Research and collection of data
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Research and collection of data Presentation Transcript

  • 1. RESEARCH AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  • 2. CHAPTER 1)RESEARCH 2)METHOD OF COLLECTED DATA 3)MEARUREMENT SCALE
  • 3. RESEARCH COLLECTED THE DATA MEASUREMENT OF SCALETHIS IS RESEARCH
  • 4. CHAPTER 1: RESEARCH
  • 5. WHAT IS RESEARCH OR SEARCH?
  • 6.  SEARCH IS ONE TIME PROCESS . AND RESEARCH IS SEARCHING THE DATA AGAIN AND AGAIN ON CONTINOUS BASIS.
  • 7. WHAT IS RESEARCH?
  • 8.  The main of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and not yet discover It is process from known to the unknown It is systematic efforts to gain some knowledge
  • 9. In simple word research mean search again and again in a systematic manner for collected information on pre-determined topic.
  • 10. OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH To know the truth To collected the information To increase the knowledge To know the answer of the question
  • 11. TYPE OF RESEARCH Basically four type of research 1)descriptive vs analytical 2)applied vs fundamental 3)quantitative vs qualitative 4)conceptual vs empirical
  • 12. DESCRIPTIVE VS ANALYTICAL In this we can describe  In this we can analysis the situation the situation For describe the  For analysis data , data situation ,we collected will be already the data through available(historical data) different collection methods  For example-population data For ex-human behavior
  • 13. APPLIED VS FUNDAMENTAL Applied research is  Fundamental basically basically aim to find a concerned with solution for immediate generalization and problem facing by a formulation of theory. society and organization.
  • 14. QUANTITATIVE VS QUALITATIVE Quantitative technique  Qualitative technique generally generally used to measured used to measured the the quantity and quality or preference of amount consumer
  • 15. CONCEPTUAL VS EMPIRICAL It is based on some  it is relies on concept , idea and individuals researcher theory. this is basically and oneself used by philosopher observation without and researcher to built regard any theory and new concept system
  • 16. PROCESS OF RESEARCH Design Research formulate Review the research Problems Hypothesi Literature & Sample s& design Objectives Interpret data Analyse Data Collect & Report & Test data Writing Hypothesis
  • 17. CHAPTER 2: METHOD OF COLLECTED DATA
  • 18. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN METHOD VS METHODOLOGY?
  • 19. METHODS VS METHODOLOGY1)Questioner  Methodology is a2)Interview technique that give the3)Schedule detail which method is4)Observation relevant for which condition and where they effectivelya)Internal source applicable.b)External source
  • 20.  Basically two type of data collection method 1)primary data collection 2)secondary data collection
  • 21. 1) Primary data: The primary data are those which collected fresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character. 2) Secondary data: The secondary data are those which have already collected by someone else and it is historical based data.
  • 22. PRIMARY DATA(FEATURES) Fresh data First hand data Original data Current data More expensive, time consumed
  • 23. SECONDARY DATA(FEATURES) Passed through many hands Old (historical) data Not original Less time consume Less cost
  • 24. METHOD OF COLLECTED PRIMARY DATA There are four method 1) questionary method 2) interviews method 3) observation method 4) schedules method
  • 25. OBSERVATION METHOD In simple observation involves planning, selection, watching, understanding and then recording.
  • 26. INTERVIEW METHOD  An interview is a conversation between two people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee.
  • 27.  Questionnaires and schedules
  • 28. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SCHEDULE AND QUESTIONNAIRESchedule QuestionnaireDirect method of primary data Indirect Method of primary datacollection collectionDirect contact with respondent Response may be through post onlyLimited geographical area Largely dispersed areaHigh degree of reliability Less reliableHigh response to question Low responseHigh cost and time required Low costly and less time consuming
  • 29.  Secondary data
  • 30. Secondary data means data that are already available and which have already collected and analyzed by someone else. COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATASources of secondary Data: Sources Internal External Company Accounting Computerized Data Records Bases Company reports Reports of association In house Journal Govt. Publication Internal Computer Others publication databases Books/publi/projects reports
  • 31. CHAPTER 3:MEARUREMENT OF SCALE
  • 32. WHAT IS THE NEED OF MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE
  • 33.  The term measurement means assigning numbers or some other symbols to the characteristics of certain objects. When numbers are used the researcher must have a rule for assigning a number to an observation in a way that provides an accurate description. There are two reasons for which numbers are usually assigned .1) Number permits statistical analysis of the data.2) They facilitate the communication of measurement results.3) For ex: preference of consumer
  • 34. TYPES OF MEASUREMENT SCALE1) Nominal scale2) Ordinal scale3) Interval Scale4) Ratio ScaleSelf Rating Scale1) Graphic Rating Scale2) Itemized Rating Scale
  • 35. NOMINAL SCALE It basically assign the number. It doesn’t give any order or priorities to individual. For ex: . What is your gender? a) Male b) Female 3.In Which department do you worka) Marketing [1]b) HR [2]c) IT [3]d) Operation [4]
  • 36. ORDINAL SCALE In this type of scaling we can order or give priorities to the individual one. - If there are 4 different types of fertilizers and if they are ordered on the basis of quality as Grade A, Grade B, Grade C, Grade D .
  • 37. ORDINAL VS INTERVAL Ordinal basically give  But this assumption will order but it does not be cover by interval. The mean that interval time interval time is equal in will be equal in all levels all interval level For ex:  They have one difficulty If ram position in his of comparison. class is 10 and sham is 40. it doesn’t said that ram position is four time goods than sham..
  • 38. INTERVAL VS RATIO SCALE But this assumption will  Easy to compare be cover by interval. The interval time is  Easy to calculate equal in all interval level They have one difficulty of comparison.
  • 39. SELF RATING SCALEThe dictionary meaning “ construct your own rating scales to gather data on certain program outcomes”.Self rating scale are;1) Graphic Rating2) Itemized rating scalea) Likert scaleb) Semantic Differential scalec) Stapels scaled) Multidimensional scalee) Thurston scalesf) Guttman Scaleg) The Q sort techniq
  • 40. THANK YOU