Manner of death-International ( พฤติการณ์การตาย ) : NATURAL : Death caused exclusively by disease. SUICIDE : Violent death caused by act of the decedent with the intent to kill himself. HOMICIDE : Violent death at the hand of another person . ACCIDENT : Death caused by violent means not due to an intentional or criminal act by another person. UNDETERMINED : is used when reasonable classification cannot be made.
Definition of rape by Oxford dictionary: The act of forcing a woman or girl to have sexual intercourse against her will
Definition of rape from Wikipedia: is a form of assault involving the non-consensual use of the sexual organs of another person’s body. The assailant can be of either sex, as can their target.
Men who rape women are often seen as the most common type of rapist but, in fact, men who rape other men are probably the most common type of male rapist in the US today.
In recent years, there have been an increasing number of female assailants being convicted or the rape of men. However, due to social, political and legal double standards, female rapists who rape other women are almost never caught or convicted.
In most countries the crime of rape is defined to occur when sexual intercourse take place without valid consent of one of the parties involved. It is frequently defined as penetration of the anus or the vagina by a penis. In some jurisdictions the penetration need not be by penis but can be by other parts (e.q. fingers) or by objects (e.q. bottle, artificial penis)
Toxicology <ul><li>Clinical Toxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic Toxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Postmortem drug testing </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace drug testing </li></ul><ul><li>Contraband materials evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>ID of semen and sperm </li></ul>
Laboratory tests: ID of Semen Presumptive ID test: Acid Phosphatase (moist stain paper + sodium alphanaphthyphosphate and fast blue B dye>Purple within 30 seconds Florence; uses potassium triodide (A microcrystalline test for choline) Barberio; uses picric acid (microcrystalline test for spermine) Visualization under alternative light source ; semen will fluoresce Definitive ID test: P30 protein or PSA, unique to seminal plasma Sperm smear-microscopic examination
PSA or P30 protein: Immuno-enzymatic assay (ELISA) PSA test kit (Semiquantitative analyzing method by immunochromatographic principle)
Stains for microscopic examination of smear: H&E stain Papanicolas stain Nuclear Fast Red dyes Picroindigocarmine (PIC) Christmas tree stain (Brent amine Fast Blue B; carcinogenic)
Maximum time for sperm heads to be detected in living person: 7 days in the vaginal cavity 2-3 days in anus or rectum 24 hours in the mouth
Interference of cleaning agents on semen: Feminine hygiene wash, clean lactic acid etc.
Rape cases (Alive and/or autopsy cases) 1. Swab: vagina, oral, rectal and clothes, for ID studying of ; smear for sperm, acid phosphatase, P30 protein , DNA, culture 2. Examination: for evidence of trauma and infection or disease; for prophylaxis and treatment. 3. Blood studies for: VDRL, HIV, and DNA/blood group. 4. Comb and pull pubic hair.
Chain of custody <ul><li>“ Chain of custody” is a concept in jurisprudence which applies to the handling of evidence and its integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Chain of custody” also refers to the document or paper trail showing the seizure, custody, control, transfer, analysis, and disposition of physical and electronic evidence. </li></ul>
Chain of custody <ul><li>“ Chain of custody” requires that from the moment the evidence is collected, every transfer of evidence from person to person be documented and that it be provable that nobody else could have accessed that evidence. It is best to keep the number of transfers as low as possible. </li></ul>
Chain of custody <ul><li>“ Chain of custody” is also used in most chemical sampling situations to maintain the integrity of the sample by providing documentation of the control, transfer, and analysis of samples. </li></ul><ul><li>In the court room, if the defendant questions the chain of custody of the evidence it can be proven that the knife in the evidence room is the same knife found at the crime scene. </li></ul>