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Noncomparative scaling techniques
 

Noncomparative scaling techniques

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    Noncomparative scaling techniques Noncomparative scaling techniques Presentation Transcript

    • Measurement and Scaling:Noncomparative Scaling Techniques Narayanan Palani
    • • Respondents evaluate only one object at a time, and for this reason noncomparative scales are often referred to as monadic scales.• Noncomparative techniques consist of continuous and itemized rating scales.
    • Classification Noncomparative Rating Scales Continuous ItemizedRating Scales Rating Scales Semantic Stapel Likert Differential
    • Continuous Rating ScaleRespondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other.The form of the continuous scale may vary considerably.How would you rate Sears as a department store?Version 1Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Probably the bestVersion 2Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - Probably the best0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Version 3 Very bad Neither good Very good nor badProbably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Probably the best0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 4
    • Itemized Rating Scales• The respondents are provided with a scale that has a number or brief description associated with each category.• The categories are ordered in terms of scale position, and the respondents are required to select the specified category that best describes the object being rated.• The commonly used itemized rating scales are the Likert, semantic differential, and Stapel scales. Using the 5-point scale provided, pleaseAre you satisfied with our indicate how satisfy you are with ourservice? service 5
    • Itemized Rating Scales: (1) Likert Scale / Summated-Ratings ScaleThe Likert scale requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement ordisagreement with each of a series of statements about the stimulus objects. Strongly Disagree Neither Agree Strongly disagree agree nor agree Reversed score: disagree (5+1)-2 = 41. M&S sells high quality merchandise. 1 2 3 4 52. M&S has poor in-store service. 1 2 3 4 53. I like to shop at M&S. 1 2 3 4 5• The analysis can be conducted on an item-by-item basis (profile analysis), or a total (summated) score can be calculated.• When arriving at a total score, the categories assigned to the negative statements by the respondents should be scored by reversing the scale. 6 6
    • Itemized Rating Scales: (2) Semantic Differential ScaleThe semantic differential is a seven-point rating scale with endpoints associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. Marks & Spencer is: Powerful --:--:--:--:-X-:--:--: Weak Unreliable --:--:--:--:--:-X-:--: Reliable Modern --:--:--:--:--:--:-X-: Old-fashioned• The negative adjective or phrase sometimes appears at the left side of the scale and sometimes at the right.• This controls the tendency of some respondents, particularly those with very positive or very negative attitudes, to mark the right- or left-hand sides without reading the labels.• Individual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored on either a -3 to +3 or a 1 to 7 scale. 7 7
    • Itemized Rating Scales: (3) Stapel ScaleThe Stapel scale is a unipolar rating scale with ten categoriesnumbered from -5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero). Thisscale is usually presented vertically. +5 +5 +5 +4 +4 +4 +3 +3 +3 +2 +2X +2 +1 +1 +1HIGH QUALITY POOR SERVICE WIDE VARIETY -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -3 -3 -3 -4X -4 -4 -5 -5 -5The data obtained by using a Stapel scale can be analyzed in the same way as semantic differential data. 8
    • Table 10.1 Basic Noncomparative ScalesScale Basic Characteristics Examples Advantages DisadvantagesContinuous Place a mark on a Reaction to TV Easy to Scoring can beRating continuous line commercials construct cumbersomeScale unless computerizedItemizedRating ScalesLikert Scale Degree of agreement Measurement of Easy to More time on a 1 (strongly attitudes construct, consuming disagree) to 5 (strongly administer, and agree) scale understandSemantic Seven-point scale with Brand, product, Versatile Difficult to cons-Differential bipolar labels and company truct bipolar images adjectivesStapel Unipolar ten-point scale, Measurement of Easy to Confusing andScale -5 to +5, without a attitudes and construct and difficult to apply neutral point (zero) images administer over telephone 9 9
    • Figure 10.4 Balanced and Unbalanced Scales Balanced Scale Unbalanced Scale Surfing the Internet is Surfing the Internet is____ Extremely Good ____ Extremely Good____ Very Good ____ Very Good____ Good ____ Good____ Bad ____ Somewhat Good____ Very Bad ____ Bad____ Extremely Bad ____ Very Bad 10
    • Figure 10.5 Rating Scale ConfigurationsA variety of scale configurations may be employed to measure the comfort of Nikeshoes. Some examples include:Nike shoes are:1) Place an “X” on one of the blank spaces…Very VeryUncomfortable Comfortable2) Circle the number…Very 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 VeryUncomfortable Comfortable3) Place an “X” on one of the blank spaces… Very Uncomfortable Uncomfortable Neither Uncomfortable nor Comfortable Comfortable Very Comfortable 11 11
    • Some Unique Rating Scale ConfigurationsThermometer ScaleInstructions: Please indicate how much you like McDonald’s hamburgersby coloring in the thermometer. Start at the bottom and color up to thetemperature level that best indicates how strong your preference is. Like veryForm: much - 100 75 - 50 - 25 Dislike very 0 muchSmiling Face ScaleInstructions: Please point to the face that shows how much you like theBarbie Doll. If you do not like the Barbie Doll at all, you would point to Face1. If you liked it very much, you would point to Face 5.Form: 1 2 3 4 5 12 12
    • Figure 10.6 Developing a Multi-Item Scale Develop the Construct Develop a Theoretical Definition Develop an Operational Definition Develop a Multi-Item Scale•Generate a Pool of Scale Items•Reduce the Pool of Items•Based on Judgment•Collect Data•Purify the Scale Based on Statistical Analysis Evaluate Scale Reliability and Validity Apply the Scale and Accumulate Research Findings 13
    • Figure 10.7 Scale Evaluation Scale Evaluation Validity Reliability ContentTest-Retest Internal Criterion Consistency Alternative Forms Construct Convergent Validity Discriminant Validity Nomological Validity 14