Artificial Reef    ProjectMarine & Community Values
Background•   Increase in water-based tourism activity    in Tyre vs. traditional users•   Conflict and competition for li...
TyMMA Tyre Marine Management Area:A Pilot Artificial Reef project and      Marine Protected Area
Tyre Artificial Reef ObjectiveTo contribute to national and local development,Particularly in the fisheries and tourism se...
Unique Consultative  and Participatory       Process                   •Clean slate•Multiple stakeholder meetings: governm...
Financial   Arrangements•User fees: SCUBA diving, snorkeling and flora            conservation (mooring)          •Install...
What can Purple Reef Do?•   Scientific research on the natural resources of the area•   Regular monitoring of the reef’s l...
What will TyMMA         Committee Do•   Promotion of technologies that are appropriate and    linked with local environmen...
A Set of Goals•   Co-existence of users with minimal conflict•   Support the locals, improve the local economy, highlight ...
Threats to be contained and                      controlled•   Sedimentation and Sewage•   Overuse of certain dive sites (...
New Developments/ChallengesSpread the MarineManagement Area projectsProposed new greenecological hotel developmentin the T...
Zoning Arrangements•   Marine Reserves•   Fishing Priority Areas•   Mooring Areas•   Recreational Areas•   Multiple Use Ar...
The setting up of ARs to attract fish in                Mediterranean goes         back to around 3,000 years ago         ...
IMO-UNEP 2008OSPAR 1999                               UNEP-MAP 2005                                                       ...
GUIDELINES PURPOSEAssessing proposals for the placement of ARs on the basis of scientifically sound criteria anddeveloping...
MEDITERRANEAN SEA ARTIFICIAL REEF           NETWORK                         Spain                         France          ...
GREECE CASE STUDY                  Construction of ARs started in 1999     MULTIANNUAL PROGRAM FOR FISHERY DEVELOPMENT    ...
GREECE CASE STUDY       AR CONSTRUCTION PROCEDUREFeasibility study           Environmental features                       ...
GREECE CASE STUDYFOUR Existing ARs (2000-06)   SIX New positions identified  Ministry of Agriculture       Feasibility Stu...
ARs in Mediterranean have been developed over 40 years with        different aims •   nature conservation and restoration ...
Highlights•   Research has strongly contributed to the AR success; better understanding of the many    challenges offered ...
To Avoid•   Toxic Materials    The use of toxic materials is a common mistake when building an artificial    coral reef. T...
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Tyre ar slides_n_f

  1. 1. Artificial Reef ProjectMarine & Community Values
  2. 2. Background• Increase in water-based tourism activity in Tyre vs. traditional users• Conflict and competition for limited space and resources among various users and uses• Degradation of resources; loss of economic opportunity; threat of violence!• Initial unsuccessful effort by Department of Fisheries
  3. 3. TyMMA Tyre Marine Management Area:A Pilot Artificial Reef project and Marine Protected Area
  4. 4. Tyre Artificial Reef ObjectiveTo contribute to national and local development,Particularly in the fisheries and tourism sectors,Management of the Tyre coastal zone,Establish sustainable use, co-operation among resourceusers, institutional collaboration, active andenlightened local participation, and equitable sharingof benefits and responsibilities among stakeholders.
  5. 5. Unique Consultative and Participatory Process •Clean slate•Multiple stakeholder meetings: governmental, non- governmental, community-based persons •Representation/mobilisation of groups •Various site visits •Scientific studies and popular knowledge •No time line
  6. 6. Financial Arrangements•User fees: SCUBA diving, snorkeling and flora conservation (mooring) •Installation of moorings •Sale of souvenirs •Coffee shop •Donations •Grants
  7. 7. What can Purple Reef Do?• Scientific research on the natural resources of the area• Regular monitoring of the reef’s life, water quality and other environmental factors and resources• Public information and sensitization• Provision of facilities for users of the TyMMA, e.g. moorings• Coordination of economic activities related to the TyMMA and its resources
  8. 8. What will TyMMA Committee Do• Promotion of technologies that are appropriate and linked with local environmental, social and cultural aspects of the TyMMA• Surveillance and enforcement of rules and regulations• Conflict resolution among the various user groups whenever necessary• Maintenance of the principles of ongoing participation and public consultation
  9. 9. A Set of Goals• Co-existence of users with minimal conflict• Support the locals, improve the local economy, highlight the cultural heritage• Increases in fish stocks, in marine reserves and fishing areas and reflection of these increases in fishermen’s catches• Self-sustainability with regards to operating costs• International recognition• Community support• Enhanced awareness and sensitization
  10. 10. Threats to be contained and controlled• Sedimentation and Sewage• Overuse of certain dive sites (localized congestion)• Non-compliance with rules and regulations by fishers from communities adjacent to Tyre• Lenient penalties• Inadequate consultation regarding development activity or inadequate and/or untimely action when reports are made• Late payment of user fees
  11. 11. New Developments/ChallengesSpread the MarineManagement Area projectsProposed new greenecological hotel developmentin the TyMMA, includingmarinaInternational ConservationSiteSedimentation &wastewater, coupled withthe compounding effects ofstorm events and Globalwarming
  12. 12. Zoning Arrangements• Marine Reserves• Fishing Priority Areas• Mooring Areas• Recreational Areas• Multiple Use Areas
