Diversity in living organisms


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Diversity in living organisms

  1. 1. The hierarchy of classification – Groups :-  Living organisms have been broadly classified into five main kingdoms.  They are :- i) Monera ii) Protista iii) Fungi iv) Plante v) Animalia  Each kingdom has been further classified into smaller sub - groups at various levels as :- Kingdom Phylum (for plants) / Division (for animals) Class Order Family Genus Species
  2. 2.  By arranging organisms on the basis of hierarchy and characteristics  into smaller and smaller groups we arrive at the basic unit of  classification called species.
  3. 3. The Five Kingdom classification of living organisms :- Organisms Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Monera Unicellular Protista With cell wall Do not perform photosynthesis Fungi Able to perform photosynthesis Plantae Multicellular Without cell wall Animalia
  4. 4. 5 Kingdoms
  5. 5.  They are eukaryotic, unicellular, mostly aquatic  Some have cilia or flagella which help them in moving  The mode of nutrition may be autotrophic or heterotrophic. Example of Protista on next slide-
  6. 6. Protozoan Diatoms
  7. 7.  They are mostly prokaryotic, unicellular, do not have a definite nucleus  May or may not have cell wall  The mode of nutrition is autotrophic or heterotrophic. Example of Monera on next slide-
  8. 8. Bacteria Cyanobacteria Mycoplasma
  9. 9.  These do not contain chlorophyll and hence are heterotropic and have diverse modes of nutrition.  They may be saprophytic i.e., depending on dead or decaying organic matter for their food, or may be parasitic i.e., depending on living organisms for their food . Example Fungi of is on next slide-
  10. 10. Agaricus
  11. 11. Plant Kingdom
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION  Every organism whether plant or animal is unique in itself. There is a wide diversity in the flora (plants) and fauna (animals) in the world. The diversity we see today is the result of 3.5 billion years of organic evolution. During the course of this evolution several species vanished from the surface of the Earth and became extinct. It is estimated that more than fifty times the existing species have become extinct.
  13. 13. With such a vast number of organisms - both living and extinct, it becomes impossible to study every one of them at individual level. This task of studying the diversity of living organisms can be made easier and more effective if the various organisms are arranged in an orderly manner
  15. 15. Eichler in 1883 suggested a system to classify the plant kingdom which is well accepted. He said that the plant kingdom is subdivided into two subkingdoms: Cryptogamae and Phanerogamae. Sub kingdom Cryptogamae are lower plants that do not bear flowers or seeds.
  16. 16. (i)THALLOPHYTA  The plant body is not differentiated into stem, root and leaves but is in the form of an undivided thallus.  Vascular tissues are absent.  The reproductive organs are single-celled and there is no embryo formation after fertilization.  This division includes three sub-divisions: algae, fungi and lichens.
  17. 17. Chara
  18. 18. (ii)BRIOPHYTA  Bryophyte is a traditional name used to refer to all embryophytes (land plants) that do not have true vascular tissue and are therefore called 'non-vascular plants'.  Some bryophytes do have specialized tissues for the transport of water; however since these do not contain lignin, they are not considered to be true vascular tissue.  Currently bryophytes are thought not to be a natural or monophyletic group; however the name is convenient and remains in use as a collective term for mosses, hornworts, and liverworts.
  19. 19.  Bryophytes produce enclosed reproductive structures (gametangia and sporangia), but they produce neither flowers nor seeds, reproducing via spores.  The term bryophyte comes from Greek βρύον - bryon, "tree-moss, oyster-green" + φυτόν - fyton "plant". Example of bryophyte is on next slide-
  20. 20. Moss Marchantia Marchantia (Liverwort)
  21. 21. (iii)Pteridophytes  The Pteridophytes are vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that produce neither flowers nor seeds, and are hence called vascular cryptogams.  Instead, they reproduce and disperse only via spores.  Pteridophytes include horsetails, ferns, club mosses, and quillworts.  They are used for medicinal purposes, as soil -binders, and are frequently planted as ornamentals.
