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WOMEN EMPOWERMENT ;ESSAYS FOR I E S . IAS , PHD MPHIL ENTRANCE EXAMS

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CHANGING ROLE OF MICROFINANCE

CHANGING ROLE OF MICROFINANCE


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  • 1. INTRODUCTIONPoverty has traditionally been defined in terms of income or expenditure andcan be viewed in relative or absolute terms. it is also clear that in severalsocieties households are not homogenous entities, since within household,women and girl child often tend to be relatively undernoushied, Genderconstitutes the most profound differentiating division.As Diana Pearce coined the term "feminization of poverty" which implies newphenomena, "women have always experienced more poverty than men". on theother hand female labour force participation highest among the pooresthouseholds in countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh where social normsnamely constraint women to very insecure and poor work in the informal sector.Ensuring equity in women rights to land, poverty, capital assets, wages andlivelihood opportunities would impact positively in women empowerment.Altitude of the women to accept her status as an unequal member of the familyand society needs to be modulated. In fact it needs to be shown that she isexample of sustaining herself and as a source of income for herself herhousehold and source of a capital for the society.Based on experiences of Bangladesh, Ghana, Mexico, Bolivia – MFIS canintroduce several strategies that can make a positive contribution and women‟sempowerment and holistic transformation, including business training,discussion of social issues and leadership, ownership and control of creditinstitutions. But before these long term goals, providing poorest women withthe micro credit facilities to come out of hunger is the priority. Empowerment isa latent concept it does not lend itself to direct measurement.LITERATURE REVIEWCurrent Paradigm.
  • 2. “Social exclusion” – where certain groups are discriminated against, and notallowed to enjoy the same rights of the rest of the population because of race,religion, gender etc, is widely regarded as contributing significantly to povertyamongst those affected. Majority of monitoring documents on Indiaacknowledge the paradox of robust economic growth juxtaposed against moremodest gains in social development in the region and characterized byincreasing inequalities between social groups, be it caste/tribe-based groups,gender disparities, or urban-rural divide among others. Social inclusion is one ofUNICEF„s central pillars of work in the country programme (2008–2012).Thisreflects a commitment to inclusion in both UNDAF and the 11th Five Year Plan(2008–2012) of GoI, reflecting a shared perception of a central challenge in thecontext of India„s current high growth economic development trajectory: thereduction of disparities in the process of economic and social development(UNICEF-KCCI, 2010).The rationale for taking this seminar based discourse on women in Indiansociety was to grapple with the nuances of feminization of poverty for womenin Indian society AND LINK THESE TO THE PROPOSED TERMS OFRESEARCH AS PROFESSED EARLIER ON THE LINKAGES AMIDSTMICROFINANCE AND WOMEN. The purpose of this study is to assess theimpact of microfinance schemes on economic well being of marginalizedwomen. At this level of the social stratum, self-help groups are the primarysource of financial, emotional and practical support. Such groups useparticipatory processes to include women in the decision-making processes aswell as provide opportunities to share knowledge, common experiences, andsolutions to problems. Through their participation, members help themselvesand others by gaining knowledge and information, and by obtaining and
  • 3. providing support to one another. The impacts of such policies and the practicesengendered by such microcredit programmes are very interesting to evaluateand learn from. It addresses the immediate need of poverty alleviation throughemployment and thereby income generation. Not to mention the long run goalof redressing the role of women in the economy as well as their status in thesociety.Tangible achievements such as employment generated and higher wageearnings by the targeted population serve as proxies for qualitative and largelyimmeasurable aspects such as women‟s empowerment and the formation ofcrucial social capital of the economy, keeping the Marxist framework of lookingat women‟s labour in the backdrop.According to Fredrick ENGELS1,Women are exploited by men due to themonogamous structure of the family and their isolation from social productiveprocess. Even in the Roman notion of family denotes a goroup of slavesbelonging to one man wherein the man has all rights over his wife who is amere instrument to satiate his lust and produce children. The concept ofmonogamy highlighting the slave side of women as a mother of legitimate heirof children of their husbands and housekeepers was also highlighted in Greecein Illiad, Homer etc.In Athens prostitution helped in facilitating the intellectualand artistic qualities of women, to stand above the classical womanhood of theSpartan women. Monogamous marriage symbolizes the subjugation of thefemale to the men and the first class pooression alongwith private property andslaves. This is also inclusive of open marriage where only the women are heldas an outcast. Only the Germans through their poverty did not favourmonogamy to subjugate women and gave them freedom in public affairs and thenotion of individual sex- love came in parlance. This was further elucidated by1 PLEASE CITE WITH THE NAME OF THE PUBLISHER/AUTHOR AND PU THE YEAR IN ( ):i.e;Patel(1994).
