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Tp 1-intro



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  • 2. TOWN PLANNING: Introduction Town Planning: “the  It also includes ways and arrangement of various means to be adopted components or units of a for town in such a way that improvement/extension the town attains the of the existing towns significance of a living  It helps in achieving the organism” best possible advantages of situation of town w.r.t its land and surrounding environment
  • 3. Introduction: (cont.) Town Planning  Final results shall be in demands such a way that, it  Active imagination should be appreciated  Understanding of by all the sectors of various needs of public society  A well planned town Town planner has to carries out its activities  Carryout researches in a normal way like a  Prepare layout plans living organism
  • 4. Introduction: (cont.)  Town planning is a Science science as well as an • Collection art too • Correlation  Both shall be used in • Analysis of facts about such a way that final town result is in form of  Beautiful Art  Convenient  Economical • Arrangement of components  Efficient unit
  • 5. Town planning in Ancient India: Planning of towns was  Location: river banks, done on scientific bases sea shore or by the side even in Vedic times of big lake Ancient literature such as  Flowing stream: for vedas, puranas, shastras sanitary requirements contains some of  Towns on river were principles and theories oblong shape, to take of town planning max advantage of river Nature and growth:  Rivers: Indians always governed by site loved, glorified and conditions worshiped
  • 6. Town planning in Ancient India: (cont.) ‘Vishwakarmaprakash’  Various types of town says ‘First layout the towns plans described in book and then plan out the such as houses’  ‘dandka’ ‘Mansara Shilpa-shastra’  ‘swastika’ mentions some of aspects  ‘padmaka’ (lotus shaped) of town planning like  ‘nandyavarta’ (flower  Study of soil shaped)  Climatic condition  ‘prastara’  Wind direction  ‘chatumukha’  Orientation of building  ‘karmukha’ (bow shaped)  Topography etc.
  • 7. Town planning in Ancient India: (cont.) Typical Indian town  Tanks consisted  Reservoirs  Markets  Underground passages  Streets  City forts etc.  Public buildings  Some of towns worth  Residences for cityzens mentioning are  Temples  Ayodhya  Royal palace  Mohanjo-daro  Recreation centers  Patliputra  Ditches / trenches  Takshsila  Sheds for drinking water  Nalanda etc.  Pleasure gardens
  • 8. Objects of town planning: Beauty Convenience • Various economic, social• Use of natural and recreational amenities surroundings to be given to public, such• Architectural finishes to as various components • Cheap power• Preservation of • Proper industrial sites trees/greenery • Transport facilities • Adequate water supply• Architectural control on • Easy sewage disposal public/semi-public • Open spaces/ parks/ town buildings, historic, halls/ play grounds/ ancient buildings etc. theatres etc.
  • 9. Objects of town planning: (cont.) Health Environment • Right use of land for right• Complex problems in purpose urban living such as • Provide parks/ • Travel to work playgrounds for public • Long working hrs • Maintain pollution of various forms to lowest • Less/ no time for possible deg society • Achieved by dividing land• Better relation between into various zones man and environment resi/comm/ind etc shall be developed • Avoid encroachment of one zone upon the other
  • 10. Principles of town planning: Green belt Recreation centers • As per town size, enough space shall be• Provision of it on periphery limits reserved the size of town Road system Housing • Efficient road lay-out • Simple and economical• Provide housing accommodation to various categories of people Transport facilities• Slum clearance by alt arrangement • Min loss of time from residence place to work place Public buildings Zoning• Should be well distributed • Town shall be divided in suitable zones• Central concentration of them • Suitable rules & regulations for each shall be avoided zone
  • 11. Necessity of town planning: In absence of town  Inadequate open planning, town faces spaces for parks and following kind of playgrounds, i.e. problems unhealthy living conditions  Defective road system,  Lack of essential narrow streets/ roads amenities like power,  Development of slums water supply, drainage  Haphazard location of  Noisy atmosphere industries  Uncontrolled  Heavy traffic during development of town working hrs of day
  • 12. Origin of towns: Topographical Functional• Conditions favorable for industrial units• Hilly areas - object • Education of defense • Health resorts• Plain area - business activities • political• River banks • religious• Sea / ocean fronts
