, ingress station - A/G, R/T and playback telemetry - Radio transponder tracking40 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA APRIL 2011
  43. 43. Typical Soyuz Ground TrackAPRIL 2011 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA 41
  44. 44. Soyuz Landing The Soyuz TMA-18 spacecraft is seen as it lands with Expedition 24 commander Alexander Skvortsov and flight engineers Tracy Caldwell Dyson and Mikhail Kornienko near the town of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan on Sept. 25, 2010. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill IngallsAfter about six months in space, the About three hours before undocking, thedeparting crew members from the crew will bid farewell to the other three crewInternational Space Station will board their members who will remain on the stationSoyuz spacecraft capsule for undocking awaiting the launch of a new trio ofand a one-hour descent back to Earth. astronauts and cosmonauts from the42 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA APRIL 2011
  45. 45. Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan houses the engines and avionics, willabout 17 days later. separate and burn up in the atmosphere.The departing crew will climb into its Soyuz The descent module’s computers will orientvehicle and close the hatch between the capsule with its ablative heat shieldSoyuz and its docking port. The Soyuz pointing forward to repel the buildup ofcommander will be seated in the center heat as it plunges into the atmosphere.seat of the Soyuz’ descent module, flanked The crew will feel the first effects of gravityby his two crewmates. about three minutes after module separation at the point called entryAfter activating Soyuz systems and getting interface, when the module is aboutapproval from flight controllers at the 400,000 feet above the Earth.Russian Mission Control Center outsideMoscow, the Soyuz commander will send About eight minutes later, at an altitude ofcommands to open hooks and latches about 33,000 feet, traveling at aboutbetween Soyuz and the docking port. 722 feet per second, the Soyuz will begin a computer-commanded sequence for theHe will then fire the Soyuz thrusters to back deployment of the capsule’s parachutes.away from the docking port. Six minutes First, two “pilot” parachutes will beafter undocking, with the Soyuz about 66 deployed, extracting a larger droguefeet away from the station, the Soyuz parachute, which stretches out over an areacommander will conduct a separation of 79 square feet. Within 16 seconds,maneuver, firing the Soyuz jets for about the Soyuz’ descent will slow to about15 seconds to begin to depart the vicinity of 262 feet per second.the complex. The initiation of the parachute deploymentAbout 2.5 hours after undocking, at a will create a gentle spin for the Soyuz as itdistance of about 12 miles from the station, dangles underneath the drogue chute,Soyuz computers will initiate a deorbit assisting in the capsule’s stability in theburn braking maneuver. The 4.5-minute final minutes before touchdown.maneuver to slow the spacecraft will enableit to drop out of orbit and begin its re-entry A few minutes before touchdown, theto Earth. drogue chute will be jettisoned, allowing the main parachute to be deployed. ConnectedAbout 30 minutes later, just above the to the descent module by two harnesses,first traces of the Earth’s atmosphere, the main parachute covers an area of aboutcomputers will command the pyrotechnic 3,281 feet. The deployment of the mainseparation of the three modules of the parachute slows the descent module to aSoyuz vehicle. With the crew strapped in velocity of about 23 feet per second.the centermost descent module, the Initially, the descent module will hanguppermost orbital module, containing the underneath the main parachute at adocking mechanism and rendezvous 30-degree angle with respect to the horizonantennas, and the lower instrumentation for aerodynamic stability. The bottommostand propulsion module at the rear, which harness will be severed a few minutesAPRIL 2011 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA 43
  46. 46. before landing, allowing the descent As always is the case, teams of Russianmodule to right itself to a vertical position engineers, flight surgeons and techniciansthrough touchdown. in fleets of MI-8 helicopters will be poised near the normal and “ballistic” landingAt an altitude of a little more than 16,000 zones, and midway in between, to enact thefeet, the crew will monitor the jettison of the swift recovery of the crew once the capsuledescent module’s heat shield, which touches down.will be followed by the termination of theaerodynamic spin cycle and the dissipation A portable medical tent will be set up nearof any residual propellant from the Soyuz. the capsule in which the crew can changeAlso, computers will arm the module’s seat out of its launch and entry suits. Russianshock absorbers in preparation for landing. technicians will open the module’s hatch and begin to remove the crew members.When the capsule’s heat shield is The crew will be seated in special recliningjettisoned, the Soyuz altimeter is exposed chairs near the capsule for initial medicalto the surface of the Earth. Signals are tests and to begin readapting to Earth’sbounced to the ground from the Soyuz and gravity.reflected back, providing the capsule’scomputers updated information on altitude About two hours after landing, the crew willand rate of descent. be assisted to the recovery helicopters for a flight back to a staging site in northernAt an altitude of about 39 feet, cockpit Kazakhstan, where local officials willdisplays will tell the commander to prepare welcome them. The crew will then return tofor the soft landing engine firing. Just Chkalovsky Airfield adjacent to the Gagarinthree feet above the surface, and just Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City,seconds before touchdown, the six solid Russia, or to Ellington Field in Houstonpropellant engines will be fired in a final where their families can meet them.braking maneuver. This will enable theSoyuz to settle down to a velocity of aboutfive feet per second and land, completingits mission.44 RUSSIAN SOYUZ TMA APRIL 2011