  • 4. the Germans and French. In the catholic marriages the parents selected the wifefor their bourgoise son which culminates adultery for the former and heratismfor the former. But in the Protestants ethics a bourgoise son may be allowed toselect a wife of his own individual choice which yields room for „domesticbliss‟. In any case a marriage of convenience yields adultery among women. Inthe current day after women have especially liberated in the labour market theproliteranian marriage remains monogamous only in oymological and nothistorical sense. The legalistic stand of equating men and women in analogies toequating the proletariat and the bourgoise in labour contract. However fullfreedom of marriage can be propogated only when there is abolition of thecapitalist production and of the property relations created by it has removed allthe economic considerartions which still exerts a powerful influence on thechoice of a marriage partner. This wourld nonetheless dissolve the 2 basicstamped features of monogamy- supremacy of man and the indissolubility ofmarriage as such.According to Christine Delphy, the feminist movement in the west has built ina Marxist framework which makes only a theoretical construct of the oppressionof the proletariat women without making much of the class analysis of thewomen.(ALSO SEE PARTHA CHATTERJEE –RECASTINGWOMEN).Thus the need arises to find structural reasons for the women‟soppression.It is also needed to rationalize the autarky of the feministmovement.There are no linkages amidst theory and praxis for deconstructingfeminist oppression.Delphy aims to follow a prototype need based model forseeking for a feminist consciousness.
  • 5. THE RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION ENTERED INTO BY WOMEN--The Marxist lines of thought regard women as tools of exploitation forproduction and reproduction .But it is also needed to contemplate the mode ofproduction ,class analysis of women and the political perspectives,constituencies and alliences of the feminist movement.Women, herein are onlyallowed to have their basic needs as gifts from their spouses(male) to maintaintheir labour power.Women are taken as unproductive as they are needed to formsurplus production and are engaged in procreating items of use-value.The workof women is not nessecerily confined to domestic household activities andchild-rearing but also extend to working in farms in rearing cattle(also seeShalini grover), and doing the unpleasant non-mechanical tasks allocated inagriculture as seen from official statistics in France and Morrocco.Whatever isproduced in the family for household consumption, has potential monetaryvalue, some of which are used for calculating the GNP of the nation and someof these are taken as self-consumption activities due to societal reasons likechild-rearing.Just as there is continuity for activities for self-consumption,whichare productive and unproductive, there is also continuity for services, withoutpay by wives and commercial services which implies that many of theoperations of turning raw materials into commercial products are nowindustrialized which is officially considered in computing the nationalproduct.The fallacy lies in the fact that when women work within the family andthey are unpaid and when they work outside the family they are paid for thesame services. This is also inclusive of the controverdial debates in feminism inthe bio-politics of sex work.It must also be noted that with the rise ofindustrialization, women have increasingly started producing goods beyondself-consumption, but their wages are all used up in the payment of child careamd excess taxes thus rendering them almost with nothing.It is noteworthy thatthe exploitation of womenis life-long and they are doubly exploited by thepatriarchal structure and are subdued by society with no social inclusiveness in
  • 6. terms of valorizing their paid/unpaid services.Wommen are always subjugatedas being the wife of another and they are thus subjugated as a common class.Thus communism may be feasible in a bourgoise or a proletariat revolutionwhere the household domestic amenities are easily available to the women. FEMINISATION OF POVERTY IN INDIA-CALCUTTA REQUIEM-.Housing developments emerge amid the paddyfields on the fringes of Calcutta; overflowing trains carry peasant women toinformal urban labor markets in a daily commute against hunger; land is settledand claimed in a complex choreography of squatting and evictions: such,Ananya Roy contends, are the distinctive spaces of a communism for the newmillennium -- where, at a moment of liberalization, the hegemony of poverty isquietly reproduced. An ethnography of urban development in Calcutta, Roysbook explores the dynamics of class and gender in the persistence of poverty.City Requiem, Calcutta emphasizes how gender itself is spatialized, and howgender relations are negotiated within the geopolitics of modernity and throughthe everyday practices of territory. Thus Roy shows how urbandevelopmentalism, in its populist guise, reproduces the relations of masculinistpatronage, and, in its entrepreneurial guise, seeks to reclaim a bourgeoisCalcutta, gentlemanly in its nostalgias. In doing so, her work expands the fieldof poverty studies by showing how a politics of poverty is also a poverty ofknowledge, a construction and management of social and spatial categories.
