Presented by
Narendra Kumar
M.Tech (EE)
Roll no. 121660
contents
 Introduction.
 Overview of WSS.
 System components & description.
 Water treatment plant process & flow layo...
 Comprehensive water supply system design for the city.
 Population projection for the ultimate year & demand

forecast....
Overview of WSS.
 A water supply system or water supply network is a system

of engineering hydraulic & hydraulic compone...
System components &description
 Sources of water-surface & ground water

 Catchment-water supply & quality land use.
 P...
Water treatment process & flow
layout

 Treated methods-

 Flocculation/coagulation methods
 Filtration-to remove clay,...
Flow chart
Storage reservoirs & DN theories
 Objective-To store the clear treated water & to give

desired pressure in the distribut...
 Distribution network contains water pipelines, fitting

valves, service lines ,metering & fire hydrants.
 Two types of ...
 For DN gravity system is more reliable & pumping system

is provided for reliability.
 Selection of pipe material-It de...
 Joints & valves are used in the DN .
I.

Types of joints- Compression

II.

Mechanical.

III.

Flanged.

IV.

Solvent & ...
 Evaluating criteria Supply + storage must meet current daily demand.
 Intake capacity must be designed large enough to...
 For industrial & commercial consumers more pressure is

required ,so for that purpose maximum DP should be
80psi. Pumps ...
 gate valves
 Butterfly

 pressure reducing valves.

Scope of thesis work
 Study existing situations.
 Analyzing t he gap assessment ( demand & population forecasting)

 Fu...
Work progress- Tonk cityRajasthan
 City profile-existing water supply situations in the city.
s.no.

Description

Data

1...
Tonk is a district headquarter located 100km far away from
the state capital Jaipur on the NH-12 (Jaipur Kota NH.)
Surroun...
1

Sources of water

Ground & underground water( banas
river tube wells

2

Tube wells,
Seasonal lack perennial river.

24...
Existing water supply system
 There is no treatment plant of

water except
chlorination using bleaching powder. PHED is
r...
Population projection & water
demand
 Demography-The town witnessed high population

growth (average CAGR 2.71 percent) d...
Compound annual growth rate
Year

Population

Compounded
Annual
Growth Rate (CAGR)

1901
1911
1921
1931
1941
1951
1961
197...
Water demand calculation& methods-incremental
increase method is preferred here because results are
coming more appropriat...
• Total water demand for the year 2016-2046
The total daily demand to meet the intermediate year (2031)
population and ult...
Gap analysis in present year &
ultimate year

Year 2011

Year 2046

Total water demand= 26.33

Total water demand=44.96mld...
Distribution network coverage it should be
90% 0f the total road length.
1

Existing total road length

363km

2

Existing...
Issues & challenges of WSS in the city


Water supply is major concern of town and at present water is supplied @ 72 LPCD...
Future strategy & water supply goals
 Banas river, bisulpur dam & some chambal project are the future sources .

 The st...









Extension of water Supply services to uncovered areas
Cost recovery mechanism
Efficiency in operation and ...
Way forward
 Preliminary data collection has been completed.

 Fly level survey completed to reduce RL.
 Design work wi...
References
1.

2.
3.

Water supply system & evaluation methods volume-I water supply system concepts
FEMA, U.S.fire admini...
CPHEEO guidelines & design criteria for WSS.
Bisulpur water supply system design details report under RUIDP scheme.
Dion, ...
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Narendra Kumar_NIT warangal

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this is the presentation based on live project analysis & existing situation framework of the city which is being selected for water supply design, methods & results are based on the calculation standardized by the ministry of urban development CPHEEO.