  47. 47. Expedition 27/28 Science Overview NASA astronaut Mike Fossum (left background), Expedition 28 flight engineer and Expedition 29 commander; along with Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov (right background) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Satoshi Furukawa (left foreground), both Expedition 28/29 flight engineers, participatein a docking timeline simulation training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. A crew instructor assisted the crew members. Photo credit: NASAExpedition 27 and 28 will take advantage of construction site to full-time laboratory,a bonus storage and science facility, the putting the potential of space to work for thefinal new experiment rack and the first people of Earth.human-like robot ever to move its head andstretch its arms in microgravity. These The Expedition 27 and 28 crews willresearch and technology development work with 111 experiments involvingactivities will continue the transition of approximately 200 researchers across athe International Space Station from variety of fields, including human lifeAPRIL 2011 SCIENCE OVERVIEW 45
  48. 48. sciences, physical sciences and Earth that explain this apparent asymmetryobservation, and conduct technology violate other measurements. Whether ordemonstrations ranging from recycling not there is significant antimatter is one ofto robotics. Seventy-three of these the fundamental questions of the origin andexperiments are sponsored by NASA, nature of the universe.including 22 under the auspices of theU.S. National Laboratory program, and AMS-02 will operate on the space station’s38 are sponsored by international partners. external truss structure for three years,More than 540 hours of research gathering an immense amount of accurateare planned. As with prior expeditions, data and allowing measurements of themany experiments are designed to long-term variation of the cosmic ray fluxgather information about the effects of over a wide energy range, for nuclei fromlong-duration spaceflight on the human protons to ions. After the nominalbody, which will help us understand mission, AMS-02 may continue to providecomplicated processes such as immune cosmic ray measurements that will helpsystems with plan for future exploration researchers understand what radiationmissions. protection is needed for human interplanetary flight.An important new instrument, the AlphaMagnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), will be The arrival of the Permanent Multipurposedelivered to the station by the space shuttle Facility, an Italian-built convertedEndeavour on the STS-134 mission. pressurized cargo carrier named Leonardo,AMS-02 is a state-of-the-art particle physics has added 2,700 cubic feet of pressurizeddetector constructed, tested and operated volume to the orbiting laboratory, increasingby an international team composed of the total habitable volume of the station to60 institutes from 16 countries and 13,846 cubic feet.organized under the United StatesDepartment of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Robonaut 2 will be installed in the U.S.It will use the unique environment of space Destiny Laboratory, providing scientists andto advance knowledge of the universe and engineers on the ground and crews on thelead to the understanding of the universe’s station an opportunity to test how humansorigin by searching for antimatter, dark and human-like robots can work shoulder tomatter and measuring cosmic rays. shoulder in microgravity. Once this has been demonstrated inside the station,Experimental evidence indicates that our software upgrades and lower bodies can begalaxy is made of matter; however, there added, potentially allowing Robonaut 2 toare more than 100 million galaxies in the move around inside the station anduniverse and the Big Bang theory of the eventually work outside in the vacuum oforigin of the universe requires equal space. This will help NASA understandamounts of matter and antimatter. Theories robotic capabilities for future deep space missions.46 SCIENCE OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  49. 49. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 28/29 flight engineer, participates in an advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) training session in the Center for Human Spaceflight Performance and Research at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Crew instructors Robert Tweedy (right) and Bruce Nieschwitz assisted Furukawa. Photo credit: NASAThree science facilities recently delivered returned to Earth, experiencing the effectsor activated on the station will be used of re-entry from orbit. The microscope isin a variety of investigations: the Boiling isolated from vibrations on the station,Experiment Facility (BXF) is supporting allowing it to obtain clear, high-resolutionmicrogravity experiments on the heat images of microorganisms and individualtransfer and vapor removal processes cells of plants and animals, includingin boiling. The eighth Expedite the humans. The biological samples for theProcessing of Experiments to Space LMM were launched on space shuttleStation (ExPRESS) rack was delivered and Discovery’s STS-133 mission, and includedinstalled on the STS-133 space shuttle eight fixed slides containing yeast; bacteria;mission and is being activated to support a a leaf; a fly; a butterfly wing; tissue sectionsvariety of experiments in the Destiny and blood; six containers of live C. elegansLaboratory module. The Light Microscopy worms, an organism biologists commonlyModule (LMM) is undergoing initial testing study; a typed letter “r” and a piece ofas a device to examine samples from fluorescent plastic. Some of the worms areexperiments without requiring that they be descendants of those that survivedAPRIL 2011 SCIENCE OVERVIEW 47