  • 7. FORMULATING THE NAUNCES OF FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY IN INDIAIs there any link with female household headship?Poverty is DeprivationWhat isPoverty? Definition: Per capita calories contentWidened: Calories, plus shelter,access to water and sanitation, health facilities, & education.World Bank: $ 1 adayArjun Sengupta report: 80% of Indians live below the level of consumptionof Rs. 20 per day Need to unpack-While studying the processes of poverty thescholars with gender concerns have highlighted the gendered effects of povertysituations. However, there is a debate about who are the „poorest of the poorhouseholds‟ (women within them). Unpacking of „the feminisation poverty‟means to determine howmany women are poor, which women are poor, andhow they became and remain poor. Link between-Factors linked withFeminisation of poverty have been linked with gender disparities in rights,entitlements and capabilities,The gender-differentiated impacts of neo-liberalrestructuring, informalisation and feminisation of labour, and erosion of kin-based support networks through migration, conflicts etc.Primary tenet hasemerged as incidence of female household headship is linked withfeminisation of povertyPros of targetted Programmes for FHH-when data on poverty unreliable,isolating FHH could capture significant share of population „in need‟.Targettingassistance to „lone‟ mother may improve child welfare given the fact thatchildren are better off when women have resources at their owndisposal.Greater equity in development spending between men and
  • 8. women.Two Views-Evidences of both trends:Ambitious comparative reviewbased on 60 studies concluded that 2/3 of cases female headed householdsfound poorer than the male headed households.Cost Rica study suggests thatmajority female headed households are not poor and there is an increase in suchhouseholds. Implications for Interventions-International forums havefavoured this thesis and women‟s economic empowerment has been acceptednot only for gender equality but also eliminating poverty, and ensuring thatbenefits reach more number of people. This approach is criticised as nakedinstrumentalism. Also, favouring female headed households is seen as drawingveil over secondary poverty often experienced by women within male headedunits. It also diverts attention from intra-household inequalities in resourceallocations as well as wider structures of gender and socio-economicinequalities.Cons of Targetted programmes for FHH-FHH may become male headedover time through remarriage or cohebitaiton.Slippage of benefits to non-poorHH because not all the FHH have low incomes.Screening processes areproblematic; stigma for desertion, tradition of man as a household even thoughhe is permanently absent.Some women may not want to be classified as havingbeneficiaries of charity programme and prefer part of the „rights‟ programme,which is sometimes contributory.It could also become perverseincentive.Diversity acknowledged-Women‟s poverty is multi-dimensional andmulti-sectoral.Women‟s poverty is experienced in „different ways‟ in „differenttimes‟ and in „different spaces‟.Gender and Poverty are distinct forms ofdisadvantage, should not be collapsed into notion of „feminsiation of poverty‟.It should not be dubbed as „poverty is a women‟s problem‟
  • 9. Macro level causes of feminisation of poverty-Structural adjustmentprogrammes under the globalisation regime has widen the gap betweenrich and poor and has also deepen the poverty in certain groups. Feministshave noted some of these factors:Invisibility of work,Global processes ofaccumulationOffshore proletarianisation of poor women,Examining thedebt burden and faulty policies of dependency on international markets forsurvival.Immigration of women contributing to the global care economy,creating issues of citizenship, violence, and women’s human rights.Lowstatus, rise in prostitution, considered important reason for sexuallytransmitted diseases.Overall decline in social sector funding-education,health, public distribution system, transportationChildren dropping out ofschool, increase in infant and maternal mortality and mal-nourishment.Intra-household factors-Capital and markets actually have notchanged gender relations.Women’s unequal position in the HH mediatestheir participation in markets and substantially limits their capacity torespond to market opportunities.Women’s