  13. 13. The setting up of ARs to attract fish in Mediterranean goes back to around 3,000 years ago The rocks used as anchors for the tuna fishery nets in the Mediterranean Sea were left on the seabed at the end of each fishing season, accumulated over time and made new rocky habitats populated by benthic fauna and fish which were exploited by local fishermen during the intervals between the fishing tuna seasonsIn the middle of the 17th century artificial reefs were used in Japan under various shapes for fish attraction. Modern concept of “Artificial Reef” USA 1800s Europe 1900s
  14. 14. IMO-UNEP 2008OSPAR 1999 UNEP-MAP 2005 London Convention andGuidelines on Artificial Reefs in Guidelines for the Placement Protocol / UNEP guidelines forrelation to Living Marine Resources 1999 at Sea of Matter the placement of ARs for Purpose other than mere Disposal (Construction of Artificial Reefs) AR DEFINITION AR is a submerged structure deliberately placed on the seabed to mimic some functions of a natural Materials, design, placement, reef, such as protecting, administrative action, regenerating, concentrating and/or monitoring, scientific enhancing populations of living experiments, management and marine resources liabilities The term EXCLUDES artificial islands, cables, pipelines, platforms, mooring, and other structures for coastal defense (e.g. breakwaters)
  15. 15. GUIDELINES PURPOSEAssessing proposals for the placement of ARs on the basis of scientifically sound criteria anddeveloping an appropriate regulatory frameworkImplementing regulations on the AR constructionPreventing of pollution or degradation of the marine environment as a consequence of wastedeployment
  16. 16. MEDITERRANEAN SEA ARTIFICIAL REEF NETWORK Spain France Principality of Monaco Italy Albania Greece Turkey Cyprus Malta Tunisia
  17. 17. GREECE CASE STUDY Construction of ARs started in 1999 MULTIANNUAL PROGRAM FOR FISHERY DEVELOPMENT Protection and management of fisheries resourcesMINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE Construction, monitoring and funding Site identification before 2004 after 2004 MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE LOCAL FISHERY ASSOCIATIONS, through Local Prefectures
  18. 18. GREECE CASE STUDY AR CONSTRUCTION PROCEDUREFeasibility study Environmental features Local Fish assemblage Existence of sensitive areas or areas under specific regimesPermissions by all Dependence of the area on fisheries Socio-economic aspects of local fisheriesauthoritiescompetent in sea Archaeological Authoritymanagement Ministry of Maritime Affairs Ministry of Environment Hydrographical National Authority Ichthyologic study Oceanographic studyAdditional studies Construction study Environmental impact studyAR deployment Oceanographic investigations Fish assemblage inside and outside the AR Benthic colonization of the structures Landing monitoring program at the nearest fishing ports5-year monitoring program
  19. 19. GREECE CASE STUDYFOUR Existing ARs (2000-06) SIX New positions identified Ministry of Agriculture Feasibility Study Local Prefectures Surface: 8-10 km2 Surface: 10 km2
  20. 20. ARs in Mediterranean have been developed over 40 years with different aims • nature conservation and restoration • fish stock enhancement • fishery management and improvement • aquaculture • research • recreation
  21. 21. Highlights• Research has strongly contributed to the AR success; better understanding of the many challenges offered by ARs for the conservation and sustainable use of the marine environment and its resources.• Development of several guidelines aimed to assist in AR construction and avoid dumping in the European seas.• Unambiguous definition of AR. Plus common protocols for the AR deployment and the assessment of their effectiveness and impacts.• In spite of the recent developments, National and/or Regional programs for AR deployment are only in force in most of countries overlooking the Mediterranean Sea, while only few of these programs have been developed in the other European Regions (Portugal and Spain) up to now.• Adoption of overall regional/national programs is strongly recommended in the view of overall plans based on a holistic approach to fisheries and nature conservation within the coastal zone.• At the same time, research and cooperation among researchers should continue to fully understand how the ARs work and how they can be manipulated to get desired biological and socio-economic products.• In fact, the key of acceptance of AR concept still depends on research and dissemination of knowledge among the managers of the marine environment and users.
  22. 22. To Avoid• Toxic Materials The use of toxic materials is a common mistake when building an artificial coral reef. This greatly pollutes the habitat and nullifies any benefit artificial reefs have to wildlife.• Damage to Nests Artificial reefs often do not reach the weight requirement necessary to keep them in one place. They are known to float along the sea floor, damaging wildlife and often disturbing or destroying nests.• Ocean Dumping Many times, artificial reefs will be chained to light buoys or not be sufficiently chained at all. In addition, some of these reefs are poorly constructed. Both of these factors greatly increase the amount of ocean dumping each year.• Vessel Collision There are a number of artificial reefs being placed and mounted without any sort of marker on the surface of the water. This prevents boats and fishing vessels from avoiding them and they can do damage to the vessels and the surrounding real reefs.• Example Cleaned and sanitized military tanks have been used to construct artificial reefs. Some worry that toxicity due to firing heavy artillery could damage the environment, but those that are sanitized properly make suitable reefs
  23. 23. Thank you
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