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Narendra Kumar_NIT warangal

  1. 1. Presented by Narendra Kumar M.Tech (EE) Roll no. 121660
  2. 2. contents  Introduction.  Overview of WSS.  System components & description.  Water treatment plant process & flow layout.  Storage reservoirs & distribution network theories.  Selection of pipe material for distribution & conveying mains.  Scope of thesis work.  Tonk city profile & existing situation-data collection.
  3. 3.  Comprehensive water supply system design for the city.  Population projection for the ultimate year & demand forecast.  Gap study analysis between present & future demand.  Issues & challenges in water supply system in the city.  future strategies & adequacy.  Way forward.  Analysis of non revenue water.
  4. 4. Overview of WSS.  A water supply system or water supply network is a system of engineering hydraulic & hydraulic components which provide cleaned & aesthetic quality supply of water to the human beings.  A set of hydraulic pumps, storage reservoirs, filtration unit, pumping stations & elevated reservoirs including distribution network pipelines & consumer metering.  Description also includes-water quality standards, availability of water sources, appropriate flow rate, pressure are needed for effective use.
  5. 5. System components &description  Sources of water-surface & ground water  Catchment-water supply & quality land use.  Pumping or gravity system withdrawing water from source.  Water treatment plant.  Storage reservoirs ( CWR & ESR)  Distribution network.  User-general public potable.
  6. 6. Water treatment process & flow layout  Treated methods-  Flocculation/coagulation methods  Filtration-to remove clay, silts, natural OM, Fe & Mg.  Ion exchange-to remove excess fluoride, Ar, nitrates, hard water treatment.  Disinfection(chlorination/ ozonation)  Absorption – through activated carbon removing organic contaminants, unwanted coloring, taste & odour.
  7. 7. Flow chart
  8. 8. Storage reservoirs & DN theories  Objective-To store the clear treated water & to give desired pressure in the distribution line for every consumer.  Treated water is pumped to a storage tank, those are elevated( ESR-OHSR , CWR & GSR)  ST serves two purposes-I. store water until it is needed which reduces the peak demand on the treatment facility .II.ESR creates pressure in the WDN.
  9. 9.  Distribution network contains water pipelines, fitting valves, service lines ,metering & fire hydrants.  Two types of distribution network are:  I . Loop system. II. Branch system- parallel & series.  Loop system are more desirable because it provide redundancy due to installed isolation valves , these valves creates flow more than one direction, if leak occurs no need to shut down entire system.  Whereas in branch if leak occurs entire system must be shutdown to repair a leak.
  10. 10.  For DN gravity system is more reliable & pumping system is provided for reliability.  Selection of pipe material-It depends on the topographical land use pattern & feasibility of the system. CPHEO & EPA guidelines decide the size standard, material of the pipes.  Pipe materials-ductile iron, plastics (HDPE/PVC)  Reinforced concrete, steel, Cast Iron or asbestos cement.  SDR-standard dimensions ratio is used – it is the ratio of pipe diameter to pipe wall thickness.  Pipe strength depends on the size, thickness, load, trench, depth & pressure.
  11. 11.  Joints & valves are used in the DN . I. Types of joints- Compression II. Mechanical. III. Flanged. IV. Solvent & soldered.  Types of valves used- I. Gate/ butterfly/swing. II. Check valves( permit water flow in one direction only) III. Automatic valves. IV. Pressure reducing valves & solenoid. V. Altitude valves ( control flow into &out of a storage tank) VI. Solenoid pilot valves ( electric current)
  12. 12.  Evaluating criteria Supply + storage must meet current daily demand.  Intake capacity must be designed large enough to handle demand. It must be reliable .  Pumping capacity should be reliable .  Design life of pumping network -40 to 50 years.  Large mains size-12” sub mains size-6” or 8”  Typical distribution pressure-65-75psi, designed for <150psi.  Iron pipe should not be > 150 psi pressure can cause leak & damage to the system.  Consumer-for residential minimum pressure should be 40psi.pressure reducing valve are used for this purpose.
  13. 13.  For industrial & commercial consumers more pressure is required ,so for that purpose maximum DP should be 80psi. Pumps can be used to increase pressure.  Adequate supply of pure drinkable water with uniform pressure & flow rate are main objective.  Drinkable water should be appetizing & tempting, colorless, clear, cold, odorless & perfectly fresh with regards to taste.  Design for <150psi smooth interior pipes surface, cement lining or coating are to reduce pitting & corrosion associated with iron pipe line.