employment is seen as sign ofpoverty and upset gender roles.Gender relations constantly interact withthe demands of the market forces, and have been decomposed andrecomposed in the new forms to meet those demands better.HH andSurvival Strategies-HH are domestic units internally and externallystratified. When they confront external factors they make adjustments andsurvive over time. These are called HH strategies.Migration and changes infertility behaviour are generally major strategies to adapt. Along withdiverting priorities to food intake and intensification of domestic workpressure on girls to undertake domestic work as opposed to boysincreases.Younger women separated from consensual unions, are foundgenerally poorer in Nicaragua, who depend upon the relatives and
  • 10. neighbours as a support system. Deserted women studyMaharashtraOveremphasize on resource-fullness and social capital of pooris criticised because they mystify the survival.RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDIA IN THE BACKDROP-The specific microfinance programme that will be the subject of evaluation isthe Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) scheme, which providesself-employment and wage employment to women in need. The former consistsof financial and training assistance to individuals to set up gainful self-employment ventures, and to groups of poor urban women to set up collectiveventures under the Development of Women and Children in the Urban Areas(DWCUA) component. Financial help takes the form of microcredit fromdesignated banks. Wage employment is generated through the creation of publicassets by local bodies. If the SJSRY succeeds in generating regular wageemployment, poverty may decline; this is less likely if such employment iscasual. Throughout the urban sector, poverty is highest among householdssupported by casual wage labour and self-employment (Dubey et al. 2000;Dubey and Mahadevia 2001). It is therefore very important to examine andassess whether or not the beneficiaries of this scheme have been able to improvetheir living standards and if not then what are the major factors which act asbarriers and what factors could be highlighted as best management practices.Financial inclusion is one tool and we believe a powerful one, many in theglobal fight to defeat poverty. For high impact many interventions must act inunison. Including health care, education, housing, basic services, like nutrition,clean water and sustainable energy. That will be coordinated across sections.
  • 11. Our focus is on microfinance institutions in India and their role in womenempowerment a short overview Micro –credit in India is provided throughnumber of institutions and at various layers. (1) SELF help group since 1996.They are informal homogenous groups. They have provided as cyclic agents todevelopments in both rural and urban areas. Here, they borrow from RRBs andBanks small saving of the rural women are deposited with Banks they canreduce the operating costs in forming and financing SHGs. Involving NGOSand youth. For forming and nurturing SHGs. Promotion of SHGs can bringwomen into mainstream of economic development. Major organizations whichhave promoted SHGs in the country are NABARD, SIDB, SEWA, MURADA,WWF etc. There are number of NGOs and voluntary organizations which arealready engaged in promoting SHGs and micro-finance. In Bolpur Distt of westBengal Swashakti and Swayam Sidha are two important projects aimed associo-economic empowerment of women through SHGS. Bank linkages anddevelopment of income generating activities.MFIS lend to small groups directly and use social reinforcement (i.e., peerpressure) to ensure that each member pays bank loan. because Indian rules donot allow MFIs to set up as banks (Before 2010). They are able to use deposits.From their borrowers to lend loans to them, they have relied an investmentmodule, and now with SKS on equity markets.In Bangladesh the MFI groups were self financed. They were obligated to eachother when and not the creditor ie obligation to ones peers. World Bank study(1996) survey 61% of all clients were women. Grameen bank in Bangladeshand Bancosol in Bolinia the percentages are 95%, 72% . whether this increasesher bargaining power or “empowerment”. In the household, Hashami (1996)attempted to measure, empowerment using indicators of mobility, ability tomake large purchase and political and legal awareness.