  22. 22. Pteridophyte classification They do not form a monophyletic group but is often taken to consist of two groups: The Lycopodiophyta (club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts), "Monilophytes":  Marattioid ferns,  Equisetophyta (horsetails),  Psilotophyta (whisk ferns) and Ophioglossophyta (adder's tongues and grape ferns),  Leptosporangiate ferns (the largest group of ferns). Example Pteridophyte of is on next slide-
  23. 23. PHANEROGAMAE  This division is made up of plants that bear flowers and seeds and make up the majority of the larger plants. The body is differentiated into true stem, leaves and roots.  Propagation of the plant takes place with the help of seeds.  Seeds are formed as a result of sexual reproduction. The male and female gametes fuse together inside the ovary and develop into the seed.  In some plants seed is not produced inside an ovary. Phanerogamae is made into two further divisions.- (i)Gymnosperms (naked seeded plants) (ii) Angiosperms (Seed born within a fruit)
  24. 24. (i) GYMNOSPERMAE  The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and Gnetales.  The term "gymnosperm" comes from the Greek word gymnosperms (γυμνόςπερμοσ), meaning "naked seeds", after the unenclosed condition of their seeds.  Their naked condition stands in contrast to the seeds and ovules of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are enclosed within an ovary.
  25. 25.  Gymnosperm seeds develop either on the surface of scales or leaves, often modified to form cones, or at the end of short stalks as in (Ginkgo).  Example of Gymnosperm on next slide-
  26. 26. Pines Cycas
  27. 27. (ii) ANGIOSPERME  This group constitutes the largest group of plants. Seeds are produced inside an ovary which later becomes the fruit. These are highly evolved group of plants. The plant body is distinctly differentiated into roots, stem and leaves.  Based on the number of cotyledons (seed-leaves) that form the seed this group is divided into:  Monocotyledons (One seed leaf) Example: Rice, Wheat  Dicotyledons (two seed leaves) Example: Beans, Mango Example of Angiosperm, Monocot & Dicot plants on next slide-
  28. 28. Angiosperm, Monocot & Dicot plants Bud of pink rose
  29. 29. Animalia Kingdom  Animals are divided into ten groups & they are :- i. Porifera ii. Coelenterate iii. Platyhelminthes iv. Nematoda v. Annelid vi. Arthropoda vii. Mollusca viii. Echinodermata ix. Protochordata x. Vertebrata
  31. 31. (i)Porifera  This word means organisms with holes.  These are Non-motile animals attached to some solid supports.  There are pores ,all over the body. These lead to a canal system that helps in circulating water throughout the body to bring in food and oxygen(O2).  The body design involves very minimal differentiation and division into tissues.  They are commonly called ‘Sponges’ and mainly found in marine habitats. Example of Porifera on next silide-
  32. 32. (ii)Coelentrata  Two layered body which is radically symmetrical  Aquatic in habitat which includes both fresh water and marine  The outer layer has tentacles armed with stinging cells cnidoblasts which can release venom into the victim. The inner layer encloses a body cavity called gastro vascular cavity  Animals in this group exist in two types of individuals called zooids - polyps and medusae. Polyps are fixed and lead solitary or colonial life, while medusae are free swimming
  33. 33.  Alternation of generation takes place in colonial forms. Polyps and medusae alternate with each other during the life cycle  Reproduction is usually asexual i.e., by budding in the polyp form and sexual in medusa form  Exoskeleton made of lime is found in corals Example of Coelentrata on next silide-
  34. 34. Jellyfish Sea anemone
  35. 35. (iii)PLATYHELMINTHES  Simplest triploblastic organisms showing bilateral symmetry  Mostly parasites in other animals  Body in dorsoventrally flat and leaf-like or ribbon-like with bilateral symmetry  The body cavity has only one opening which serves as both the mouth and the anus  Hermaphrodites i.e, male and female sex organs present in one individual Example of Platyhelminthes on next silide-
  36. 36. Tape worm
