Cell growth and division pp presention


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This is a presentation on the cellular level of reproduction created by reynario c ruiz jr in compliance for his diploma on professional education at cebu normal university college of teacher education

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Cell growth and division pp presention

  1. 1. Cell Growth and Division<br />
  2. 2. Cell Division is the Cell’s way of Reproducing itself<br />Reproduction<br />is a Life Process<br /> more of the same unit is formed<br /> not essential for survival<br /> is a need to perpetuate species<br />
  3. 3. Chapter Objectives<br />At the end of lecture discussion, the learners are expected to:<br />Explain Cell Reproduction at the molecular level, with emphasis of the role of DNA and Chromosomes<br />
  4. 4. Describe the limits to cell growth.<br />Identify the types of cells in the body of an organism.<br />Name and describe the sequence of stages in Mitosis and Meiosis.<br />
  5. 5. Describe the chromosamal changes in Mitosis and Meiosis.<br /> Give the significance of cell division.<br />Trace the formation of sperm and egg cells through the process of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.<br />
  6. 6. Cell Growth & Reproduction<br />
  7. 7. Review of Terms<br />DNA<br />Chromatids<br />Histones<br />Helix<br />Chromosome<br />Chromatin<br />Nucleosomes<br />
  8. 8. DNA Replication<br />DNA possesses a remarkable ability to create copies of its own structure<br />
  9. 9. DNA Replication cont’<br />REPLICATION<br />Occurs as the double strand of DNA unzips at certain points<br />(synthesis stage)<br />
  10. 10. Limits of Cell Growth<br />Cells of human adult are no larger than human babies.<br />Cells eat and defecate<br />Cells know to adapt<br />Cells growth and division rate vary.<br />Sometimes cell growth and division become uncontrollable (cancer cells)<br />
  11. 11. Cells of the Human Body<br />Somatic Cells<br />Diploid number (2N) or complete set of (46) Chromosomes<br />Ex.<br /> Skin Cells<br /> Lung Cells<br /> etc.<br />Reproductive Cells<br />Haploid number (N) or half (23) number of chromosomes.<br />Ex.<br /> Sperm Cell<br /> Egg Cell<br />
  12. 12. Assessment Break<br />Explain the limits of Cell Growth.<br />Why do cells divide?<br />Distinguish between<br />Somatic and Germ Cells<br />Haploid and Diploid<br />
  13. 13. MITOSIS<br />During Mitosis Chromosomes duplicate and daughter cells receives the same amount of chromosomal material as the parent cell.<br />Mitosis is the first step in growth and differentiation of somatic cells.<br />
  14. 14. MITOSIS cont’<br />Interphase<br />G1 ~ Presynthetic<br /> S ~ Synthetic Phase<br /> G2 ~ Postsynthetic stage<br />
  15. 15. Interphase<br />( not a phase of Mitosis)<br />Growth occurs as organelles double (G1)<br />Chromosomes (DNA) duplicates (S)<br />Growth occurs as cell prepares to divide (G2)<br />
  16. 16. The Major Events of Cell Division<br />Karyokinesis<br />Splitting of the nucleus<br />Inside nuclear events of the cell<br />Cytokinesis<br />Cytoplasmic Division<br />Outside nuclear events of the cell<br />
  17. 17. Mitosis<br />
  18. 18. Phases of Mitosis<br />Mitosis begins after Interphase<br />Stages/Phases<br /> Prophase<br /> Metaphase<br /> Anaphase<br />Telophase<br />
  19. 19. Prophase<br />Early Prophase<br />Centrioles move to the poles of the cell<br />Chromosomes appear as long, this threads<br />Nucleus becomes less distinct<br />Nuclear membrane is still visible<br />Asters are formed<br />
  20. 20. Prophase<br />Middle Prophase<br />Centrioles begin to organize spindle fibers<br />Sister chromatids are formed with the centromere as point of attachment<br />
  21. 21. Late Prophase<br /><ul><li>Centrioles are nearly at the opposite sides of the nucleus
  22. 22. Nuclear membrane slowly desintegrates
  23. 23. Nucleulus is no longer visible
  24. 24. Chromosome move toward the equator</li></ul>Prophase<br /><ul><li>Spindle fibers attach to the centromere of each chromosome</li></li></ul><li>Metaphase<br />Nuclear membrane has completely disappeared<br />The centromere of each double-stranded chromosome is attached to a spindle fiber at the equator<br />Centrioles are at the opposite ends of the poles<br />Chromosomes line up at the center forming metaphase plate<br />
  25. 25. Anaphase<br /><ul><li>Sister chromatids start to move toward the poles, seemingly being pulled by the thread or fibers</li></ul>Early Anaphase<br /><ul><li>Sister chromatids separate and begin moving toward opposite poles of the cell</li></li></ul><li>Anaphase<br /><ul><li>A slight cleavage furrow in the cell membrane begins to form in the region of the equator</li></ul>Late Anaphase<br /><ul><li>Two sets of new, single stranded chromosomes start to migrate near their respective poles
  26. 26. Cytokinesis begins</li></li></ul><li>Telophase<br />Centrioles are replicated<br />Cytokineseis is nearly complete<br />Spindle fibers and asters disappear<br />The cleavage furrow deepens and the cell finally divide onto two parts<br />New nuclear membrane starts to form in each new cell<br />Chromosomes become longer, thinner and less distinct<br />The nucleus reappears<br />
  27. 27. 2ndInterphase: 2 cell stage<br /><ul><li>Nuclear membrane are complete in each cells
  28. 28. Chromosomes are no longer visible
  29. 29. Cytokinesis is complete
  30. 30. Two new daughter cells are formed, each with a complete set of materials as the parent cell</li></li></ul><li>The process of Mitosis<br /><ul><li>Occur in less than an hour or longer ( some in just 23 minutes)
  31. 31. Brain cells do not dived when mature
  32. 32. Most frequent/fast in human embryo formation</li></li></ul><li>Assessment Break<br />Define Mitosis. Why is it important?<br />What are the stages of mitosis?<br />What body cells are involved in mitotic process?<br />When is the process of mitosis faster? Slower?<br />
  33. 33. Meiosis<br />A cell division forming reproductive cells<br />Oogenesis<br />Spermatogenesis<br />Occurs in two cycles of division<br />
  34. 34. Meiosis Dissected: Stages<br />Meiosis involves two consecutive divisions<br />It involves “Crossing Over” or the exchange of DNA traits<br />
  35. 35. 1st & 2nd Meiotic Division<br />Parent Sex Cells<br />Chromosomes duplicate<br />Crossing over<br />1st Cell division<br />(2 daughter cells)<br />2 daughter cells<br />Chromosomes pair up<br />Chromosomes separate<br />2nd Cell Division) Cell divides into 4 sex cells with haploid chromosomes<br />
  36. 36. Mitosis VS Meiosis<br />
  37. 37. Gametogenesis<br /><ul><li>Meiosis only happens when your body is ready to produce reproductive cells</li></ul>Spermatgenesis ~ formation of sperm cells<br />Oogenesis ~ formation of egg cells<br />
  38. 38. Spermatogenesis<br />The formation of male gametes<br />An example of Meiosis<br />
  39. 39. Oogenesis<br />Formation of Female Gamete<br />An example of Meiosis<br />
  40. 40. Spermatogenesis VS Oogenesis<br />
  41. 41. Assessment Break<br />Define meiosis. How is it different from mitosis?<br />How many cells are formed after the first cell division in meiosis? After the second division?<br />What is gametogenesis?<br />Compare and contrast spermatogenesis and oogenesis.<br />