TOWN PLANNING: Introduction Town Planning: “the It also includes ways and arrangement of various means to be adopted components or units of a for town in such a way that improvement/extension the town attains the of the existing towns significance of a living It helps in achieving the organism” best possible advantages of situation of town w.r.t its land and surrounding environment
Introduction: (cont.) Town Planning Final results shall be in demands such a way that, it Active imagination should be appreciated Understanding of by all the sectors of various needs of public society A well planned town Town planner has to carries out its activities Carryout researches in a normal way like a Prepare layout plans living organism
Introduction: (cont.) Town planning is a Science science as well as an • Collection art too • Correlation Both shall be used in • Analysis of facts about such a way that final town result is in form of Beautiful Art Convenient Economical • Arrangement of components Efficient unit
Town planning in Ancient India: Planning of towns was Location: river banks, done on scientific bases sea shore or by the side even in Vedic times of big lake Ancient literature such as Flowing stream: for vedas, puranas, shastras sanitary requirements contains some of Towns on river were principles and theories oblong shape, to take of town planning max advantage of river Nature and growth: Rivers: Indians always governed by site loved, glorified and conditions worshiped
Town planning in Ancient India: (cont.) ‘Vishwakarmaprakash’ Various types of town says ‘First layout the towns plans described in book and then plan out the such as houses’ ‘dandka’ ‘Mansara Shilpa-shastra’ ‘swastika’ mentions some of aspects ‘padmaka’ (lotus shaped) of town planning like ‘nandyavarta’ (flower Study of soil shaped) Climatic condition ‘prastara’ Wind direction ‘chatumukha’ Orientation of building ‘karmukha’ (bow shaped) Topography etc.
Town planning in Ancient India: (cont.) Typical Indian town Tanks consisted Reservoirs Markets Underground passages Streets City forts etc. Public buildings Some of towns worth Residences for cityzens mentioning are Temples Ayodhya Royal palace Mohanjo-daro Recreation centers Patliputra Ditches / trenches Takshsila Sheds for drinking water Nalanda etc. Pleasure gardens
Objects of town planning: Beauty Convenience • Various economic, social• Use of natural and recreational amenities surroundings to be given to public, such• Architectural finishes to as various components • Cheap power• Preservation of • Proper industrial sites trees/greenery • Transport facilities • Adequate water supply• Architectural control on • Easy sewage disposal public/semi-public • Open spaces/ parks/ town buildings, historic, halls/ play grounds/ ancient buildings etc. theatres etc.
Objects of town planning: (cont.) Health Environment • Right use of land for right• Complex problems in purpose urban living such as • Provide parks/ • Travel to work playgrounds for public • Long working hrs • Maintain pollution of various forms to lowest • Less/ no time for possible deg society • Achieved by dividing land• Better relation between into various zones man and environment resi/comm/ind etc shall be developed • Avoid encroachment of one zone upon the other
Principles of town planning: Green belt Recreation centers • As per town size, enough space shall be• Provision of it on periphery limits reserved the size of town Road system Housing • Efficient road lay-out • Simple and economical• Provide housing accommodation to various categories of people Transport facilities• Slum clearance by alt arrangement • Min loss of time from residence place to work place Public buildings Zoning• Should be well distributed • Town shall be divided in suitable zones• Central concentration of them • Suitable rules & regulations for each shall be avoided zone
Necessity of town planning: In absence of town Inadequate open planning, town faces spaces for parks and following kind of playgrounds, i.e. problems unhealthy living conditions Defective road system, Lack of essential narrow streets/ roads amenities like power, Development of slums water supply, drainage Haphazard location of Noisy atmosphere industries Uncontrolled Heavy traffic during development of town working hrs of day
Origin of towns: Topographical Functional• Conditions favorable for industrial units• Hilly areas - object • Education of defense • Health resorts• Plain area - business activities • political• River banks • religious• Sea / ocean fronts