  37. 37.  They have cylindrical body.  The body is bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic.  They do not have true body cavity.  They have tissues but no real organs.  They are parasitic. Example of Nematoda on next slide-
  38. 38. Ascaris Wuchereria
  39. 39. (v)ANNELIDA  Occur in moist soil, fresh water and sea  Body is soft and segmented, triploblastic with bilateral symmetry  First animal with the coelom (body cavity)  Body is covered by a non-chintinous cuticle which may have chitinous setae, or parapodia  Reproduction is generally sexual, but some may reproduce asexually by rejuvination i.e, by regrowing broken segments Example Annelid on next silide-
  40. 40. Earthworm
  41. 41. (vi)Arthropoda (Joint legged)  They have bilaterally symmetrical body.  The body is segmented.  They have an open circulatory system  The body cavity is filled with blood.  They have jointed legs. Example of Arthropoda on next slide-
  42. 42. Prawn Spider Scorpion
  43. 43. (vii)Mollusca  They have bilateral symmetry.  The coelomic cavity is reduced.  There is little segmentation.  They have open circulatory system and kidney like organs  for excretion.  They have feet for moving around. Example of Mollusca on next slide-
  44. 44. Chiton Octopus
  45. 45. (viii)Echinodermata (Spiny skinned)  They are spiny skinned organisms.  They are free living marine animals.  They are triploblastic and have coelomic cavity.  The have water filled tube feet which help in movement.  They have hard skeleton made of calcium carbonate. Example of Echinodermata on next slide-
  46. 46. Star fish Sea urchin Sea cucumber
  47. 47. (ix)Protochordata  They have bilateral symmetry and are triploblastic.  The have coelomic cavity.  The have a notochord which is a long rod-like structure  along its back to which muscles are attached and help in movement. Example of Protochordata on next slide-
  48. 48. Amphioxus Herdemania
  49. 49. (x)Vertebrata (Vertebrates)  They have vertebral column and internal skeleton.  They have bilateral symmetry and are triploblastic.  They have coelomic cavity.  Their body is differentiated into tissues and organs.  Their body consists of four regions – head, neck, trunk  and tail.  They have two pairs of fins or limbs.  The respiration in aquatic forms is by gills and in land forms respiration is by lungs
  50. 50.  Vertebrates are grouped into five classes. They are :- vertebrates Pisces Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammilla
  51. 51. (i) Pisces (Fishes)  They are fishes living in water. Their skin is covered with scales or plates & they respire using gills.  They have streamlined body and fins which help them to move in water.  They are cold blooded and their heart has only two chambers.  They lay eggs from which the young ones hatch out.  Some fishes have skeleton made of cartilage like Sharks, Rays etc. and some have skeleton made of bones and cartilage like Tuna, Rohu etc. Example of Pisces on next slide-
  52. 52. Shark Tuna Rohu
  53. 53. (ii)Amphibia (Amphibians)  They are found in land and water.  They do not have scales but have mucous glands on their skin.  They are cold blooded and the heart is three chambered.  Respiration is through gills or lungs.  They lay eggs in water. Example of Amphibia on next slide-
  54. 54. Frog Toad Salamander
  55. 55. (iii) Reptilia (Reptiles)  They have scales and breathe through lungs.  They are cold blooded.  Most of them have three chambered heart but crocodiles have four chambered heart.  They lay eggs with hard covering in water. Example of Reptilia on next slide-
  56. 56. Snake Lizard Crocodile
  57. 57. (iv) Aves (Birds)  They are warm blooded animals.  They have four chambered heart.  They breathe through lungs.  They have an outer covering of feathers.  Their two fore limbs are modified into wings for flying.  They lay eggs. Example of Aves on next slide-
  58. 58. Crow Stork Ostrich
  59. 59. (v) Mammalia (Mammals)  They are warm blooded animals.  They have four chambered heart.  They have mammary glands for production of milk to nourish their young ones.  The skin has hairs and sweat glands.  Most of them give birth to their young ones.  Some of them lay eggs (like Platypus and Echidna). Example of Mammalia on next slide-