  • 13. Growth of town: Why people like to stay Growth of town close together in urban areas? Origin Direction  To facilitate defense against attack from Natural Planned Horizontal outsiders  Man is social animal, gets Concentric satisfaction of living life in spread Vertical company of his fellows  Can develop many Ribbon development contacts, also can retain privacy Satellite  Urban area provide facilities like water supply, market etc Scattered
  • 14. Growth of town: (cont.) Concentric spread: CBD  Natural tendency of LIG people to be as near as MIG possible to town, hence town develops in HIG concentric rings  Many complicated problems such as CBD : Central business district LIG: Low income group  Traffic congestion MIG: Middle income group  Narrow streets HIG: High income group  Concentration of population -Town grows radially -Similar or functionally related activities will be at same distance from center of town
  • 15. Growth of town: (cont.) Ribbon development: Interior portion  Everyone like to build as near as possible to Development main road  Buildings develop Main Road along side of main road Development  Long fingers or ribbons of houses/shops Interior portion develop
  • 16. Growth of town: (cont.) Disadvantages:  More pedestrians on main  Increase in cost of various road causes traffic accidents/ utility services like water traffic delays supply, power, telephone etc  Harms naturalness of country,  Loose and scatter community – spoils countryside, lack of social life aesthetically faulty  Costly and difficult future  Measures to be taken: improvement  Land use zoning  Houses face heavy traffic,  Regulation and control of noise, dust traffic  Interior portion left  Removal of encroachments undeveloped, wastage of land from road side  Traffic capacity and efficiency  Planning road side amenities of main road reduces  Expressway with complete controlled access
  • 17. Growth of town: (cont.) Satellite Satellite growth: town  Term Satellite is used to indicate a body under the influence of a more Satellite powerful body but town possessing its own identity Satellite town
  • 18. Growth of town: (cont.) Features of satellite town:  Mainly residential area  Own local government with only local shops, schools for children etc  It is town itself, but it depends to a certain  It need not have zoning extent upon parent city regulations  Well connected by local  It can be even considered trains, buses etc as part of market for goods and services being  Free to decide its produced in parent city economic, social and cultural activities  Disadvantage:  Situated beyond green  necessity of the journey to belt of parent city work  Its neither a village nor a suburb
  • 19. Growth of town: (cont.) Scattered growth:  PLANNED GROWTH:  Very irregular  Growth is controlled by  Traffic congestion suitable rules & regulations  Encroachment of industries  Rational distribution of on resi area various blocks such as resi/ comm/ industrial  Slums  Provision of various  Lack of parks and amenities like water supply, playgrounds drainage, parks etc is  Complex problems become made to meet future too difficult to be solved in requirements future  Orderly growth avoids clashing of many activities of normal town
  • 20. Growth of town: (cont.) HORIZONTAL GROWTH:  Restricted density of  Town develops horizontally population in all directions  Surrounding marginal  It is possible where land is space can be used to available in plenty at develop garden nominal cost  Disadvantage: Advantages:  Requires more land, so can  Cost saving: buildings are be uneconomical where generally 2/3 storey land values are high  High tech personnel not  Foundation cost per unit required area will be more  Max possible use of  Absence of group living natural light
  • 21. Growth of town: (cont.) VERTICAL GROWTH:  Fire proofing, Sound proofing, Heat insulation. Air-conditioning,  Multi-storied buildings High speed lifts  Where land is less and costly  Disadvantages: Advantages:  Natural calamities, difficult to  Use of common amenities, sense escape of group living develops  More population density  Foundation cost per unit area is  Design of flats stereo-typed reasonable  Have to tolerate evils of group  Higher level floor enjoys natural living sceneries such as river view, sea view etc.  Failure of lift or water raising pump will cause great  Considerable saving in land inconvenience  Economy in construction cost,  Wastage of floor space, as lifts, repetition of typical floors supporting column etc have to be  Max use of modern construction provided techniques such as,
  • 22. Site for an ideal town: Availability of natural  Available facility of advantages sewage disposal Availability of electric  Soil fertility power  Frequency of floods Available means of  Growths of trees communication  Nature of soil Climatic conditions  Position of streams and Contours of area lakes Development of  Water resources, etc. surrounding area Drainage of area