Growth of town: Why people like to stay Growth of town close together in urban areas? Origin Direction To facilitate defense against attack from Natural Planned Horizontal outsiders Man is social animal, gets Concentric satisfaction of living life in spread Vertical company of his fellows Can develop many Ribbon development contacts, also can retain privacy Satellite Urban area provide facilities like water supply, market etc Scattered
Growth of town: (cont.) Concentric spread: CBD Natural tendency of LIG people to be as near as MIG possible to town, hence town develops in HIG concentric rings Many complicated problems such as CBD : Central business district LIG: Low income group Traffic congestion MIG: Middle income group Narrow streets HIG: High income group Concentration of population -Town grows radially -Similar or functionally related activities will be at same distance from center of town
Growth of town: (cont.) Ribbon development: Interior portion Everyone like to build as near as possible to Development main road Buildings develop Main Road along side of main road Development Long fingers or ribbons of houses/shops Interior portion develop
Growth of town: (cont.) Disadvantages: More pedestrians on main Increase in cost of various road causes traffic accidents/ utility services like water traffic delays supply, power, telephone etc Harms naturalness of country, Loose and scatter community – spoils countryside, lack of social life aesthetically faulty Costly and difficult future Measures to be taken: improvement Land use zoning Houses face heavy traffic, Regulation and control of noise, dust traffic Interior portion left Removal of encroachments undeveloped, wastage of land from road side Traffic capacity and efficiency Planning road side amenities of main road reduces Expressway with complete controlled access
Growth of town: (cont.) Satellite Satellite growth: town Term Satellite is used to indicate a body under the influence of a more Satellite powerful body but town possessing its own identity Satellite town
Growth of town: (cont.) Features of satellite town: Mainly residential area Own local government with only local shops, schools for children etc It is town itself, but it depends to a certain It need not have zoning extent upon parent city regulations Well connected by local It can be even considered trains, buses etc as part of market for goods and services being Free to decide its produced in parent city economic, social and cultural activities Disadvantage: Situated beyond green necessity of the journey to belt of parent city work Its neither a village nor a suburb
Growth of town: (cont.) Scattered growth: PLANNED GROWTH: Very irregular Growth is controlled by Traffic congestion suitable rules & regulations Encroachment of industries Rational distribution of on resi area various blocks such as resi/ comm/ industrial Slums Provision of various Lack of parks and amenities like water supply, playgrounds drainage, parks etc is Complex problems become made to meet future too difficult to be solved in requirements future Orderly growth avoids clashing of many activities of normal town
Growth of town: (cont.) HORIZONTAL GROWTH: Restricted density of Town develops horizontally population in all directions Surrounding marginal It is possible where land is space can be used to available in plenty at develop garden nominal cost Disadvantage: Advantages: Requires more land, so can Cost saving: buildings are be uneconomical where generally 2/3 storey land values are high High tech personnel not Foundation cost per unit required area will be more Max possible use of Absence of group living natural light
Growth of town: (cont.) VERTICAL GROWTH: Fire proofing, Sound proofing, Heat insulation. Air-conditioning, Multi-storied buildings High speed lifts Where land is less and costly Disadvantages: Advantages: Natural calamities, difficult to Use of common amenities, sense escape of group living develops More population density Foundation cost per unit area is Design of flats stereo-typed reasonable Have to tolerate evils of group Higher level floor enjoys natural living sceneries such as river view, sea view etc. Failure of lift or water raising pump will cause great Considerable saving in land inconvenience Economy in construction cost, Wastage of floor space, as lifts, repetition of typical floors supporting column etc have to be Max use of modern construction provided techniques such as,
Site for an ideal town: Availability of natural Available facility of advantages sewage disposal Availability of electric Soil fertility power Frequency of floods Available means of Growths of trees communication Nature of soil Climatic conditions Position of streams and Contours of area lakes Development of Water resources, etc. surrounding area Drainage of area
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