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Sannio ph dproposals_v4

  1. 1. Erasmus Mundus Project Sustainable E-Tourism University of Sannio, Italy Doctorals proposition list Domain Title Reference person(s) Energetics Energetic impact related to touristic flows Sasso Energetics Energy rationalization in plant/building systems De Rossi/Sasso ICT Pervasive systems for on line assistance of tourists communities Canfora Automation/ Energetics Energy saving oriented modeling and control for power electronics converters Vasca Economics Linking Product and Tourism Image Perceptions. Implications for Destination Branding Napolitano Economics Universities and their third mission: an analysis of the “entrepreneurial university” model and its implication for local development in touristic areas Napolitano Economics Methodologies to determine Tourism Territorial Impact in Mediterranean Area Bencardino/Cresta Economics Cultural Heritages and territorial identity valorization Bencardino/Cresta Industrial Operations The Value chain analysis in touristic productions Savino Economics The role of accountability for the sustainability of regional tourism Ricci Economics Agricultural value chains and new models of sustainable rural tourism Marotta Management Sustainable operation management and e-commerce in tourism industry Murino/ Savino Economics Multivariate statistical methods for the evaluation of tourists satisfaction Amenta Management New RFID technologies in the tourism and edutainment area De Carlo/Savino
  2. 2. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Italy University: University of Sannio Laboratory/Department: Engineering – Applied Thermal Engineering Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...): Energy Engineering Doctorate Title: Energetic impact related to touristic flows Abstract (context of research, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): Data over the last decades indicates a high growth rate for tourism, making it one of the most important industries in the world economy. Since estimates outline a consolidation of this trend, an accurate identification and assessment of the energy and environmental impacts related to the touristic flows is increasingly necessary. There are many factors that could affect the analysis: transportation, location, accommodation services, buildings (hotel structures), …. Different approach and different parameters could be considered on the basis of information available on the scientific literature. In order to evaluate the energy impact related the touristic flows different methodological approaches and guidelines should be developed. The analysis could be focused on the analysis of sites of historical interest as Pompeii, that represents a location visited by 3 millions of people per year, making it one of the most popular tourist sites in Italy. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1997. Further elements to take into account regard the introduction of renewable energy technologies to satisfy the energy requirements of the site. This approach could increase the interest of the tourists that nowadays pay more attention to environmentally sustainable tourism. An energy support tool for assessment of different parameter should be realized, and specific tools that focus on the economic and social aspects of sustainability could be considered too.
  3. 3. Keywords (3 to 5) energy analysis, environmental analysis, touristic flows Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): De Camillis C, Raggi A and Petti L, Tourism LCA: state-of-the-art and perspectives, Int J Life Cycle Assess (2010) 15:148–155; De Camillis C, Petti L, Raggi A LCA: a key-tool for sustainable tourism? Proceedings of the 8th international conference on EcoBalance, Tokyo, Japan, 10–12 December 2008, pp. 485–488; De Camillis C, Raggi A, Petti L, Ecodesign for services: an innovative comprehensive method, International Journal of Sustainable Economy, in press, (2010). Activities Timing Semester I II III IV V VI Activity
  4. 4. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Benevento - Italy University: University of Sannio Laboratory/Department: Applied Thermal Engineering Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...): Energy Engineering Doctorate Title: Energy rationalization in plant/building systems Abstract (context of reserach, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): The emanation of the European Directive 2002/91/EC (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive - EPBD), during the 2002, gave new impulses to the topic of the energy efficiency regarding the building sector. In particular, the EU member States have been oriented towards new and common sustainability concepts, within an international context revitalized by the world questions related to energy supply and climatic changes. Today (Autumn 2010), the building sector still requires the greater part of the overall energy consumption throughout the European Union, demanding approximately the 40% of the global energy requests. Although different measures for the improvement of the energy quality of the buildings have been established already beginning from the half of 70’s, and these were modernized several times until the 2002, the energy demand of the building sector (above all tertiary and residential uses) remains very high. This because, mainly until the Directive 2002/91/EC, all the legislative dispositions, in the various EU member countries, consisted in prescriptions related only to the new constructions, not considering, therefore, the energy demands of the existing buildings. The attention to the energy performances of the existing buildings, on the other hand, just represents one of the higher interesting points of the new European indications, above all considering the very reduced building turn-over rate, that varies, according to the different ratios of urban density all around the Europe, between the 1% and 3% annually. Well knowing these aspects, the European Commission and Parliament established, in the EPBD, a prominent role assumed by the energy renovation of the existing buildings, that, even when not mandatory, however have to be promoted, by means of legislative acts and funding programs containing various financial supports (e.g. tax deductions or economical loans). Today, the European building stock is represented by about 35’000’000 square meters of built surface, and the greater part of this (more than the 80%) has been realized before the 1975 (when the first and low effective prescriptions regarding the building energy question were emanated). Furthermore, less than the 18% of the European building stock has been realized after the 1990. These data explain the high-energy consumption of the European architectures. Around the 60% of the European buildings are residential ones, meanly characterized by an annual energy request of 1.65 toe/dwelling, and it means an energy request equal to around 190 kWh/m2 year in terms of primary