  • 12. USAID has highlighted – integrative, microfinance, HIV and women‟sempowerment – Food insecurity and livelihood CARE. In Rawanda‟s,HIV/AIDS program, 70% of program beneficiaries are women. The programincorporated micro finance projects in 2006 to avoid this threat. The termeconomic empowerment has myriad definitions and practices designed toincrease or protect income and their ability to make choices and become selfreliant facilitated by the availability of microfinance.NABARD, Study reveals, the training packages must be evolved forentrepreneurship development to enable rural women as successful businessmanagers. Role of penchants, women‟s organization etc may be enhanced toimpact training, skill development and technical knowledge.Feminist Empowerment Paradigm: - here underlying concern is seen as anintegral and inseparable past of wider process of social transformation. Themain target group is poor women. And women are capable of providingalternative female role models. For a sub sector approach to micro credit, basedpartly an. SEWA‟s strategy – part of a strategy for change which identifiesopportunities, constraints, within industries, which are addressed for largenumber of women. To institute strategies linking women to existing servicesand infrastructure. Development of new technology such as labour saving, foodprocessing, building information networks, shifting to new markets, policychanges to overcome legislative barriers and unionization.Poverty reduction PARADIGM:-The main focus of the programmes, as a whole is in developing sustainablelivelihood, community development, and social service like literacy, healthcareand infrastructure development. Although, the term „empowerment‟ isfrequently used in general terms, here the term women empowerment is oftenconsidered best avoided as being too controversial and political. The
  • 13. assumption is that increasing women‟s access to micro-finance will enablewomen to make a greater contribution to household income. And this togetherwith other intervention to increase household will being, will translate intoimproved well being for women. However and enable women bring about widerchanges in gender inequality.Financial Sustainability Paradigm.The ultimate aim is to have large programmes which are profitable and fullyself supporting in competition with their private sector banking institutions andable to raise funds term international financial markets. The main target isbankable poor within this paradigm the gender lobbies have been able to arguefor targeting women on grounds of high repayment schemes.The empowerment is interpreted as expansion of individual choice or capacityfor self-reliance. It is assured increasing women access to micro finance toindividual economic empowerment. As women‟s decisions about saving andcredit use increase, enabling women to set up micro enterprise is assured. Thisincreased economic empowerment will lead to better well being women andalso social political improvement.Micro Finance and Insurance.ILO International labour organization (2003). Various articles had explored thecomplemented of offering basic insurance products, either at their own or inpartnership with insurance company. In India, the insurance and regulatory anddevelopmental proponent of formal insurance reusing low income market.(Research paper by Masschutess Institute of Technology (2007).ResearchesAbhijeet Banerjee. Esther Duflow.)Launched in 1998, Swayam Krishi Sangam (SKS) Micro finance is one of thefastest growing micro finance Organization. In the world SKS identified 201
  • 14. villages where it was running its activities. Microfinance programmespreliminary findings from the analysis of baseline data several considerationscannot demand for insurance. Building catastrophe health insurance with microfinance has promise to reduce this risk.Changing paradigm - Movement towards profit motive?Indian institute of Management Ahembdabad :- (M.S. Sriram, March 2010)In case of legal ownership and governance Indian MFIS had to find their ownsolutions. It was possible to follow the Grammen Bank pattern of ownership ofwhich was incorporated under special act. The imperatives of moving tocommercial, stemmed from the size –that MFIs were growing much bigger thanthey should in their original form of not for profit incorporation. It was alsoincreasingly difficult for them to maintain adequacy or attract commercialcapital, as profit could not be distributed in not for profit format. The optionsavailable were limited. 1. Move the operations to a non-banking finance company. (NBFC) 2. Move operation as corporate formate. 3. Set up local area bank.Indian MFIs had option of NBFCs Bancosol of Boliva which was the firstcelebrated experiment. It moved from as a donor based non profit entity to a fullfledged bank that celebrated the listing of its instruments in Wall Street Bancocomparfomos – of micro was much more controversial. In India a by 2009, wehad (1) SKS Microfinance Sandana Spoothy financial limited (Spanelna) (2)Share microfinance limited (3) Asmith microfinance ltd. SKS received NBFClicense in 2006. It Akula sold the shares on for a price of Rs. 103.91 investmentof Rs. 1.6 crore. Microfinance indeed had become lucrative business. ThenSKS went public.