  50. 50. the space shuttle Columbia (STS-107) metallic alloys in microgravity. CETSOL willaccident; and others are modified to give industry confidence in the reliability offluoresce. the numerical tools used in casting, while MICAST will study microstructure formationA Japanese experiment will continue to look during casting under diffusive andat one factor in the way fluid moves, magnetically controlled convectivecalled Marangoni convection. This type of conditions, and the Solidification along aconvection is manifested on Earth in the Eutectic path in Ternary Alloys (SETA)way that “legs” or “tears of wine” form on experiment will look into a specific type ofthe inside of a glass. This ring of clear liquid growth in alloys of aluminum manganesethat forms near the top of a glass above the and silicon.surface of wine, then forms rivulets that fallback into the liquid, illustrates the tendency Another interesting investigation is thefor heat and mass to travel to areas of Shape Memory Foam experiment,higher surface tension within a liquid. To which will evaluate the recovery of shapestudy how heat and mass move within a memory epoxy foam in microgravity. Thefluid in microgravity, investigators are using investigation will study the shape memorya larger bridge of silicone oil between properties needed to manufacture atwo discs. In microgravity on the space new-concept actuator that can transformstation, warm air does not rise and cold air energy to other forms of energy.does not sink, which allows investigators toheat one disc more than the other to induce As with prior expeditions, manyMarangoni convection in that bridge of experiments are designed to gathersilicone oil to learn more about how heat is information about the effects oftransferred in microgravity. long-duration spaceflight on the human body, which will help us understandA suite of European Space Agency complicated processes such as immuneexperiments will look at other convection systems while planning for futureprocesses large and small, using aluminum exploration missions.alloys, a standard cast metal usedin a number of automotive and The investigations cover humantransportation applications. The Materials research; biological and physicalScience Laboratory − Columnar-to- sciences; technology development; EarthEquiaxed Transition in Solidification observation, and education. In the past,Processing (CETSOL) and Microstructure assembly and maintenance activities haveFormation in Casting of Technical Alloys dominated the available time for crew work.under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled But, as completion of the orbiting laboratoryConvective Conditions (MICAST) are two nears, additional facilities and the crewinvestigations that will examine different members to operate them are enabling agrowth patterns and evolution of measured increase in time devoted tomicrostructures during crystallization of research as a national and multi-national laboratory.48 SCIENCE OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  51. 51. NASA astronaut Mike Fossum (left), Expedition 28 flight engineer and Expedition 29 commander; along with Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov (center) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, both Expedition 28/29 flight engineers, participate in a docking timeline simulation training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASAAlso on tap in the area of technology experiments and programs from a hostdemonstration is the resumption of work of private, commercial, industry andwith a recycling device known as Sabatier, government agencies nationwide, makesdesigned to help wring additional water the job of coordinating space stationfrom excess hydrogen not yet being research critical.reclaimed by the station’s water recoverysystem. Teams of controllers and scientists on the ground continuously plan, monitor andManaging the international laboratory’s remotely operate experiments from controlscientific assets, as well as the time centers around the globe. Controllers staffand space required to accommodate payload operations centers around theAPRIL 2011 SCIENCE OVERVIEW 49
  52. 52. world, effectively providing for researchers • ESA Columbus Control Center (Col-CC)and the station crew around the clock, in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germanyseven days a week. • CSA Payloads Operations TelesciencesState-of-the-art computers and Center, St. Hubert, Quebec, Canadacommunications equipment deliver up-to-the-minute reports about experiment NASA’s POC serves as a hub forfacilities and investigations between coordinating much of the work related toscience outposts across the United States delivery of research facilities andand around the world. The payload experiments to the space station as theyoperations team also synchronizes the are rotated in and out periodically whenpayload timelines among international space shuttles or other vehicles makepartners, ensuring the best use of valuable deliveries and return completedresources and crew time. experiments and samples to Earth.The control centers of NASA and its The payload operations director leads thepartners are POC’s main flight control team, known as the “cadre,” and approves all science plans• NASA Payload Operations Center in coordination with Mission Control at (POC), Marshall Space Flight Center in NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, Huntsville, Ala. the international partner control centers and the station crew.• RSA Center for Control of Spaceflights (“TsUP” in Russian) in Korolev, Russia On the Internet• JAXA Space Station Integration and For fact sheets, imagery and more on Promotion Center (SSIPC) in Tskuba, Expedition 27/28 experiments and payload Japan operations, visit the following Web site: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/50 SCIENCE OVERVIEW APRIL 2011

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