  5. 5. energy. Despite favourable climatic conditions, the Italian dwellings require energy demands very similar to these mean values, with a primary energy need around 180 kWh/m2 year. Still today, despite a significant diffusion of split-systems for the indoor temperature control during the summer, the higher energy use characterizing the Italian building stock is represented by the indoor environment heating in wintertime, with an energy demand of about the 70% of the total request. Starting by the above described frame, regarding the present European and Italian contexts, both as regards the EPBD transposition and the present conditions of the building stock, a new approach to the building energy concepts and efficiency is considered necessary. Therefore, the proposed Ph.D program for the “Erasmus Mundus” will be been focused on two main aspects. The first one, decidedly methodological, will analyse methods and calculation procedures for the building energy audit. The second one, by means of studies and direct experiences, will evaluate peculiarities, criticalities, possible energy effective actions, innovative technological solutions in order to improve the building energy performances, with reference to both the building envelope thermal physical behaviours and parameters, and as regards the installed active energy systems. The studies will regard both the new architectures and the existing ones, being centred on two different kinds of buildings: dwellings and office applications. The reason of such choice derives from the very different and interesting peculiarities characterizing each one of the above-cited applications. The first one, the residential buildings, represents the main topic for all the technicians involved in the energy efficiency sector, above all because of the great quantitative impact (in Italy, with reference to an overall real estate constituted by around 60’000’000 buildings, more than 27’000’000 are dwellings, according to the National Territory Agency). Moreover, the distribution of the dwellings on the territory, the ages of construction, the high variability in the geometrical, constructive and thermal-physical properties, as well as the different installed heating systems do very significant the study about this kind of building use, being very variable the achievable level of energy efficiency. On the other hand, the specific boundary conditions of the office buildings (high crowding, significant heat gains, elevated installed electric devices, high presence of glazed surfaces) do very critical, above all in summertime, the indoor temperatures and the energy requests, respectively with reference to naturally ventilated and full air-conditioned buildings. Thus, also a specific research regarding the tertiary sector is considered interesting. In particular, the research activity will be focused on the energy efficiency of the building-HVAC plant system, according to the European directive 2002/91/CE, referring to both winter and summer seasons, above all as regards the built environment re-qualification possibilities (considering the building quite slow turnover rate). The research will concern techniques to improve the building envelope and HVAC system efficiency, evaluating the incidence of thermal parameter values on the energy requirements for space heating and cooling; the influences of thermal transmittance (winter time), time lag effect, decrement factor, thermal mass, dynamic thermal transmittance (EN ISO 13786/2001), position and kind of windows and shadings, kind of plants In order to evaluate and suggest best practices, focusing the attention on the technical and economical convenience of each kind of restoration action, the energy performances of buildings will be investigated, using adapted simulation codes (i.e., the BEPS – Building Energy Performance Simulation in transient conditions) for the evaluation of heat transfer through the building envelope, with the aim to define, with reference to any kind of the most diffuse building typologies (on varying of construction period, destination, shape ratio and compactness, adopted HVAC systems), replicable solutions apt to reduce the building energy and the total primary energy requirements for space heating, cooling and hot water needs. Some proposed studies will regard new technologies, such as double skin facades, ventilated wall, solar spaces and wind tower, in order to manage the solar irradiation at the building surfaces, transmitted
  6. 6. (as a penalizing or useful heat gain) into the indoor environment, with the aim to purpose efficient design criteria. Furthermore, the influence of spectral characteristics of building structures, the impact of the night ventilation, mechanical or natural, in building characterized by elevated thermal mass and capacity could be other possible research topics, as well as other passive solar design systems, new efficient façades, glazing and shading solutions and the integration of renewable energy sources into the built environment. The final target will be the identification, with reference to the different building technologies and weather zones, of the best criteria for the optimization of the building performances, considering the achievable energy savings, the environmental impact on the basis of the whole life cycle, the technical- economical convenience. Keywords (3 to 5): Energy Saving, Building, Simulation, sustainable tecnologies, renewable energy. Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): -Energy modelling of two office buildings with data center for green building design, Y.Pan, R. Yin, Z.Huang, Energy and Buildings, 40(2008), 1145-1152 A comparison of occupant comfort and satisfaction between a green building and conventional building, W.L. Paul, P.A. Taylor, F.Kuznik, J. Virgone, k. Johannes, Energy and Buildings, 43 (2008), 1858-1870 Development and validation of new TRNSYS type for the simulation of external building walls containing PCM, Energy and Buildings, 42(2010) 1004-1009 - Activities Timing A) Bibliografic reaserch B) Analysis and comparation of simulation codes C) Improvement of tools for simulation code D) Analysis of new tecnology for building and air conditioning system E) Case study Semester I II III IV V VI Activity A B C D D E