  14. 14.  gate valves  Butterfly  pressure reducing valves. 
  15. 15. Scope of thesis work  Study existing situations.  Analyzing t he gap assessment ( demand & population forecasting)  Future sustainability for next 30 years demand.  Feasibility study.  Proposals & identifications.  Water supply system technologies.wtp methods.  Economics of the technologies.  Design of wtp, DN-design, selection of pipe material,  Economics of transmission  Metering & connections.  Costing & estimation of the project.
  16. 16. Work progress- Tonk cityRajasthan  City profile-existing water supply situations in the city. s.no. Description Data 1 Area of the city 70.12 sq.km 2 Population as per 2011 census 1,65,363 3 Growth rate(2001-2011) CAGR 2% 4 Population density/sq.km 20,816 Persons/sq.km. 5 Sex ratio 1000:949 6 Work force participation ratio 81.80% 7 SC/ST Population 20,891 8 No. of wards 45 9 Town elevation 274.32 10 ULB status Municipal council 11 Total road length 363km 12 Existing road network 252.85km
  17. 17. Tonk is a district headquarter located 100km far away from the state capital Jaipur on the NH-12 (Jaipur Kota NH.) Surrounded by Aravali hills region on the northern side Average altitude. 1 Average altitude 300 meter from MSL. 2 Latitude 26 degree 3 East longitude 75degree47’ 4 Topography level 5 Elevation Almost flat town with rocky but rugged hills. 274.32metre above sea level. 6 Shape of the town 7 Climate 8 humidity Relatively very low. 9 Average rainfall 638mm. 90% rainfall During June to Sept. Kite or rhombus with its eastern & western sides Dry in south western monsoon starts at June &ended till September.
  18. 18. 1 Sources of water Ground & underground water( banas river tube wells 2 Tube wells, Seasonal lack perennial river. 24 open wells sunk in the banas river bed, other sources are underground water through 37 tube wells created at various locations in the city. 3 Alternate major source for future Bisulpur dam. 4 Bisulpur dam storage capacity 115.50 cubic meter 5 Presently water supply through bisulpur Jaipur , Ajmer,Deoli, Beawar,Kishangarh. Three seasonal rivers are available Banas,Mashi, Sahodara.
  19. 19. Existing water supply system  There is no treatment plant of water except chlorination using bleaching powder. PHED is responsible for planning, design & development of water supply schemes. Description Value Source of water supply BW & OW No. of bore wells 66 No. of functioning open wells - Average ground water level 35-40 m Quantity supplied daily 12 MLD Length of transmission main 103.6 km Length of distribution mains 252 km No. of storage reservoirs 7 Total Storage capacity 6.60 ML Rate of supply 54 lpcd Total house service connections 15074 Maintenance staff available 42
  20. 20. Population projection & water demand  Demography-The town witnessed high population growth (average CAGR 2.71 percent) during 1971-2011
  21. 21. Compound annual growth rate Year Population Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Nos. 38,759 33,864 30,374 35,798 38,650 42,833 43,413 55,866 77,653 100,079 135,689 165,363 % (1.34) (1.08) 1.66 0.77 1.03 0.13 2.55 3.35 2.57 3.09 2.00
  22. 22. Water demand calculation& methods-incremental increase method is preferred here because results are coming more appropriate. Methods Arithmetical method Geometrical method Incremental method Year 2015 Increase 173,458 2020 183,663 2030 204,073 2033 210,196 2045 234,688 increase 176,608 191,845 226,377 237,902 290,172 increase 175,083 188,626 220,066 230,630 278,109
  23. 23. • Total water demand for the year 2016-2046 The total daily demand to meet the intermediate year (2031) population and ultimate year population i.e., 2046are 35.58 MLD and 44.96 MLD respectively Census year Population Demand @135lpcd (MLD) Floating pop@40lpc d (MLD) Total demand in (MLD) 23.98 Water losses 15%@13.5lpc d (MLD) 3.597 2016 177,676 0.710 28.28 2021 191,509 25.85 3.877 0.766 30.49 2025 203,620 27.48 4.122 0.814 32.41 2031 223,529 30.17 4.525 0.8940 35.58 2035 237962 32.12 4.818 0.951 37.88 2041 261,354 35.28 5.292 0.104 40.67 2046 282,443 38.12 5.718 1.129 44.96
  24. 24. Gap analysis in present year & ultimate year Year 2011 Year 2046 Total water demand= 26.33 Total water demand=44.96mld Total storage capacity=9.212ml Total storage capacity=15.73mld Gap between demand=44.96-26.33=18.63mld is required to fill up the gap.
  25. 25. Distribution network coverage it should be 90% 0f the total road length. 1 Existing total road length 363km 2 Existing distribution network coverage 252.85km 3 For 90% coverage of total road length is required 326.7km 4 Gap between existing & proposing 73.85km 5 So the required DN 73.85km