  • 15. If we assume that MFICs were exploitative, they could have been brought to thetable for counselling or brought to book by regulator. Interest charged by MFIhowever usurious it is, should be desirable than a faceless money lender wherethe terms of exchange never come outThe fact that they had to move to the main stream was also imperative due tothe requirements of capital and face of growth. That might also be the reason forthe public institutions like SIDBI to pro-actively design products and be part ofthus power.Whether they were pushed out, into a corner because the private equityinvestors gave them offers, or they thought their job was done and they had alarger agenda in life not known. However, it is clear that incidents in the historyof these organizations do not make a very good reality.In December 2010, the government of Andhra Pradesh (AP) passsed the lawwhich affectively shut down private sector micro finance in state. The APgovernment stated that in goal was to protect poor. But 18 months later it isclear that it has opposite effect, it is having the poor by starving them of accessto credit and basic financial services. Lending by MFI in AP has droppedvirtually zero. AP Act makes it impossible in the MFI to collect outstandingdues.ObjectivesTo Study the status of women in Bolpur district in terms of education, health,literacy, income, access to credit, in various forms banks, SHG, MFIs DRDA.Both for rural and urban areas.To review the genesis, in the formation of SHGs and the MFIs in Bolpur districtto review the status of such microfinance institutions. Their inter linkages withother financial institutions viz. SIDBI, NABARD, RRBs, DRDA, and their
  • 16. integration with NGOs,. To analyse the impact of micro credit an socia-economic empowerment of women in urban and rural areas of Bolpur add.To explore the possibilities of providing microfinance insurance for women inBolpur as in. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The Impact such policies andpractices engendered by such microcredit programmes are very interesting toevaluate to learn from them. The immediate need is employment. The long termgoals of (a) redressing the status of women in the society. (b) Tangibleachievements such as employment and higher wage earnings by targetedpopulation serves as proxies. (c) For qualitative and largely immeasurableaspects of women empowerment. (d) And the formation of crucial social capitalin the economy this achievement is particularly important remarkable whenperceived in the backdrop of Marxist framework of looking at women labour.Bolpur district has many national level, state level as well as local playersoffering micro loans to the low income individuals in the region. Structure ofSHGs, MFIs in India will undergo a change (a) SHG & MFIs can be now underNBFCs (b) the 2012 act where regularization registration and inditing needs tobe undertaken, its effect needs to be explored and implications for directedcredit to women entrepreneurs.In December 2010, the government of Andhra Pradesh (AP) passed the lawwhich effectively shut down private sector microfinance in state. The APgovernment stated that its goal was to stated that its goal 18 months letter it isclear that it has opposite effect, it is having the poor by staring them of access tocredit and basic finance services. Lending by MFI in AP has dropped virtuallyzero. AP act makes it impossible in the MFI to collect outstanding.Evaluation of costs and Benefits of microfinance schemes and limitation ofthe studyInvolving in micro credit initiatives should take account of fact that :-
  • 17. (a)Itself Credit itself is important but cannot it self enable very poor women toovercome poverty (b) Making credit available to woman does not automaticallymean they have control over its use ones any income they might generate frommicro enterprises. (c) in situations of chronic poverty it is more important toprovide having services, then to offer credit.(d) India is a country where a collaborative model between banks NGOs, MFIsand Women‟s organization is furthest advanced. A focus on diversified microfinance sector, where different type of organization NGO, MFI, SHG is formalsector banks all should have gender policies adapted to the needs, of theirparticular target institutional roles and capacities. And collaborate and worktogether to make a significant contribution to gender equally and pro-poordevelopment.