  7. 7. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Italy University: University of Sannio Laboratory/Department: Department of Engineering – Informatics Laboratory Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...): Computer Science Doctorate Title: Pervasive systems for on line assistance of tourists communities Abstract (context of research, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): The current technological advancements are creating the conditions for services to be pervasively and proactively offered and consumed by actors in their day-to-day situations, even without consciously and actively interacting through the traditional Web. As a consequence, Internet is moving toward a network of service capabilities provided by different kinds of actors (people, sensors, software agents, etc.) and this is favoured by the rapid convergence of IT/telecom/content. To boost this convergence, new research problems need to be solved. Services should be treated in a homogenous way, independently of their providing environments, allowing them to cooperate to solve problems. Cooperation opportunities should be identified by gathering information about service execution and usage, as well as service users’ feedbacks and tagging, and by sharing this information with users and providers with similar interests to generate dynamic circles of trust. Addressing these aspects would allow every kind of service to be easily and collaboratively published, discovered and integrated in useful compositions to proactively provide classes of solutions (service aggregates) for people sharing related interests. The PhD proposal outlined in this paper envisages solutions to the problems above, by enabling the creation and the management of on-line communities, virtual spaces where people, software, and devices cooperate in peer-to-peer and trusted fashion by offering and consuming services and by leveraging the contextualized knowledge being formed within the community itself. In particular, the thesis will aim at exploring solution to the following problem areas: (i) create abstractions that enable the seamless integration of service providers that are different in nature within on-line communities; (ii) create and manage knowledge within on-line communities and services; and (iv) use the knowledge to publish, discover, compose, and use services within on-line communities. As an application scenario, the PhD project will investigate how methods and technologies of pervasive and context aware service architectures be applied to the tourism application domain. Tourism is a major sources of income for many countries and, consequently, providing efficient, real-time service for tourists is becoming a crucial competitive asset. The thesis aims at developing and integrating the above technological innovation into a coherent pervasive infrastructure, in order to build a better user experience for the tourist. A major strength of the work proposed here is the combination of context- aware pervasive systems, geo-localization, social networks and semantics.
  8. 8. We believe that these technologies can be valuably support a tourist in several stages of a journey: - during the preparation of a journey, for example, a pervasive system could promote and manage on-line communities of people that share common interests and knowledge, with the overall objective of providing each user with contextualized information based on a profile of her interests and background; - during the journey, the pervasive computing infrastructure could help the traveller to continuously update her planning, based on contextual information collected by the environment and or shared within the on-line community; as an example, the system could inform a traveller, known to be a jazz lover, that a jazz concert is being performed in a small club in the city she is currently visiting; - after the journey, the system could help leveraging the traveller experience and to elicit new knowledge to be shared within the on-line community; as an example, the traditional sharing or photos, videos or notes could be evolve by semantically indexing and annotating content, to help generating advices and recommendations for other members of the community. Museums and exhibitions have been an excellent locations for testing ubiquitous systems (see for example the work of Fleck et al. 2002) because of their enclosed nature, well, the defined role and the huge amount of information presented, which often overwhelms visitors. Our PhD project goes beyond the achievements of experiments aimed at improving the user experience of museum visitors, as we target an open environment, such as cities of entire regions, where content is not pre-organized in a set of fruition paths. For this aim, we aim at leveraging knowledge within on-line community, as we cannot rely on an individual provider of content and services, but we need to use and amalgamate multiple sources of information, content and services. Also, in our work we cannot assume that the environment be augmented with sensors and tags based on the need of our specific application, as it usually happens within museums, neither we can assume that visitors be provided with specific handsets for interaction. On the contrary, we will need to abstract sensors in the environment and the users’ own devices in order to be able to opportunistically use them for the purpose of the system. Keywords (3 to 5) Pervasive computing Service Oriented Architectures Social Networks Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): Yu-Ru Lin, Yun Chi, Shenghuo Zhu, Hari Sundaram, Belle L. Tseng, Analyzing communities and their evolutions in dynamic social networks, ACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery, Volume 3 , Issue 2 (April 2009) Treiber, M., Truong., H.-L., Dustdar, S., SOAF - Design and Implementation of a Service enriched Social Network. ICWE 2009 - Ninth International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE 2009), June 24-26, 2009. Angel García-Crespo, Javier Chamiz, Ismael Rivera, Myriam Mencke, Ricardo Colomo-Palacios, Juan Miguel Gómez-Berbís, SPETA: Social pervasive e-Tourism advisor, Telematics and Informatics 26 (2009) 306–315 Margaret Fleck, Marcos Frid, Tim Kindberg, Eamonn O’Brien-Strain, Rakhi Rajani, and Mirjana Spasojevic, From Informing to Remembering: Ubiquitous Systems in Interactive Museums, PERVASIVE computing, April 2002 Activities Timing Semester I II III IV V VI