  26. 26. Issues & challenges of WSS in the city  Water supply is major concern of town and at present water is supplied @ 72 LPCD No master plan of water supply exists for the entire TMC area incorporating proposal for the future population growth  The problem with the existing distribution system is non-uniform supply. Many areas do not receive water while some area receives water scantly.  High amounts of distribution losses averaging to about 40 percent due to old distribution network. In addition, unauthorized tapings are found to be more. Due to pipe incrustation and scaling, the carrying capacities of the pipes have greatly reduced.  Poor performance of pumping mains due to corrosion, formation of scales etc., resulting in extra load on the pumps, which needs immediate replacement. Sucking using electric motors from the distribution mains is a common affair  New developing areas needs to be considered I. Ground water is not potable. II. Capacity of service reservoir is not sufficient and their locations can’t serve the community equally with adequate pressure.
  27. 27. Future strategy & water supply goals  Banas river, bisulpur dam & some chambal project are the future sources .  The state, therefore, has to depend on water from inter-state river basins where total 14.50 MAF water has been allocated to the state from various inter-state river basins agreements.  The goal of GoR in water supply sector is that potable water shall be made available to the entire population of the state within 150 m from their door step at affordable cost. In order to achieve this goal, GOR has a well thought strategy for water sector that include the following components. The same will be more relevant to the present project town also. Water Resource Management .  Already 31 mld water is sanctioned for tonk city from bisulpur dam project.it will fulfil the demad of water supply for future.
  28. 28.        Extension of water Supply services to uncovered areas Cost recovery mechanism Efficiency in operation and maintenance Replacement of old machinery and network systems. Capacity building of staff. Reduce transmission and distribution losses. Shift the source of water supply from ground water to surface water, wherever possible  Non revenue water reduction must be carried NRW is water loss, difference between demand & supply due to water losses & pumping static & dynamic losses.  Suppose we are producing 20MLD water through consumer metering, only 15MLD water is billing. So. Remaining 5MLD is the NRW.  Reduction of NRW is also main objective in WSS.
  29. 29. Way forward  Preliminary data collection has been completed.  Fly level survey completed to reduce RL.  Design work will be carried out meanwhile detail feasibility report for the city is going on.  Feasibility report for WSS & flow analysis is carried out.  Detail design will complete from now onwards.  A comprehensive wss is required for the city.
  30. 30. References 1. 2. 3. Water supply system & evaluation methods volume-I water supply system concepts FEMA, U.S.fire administration. Frank R. Spellman, Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, Second Edition (2008), p. 8. 4. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (2004). "Primer for Municipal 5. Waste water Treatment Systems." Document no. EPA 832-R-04-001. Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (1972). Wastewater Engineering. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1. "Safe Water System", US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Fact Sheet, World Water Forum 4 Update, June 2006. 8. "Household Water Treatment Guide", Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology, Canada, March 2008.
  31. 31. CPHEEO guidelines & design criteria for WSS. Bisulpur water supply system design details report under RUIDP scheme. Dion, T. (2002). Land development for civil engineers (2nd Ed.). New York: John Wiley &Sons  11. Lindeburg, M. (2008). Civil engineering reference manual for the PE exam (11th Document no. EPA 832-R-04-001.)  Web search:  USDA at http://www.ks.nrcs.usda.gov/news/highlights/2006_april.html  NASA at http://www.ghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/surface_hydrology/water_management.ht ml  NOAA at http://www.csc.noaa.gov/alternatives/infrastructure.html  www.istock.com.  The Groundwater Foundation at www.groundwater.org  USGS at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2004/3069/  EPA at http://www.epa.gov/region02/superfund/npl/mohonkroad/images.html.
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