- (1) time consuming income gendering activities. Withoutreduction in. traditional responsibilities. (2)nd new pressure the generated, BYusing social capital, in grant lending group, collateral programmes, additionalstresses and pressures are introduced. which might increase vulnerability andreflect disempowerment (3)rd micro finance asserts women to performtraditional roles better and thus women have remained trapped in lowproductively sectors, not moving from the group of survival enterprises. (4) th thegender constraints. The constraints on sexuality and sexual violence which limitaccess to credit. There are signs, particularly in some urban markets may becontributory to market saturation in female activities and decline profits andsmall increase in access to income and influence there may be all the cost ofharvest work loads, increased stress, and women health. Increase contribution tohousehold income has improve domestic relation has other cases has intensifiedtensions.There is no necessary link between women‟s individual economicempowerment and participation in micro finance groups and social and politicalempowerment these changes are not automatic. The credit may lead to severe
  • 18. impoverishment, an abandonment and put serious stress on networks with otherwomen. Pressure to save may mean women forgoing their own necessaryconsumption. There is evidence that poorest women are the most likely to beexcluded included by the programmes and also poor groups where repayment isthe prime consideration main emphasis of programmes is on existing microenterprises. It also suggests that even where they get access to credit they areparticularly vulnerable to falling further into debt.Bolpur District 1. Bolpur subdivision is a subdivision of Birbhum district in the state of west Bengal. It consists of Bolpur municipality and four community development blocs Bolpour – Sriniketan, Ilambazar, Labhpur and Nanoor. The four blocs contain to fourty gram panchayats its head quarter in Bolpur. 2. About 150 year ago Bolpur was a small village under supur porgana. But now it has become an international city. 3. Demography dynamos of SSPA. Rural Urban 1951 58% 42% 1961 56% 44% 2001 49% 51%Sex DistributionPercentage of working age group b/w 15 to 50 years was 71.32% urban and64.61% rural. Not much difference in the distribution b/w males and females.Education the percentage 62% fell in three classes – primary school, middleschool and secondary school. The corresponding % share was 63 per males and60 for females.
  • 19. MethodologyBolpur town has many national level as well as local players, offering microloans to low income in the regions – NABARD – “SHG Bank linkageprogram:‟ aimed at connecting sleep help group – SHARE, BASIX, SEWA,MYRADA, PRADHANA proper mechanism is to be used to prepare a data base on these and segregate,so as much of it achievement goals for women directly or indirectly. For thisempirical data analysis with suitable software analysis needs to be undertaken.Innovative methodological approaches, including visual techniques,conversational and textual analysis and analysis of spontaneous events will berequired. Proper questionnaires involvement/ of NGOs and college studentsmail in survey have added advantages use of the existing data that other socialscientists have collected the use of publicly accessible information‟s is knownas secondary analysis. From business, governmental with RBI act 2012. MFIshave register and all information regularly updated. This will be a greatly help,Therefore, both primary and secondary data sources are to be used. Throughaction ethnography, using participant observation will be key to survey methodsin certain issues of as relating to women status.Primary research should cover given the Objectives of the paper.First, have a women tendency to invest in safer investment project can be linkedto her desire raise her bargaining position in households. Second, in addition tothe project choice, women empowerment is examined with respect to contact ofsaving, control of income, control over loans, control over purchasing power
  • 20. and family planning. Third, increase in level of mobility, ability to make largepurchase and political and legal awareness.It is suggested that 10 empowerment factors including an aggregate “all” factor,we can more simply examine the partial correlations among differentdimensions of empowerment and between them and exogenous covariates.This includes, purchasing, resources, transaction management, householdsbehaviour, mobility and networks, activation, finance, fertility and Householdactivities. We can have a linear in the variables form of demand equation forempowerment that is estimated. The data collection will be a key factor and inincluding these variables.