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Learning Objectives1. The Difference Between Objective and Subjective Assessments2. Importance of Validity and Reliability of Assessment ToolsPractice (10A’s):3. Incorporating Assessments into Counseling4. Effective Client Debriefing and Action Planning
Over half of all Counselors Make This Mistake Tell
Career Counseling Stages • Self Assessment • Occupational Exploration • Decision Making Facilitate • Job Hunting • Work Adjustment
Integrative Career Assessments• These programs combine interests, abilities, and values assessments • Kuder Career Planning System • COPSystem • Integrated assessment and career information systems • These systems include multiple assessments as well as an integration of occupational information • DISCOVER Program • SIGI-Plus
Career AssessmentØ Assessments rather than “tests”. Designed tomeasure aspects of individuality not achievement,abilities, or intelligence.Ø Increase client participation and client confidenceØ Assessment provides focus and suggestion intoclient’s exploration of the world of work andopportunityØ Objective & Subjective Assessments
Career AssessmentØ Many clients expectations of career counseling revolvearound “testing” and the “tests”Ø Historical record of usefulness for career decisionmakersØ Assessments are not used by anyone other than thecounselor and client and are confidentialØ Assessments give suggestions, but should not tell clientswhat to do, clients make the decisionØ Counselors select, administer, and interpret careerassessment instruments to assist clients in occupationalexploration and career decision making.
Objective & Subjective Assessments• Gather reliable information for initial self-analysis.• Build self-esteem by recognizing unique strengths and skills.• Provide a springboard for discussion and enhanced self-awareness.• Form the basis for targeted career, industry, and workplace exploration.• Aid in the decision-making and action plan stages.
Objective Assessments• Constructed by Assessment Experts• Unbiased, impartial responses• Examples: • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), • the Golden Personality Type Profiler (GPTP), • Keirsey Temperament Sorter, • the Holland Self-Directed Search (SDS), • other assessments built on the time-tested and well- respected Holland RIASEC model.
What does personality have to do with careers?• John Holland studied people and careers.• He found that people who had a career that matched their personality were happier.
Other Assessments with RIASEC Output• The O*NET Computerized Interest Profiler (for Windows), which you can download atwww.onetcenter.org/CIP.html• http://www.careersportal.ie/ careerguidance_toolbox.php
Let’s see how we do!• As a group, tape your 6 occupation cards under the corresponding personality• Example:What Holland Code do you think a __________is most like?
Psychometric Testing (Workplace Application)• Example of when testing may be appropriate: • If the desired job role requires a certain level of basic skill e.g. literacy or numeracy • Dyslexia assessment, if you notice difficulty in doing some tasks at work • If the client has no idea of the type of role they would like to do or be best suited to • If a client’s career or job seeking abilities appear to be affected by a change in their cognitive abilities e.g. memory functioning, emotional regulation
MeasuresAchievement – designed to measure how much anindividual has learned. (Past)Ability – measures the maximum performance andthe level of present ability an individual has toperform a current task. (Present)Aptitude – reveals the probable future level of abilityto perform a task. (Future) Past/achievement Present/Ability Future/Aptitude
Subjective Assessments• Constructed by Counselors and even Clients• Feelings-based, visioning input• Equally valuable information as Objective Assessments• Consistency comparison between Objective and Subjective can verify results• Examples: • Questionnaires, exercises • journaling • guided imagery
MeasuresReliability – consistent resultsValidity – measuring what it says it measures
Example –SAT Scholastic Aptitude Test1. Is the SAT an Objective or Subjective?2. Is the SAT an Achievement or an Aptitude (for college) test?3. Is the SAT valid?4. Is the SAT reliable?
Example –SAT Scholastic Aptitude Test• Objective, but never proven to predict future college success, numerous studies show grades are superior predictors.• The SAT was really an achievement test.• The SAT is not valid because it measures achievement rather than predicting future success (aptitude).• Prep courses dramatically increase scores on the SAT.• The SAT is not reliable because individuals can have inconsistent results from different sittings.• The SAT is, however, a goldmine for the College Board’s ETS, is defended by powerful lobbyists at all levels of government and education.• Psychometrically, a poor test; economically a boon.
Counselor Use of Assessments 1. Selection or Prescription 2. Administration 3. Interpretation
Structure of a Counseling Call • 1) At Ease • 2) Agenda • 3) Active Listening • 4) Asking Powerful Questions • 5) Acknowledgement • 6) Action ~ Accountability • 7) Applause
(3+7) 10 A’s1. At Ease: Putting the client at ease by creating trust and intimacy2. Agenda: 2: overall agenda that will put the client on a path of lifelong fulfillment, the big “A” agenda (or, the life agenda); and the little “a” agenda, or immediate agenda for call3. Active Listening: Interactively listening to and with the client4. Asking Powerful Questions: Asking questions that bring forth new insights, ideas, empowerment, and action5. Acknowledgement: Acknowledging the client’s strengths, resourcefulness, wholeness6. Action ~ Accountability: clarify actions that will lead to agreed-upon results It is the client’s responsibility to take action, not yours. Inquire about how the client wants to hold him/herself accountable7. Applause: Celebrating successes and wins, even in the midst of “failure”
Practice1. Greet the client warmly & establish rapport2. Explain Confidentiality3. Establish an Agenda for the Counseling Call Agenda
PracticeGroups of three – Counselor, Client, ObserverSpend five minutes interviewing, using open endedquestions to “10 Truths,” Holland Code, and VisioningObservers record good “powerful questions” to reportback Awareness
Action• What will that mean for you/others? What do you want/ need? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________• On a scale of 1-10, how committed are you to making that happen? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________• What is the right action to take at this time? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________