  9. 9. Activity State of the art on social networks and service oriented computing State of the art on context- awareness, tagging, reputation and trust Design of techniques for context modelling Design of techniques for eliciting communities of services and people Design of techniques for matching people profiles and contexts with services Prototype developement and experimentation in the context of e-tourism
  10. 10. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Italy University: University of Sannio Laboratory/Department: Department of Engineering Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...): Doctorate Title: Energy saving oriented modeling and control for power electronics converters Abstract (context of reserach, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): The globalization of the energy problem will determine, in the next future, a significant increase in the demand of flexibility for the management of electrical transmission and distribution systems. Among the main impacts on the networks, the perturbation of the node voltages is one of the obstacles to such development. A typical solution to this problem consists of interfacing the electrical network with power electronic converters featuring high static and dynamic performance. The converters are usually obtained by connecting several ac/dc or dc/ac power converters, each realized by means of power electronic devices. The current research on power converters for energy management is mainly focused on the search for solutions able to satisfy the increasing request of high static and dynamic performance. Such solution is difficult to be achieved also because of the constraints on reliability and power availability to be satisfied. Therefore, in order to achieve the goal it is necessary to design innovative power converters topologies and to use highly reliable electronic devices. Furthermore, the objective attainment is complicated by the increasing interrelation among the different system components, which makes often unpredictable the local and the global behavior of the converter, on one side, and of the network, on the other side. Then it is fundamental to approach the problem by using rigorous and innovative methodological tools, and to orient them to the analysis and the design of innovative solutions with practical industrial interest. The research is expected to produce innovative results in the field. The main doctorate objectives are: 1) to study and to develop innovative mathematical models able to represent advanced electronic devices and converters behaviors also in complex, extreme and critical operating conditions; 2) to analyze and to design power converters controllers able to ensure high performances in terms of dynamics, robustness and reliability for the energy management in electrical networks; 3) to validate experimentally the methodological results by means of real time numerical simulation techniques based on hardware-in-the-loop platforms; 4) to launch a structured applied research collaboration among the Sannio team, and companies interested on the topic. The classic approaches for modeling and simulating power converters (e.g., averaged,
  11. 11. switched and hybrid models) often do not allow the analysis of non-standard innovative converter topologies or operating conditions. This project will tackle the problem by using the complementarity systems theory. The complementarity approach, coming from the nonsmooth mechanics, allows to model the electronic devices by using piecewise affine characteristics, and then integrating them with dynamical models of the converter and the network. The researchers have recently shown that power electronic converters can be well modelled within this framework. Then the expected results of the activities will allow to prove the effectiveness of the complementarity modeling framework for the analysis of innovative voltage source multilevel topologies and for the design of advanced control and optimization techniques. The expected solutions will ensure high dynamic performance, high efficiency of the whole system, low impact on the network (conducted disturbances), good reliability and availability. Further, the complementarity approach allows significant gains in terms of simulation time and numerical convergence, making it possible the implementation of a real time simulator based on the hardware-in-the-loop paradigm. The mathematical models, implemented in software, will emulate the designed converter topologies through a specific high performance real time hardware (signals caught with a resolution of hundred of nanoseconds by means of FPGA technology). Keywords (3 to 5) Energy saving, switched systems, control, power converters, electronics Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): [1] F. Vasca, L. Iannelli, K. Camlibel, “A new perspective in power converters modelling: complementarity systems”, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 24, no. 2, 2009. [2] L. Iannelli, F. Vasca, “Cyclic steady state behavior of switched electronic systems”, IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Shanghai, China, December 2009. Activities Timing Semester I II III IV V VI Activity
  12. 12. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Italy University: University of Sannio Laboratory/Department: Department of Economics Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...): Economics Doctorate Title: Linking Product and Tourism Image Perceptions. Implications for Destination Branding Abstract (context of reserach, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): The main purpose of the research is to analyse the link between the Tourism Destination Image and the Product Country Image and to assess how each of these constructs - and the interaction between them - affect the products and destination attitudes. In several countries the link between the image of the local product and the image of a destination is emerging as a relevant marketing tool with significant implications both for the branding strategies carried by the local companies and the local governments. A recent study conducted in Italy from the “Osservatorio Internazionale del Turismo Enogastronomico” shows that in 2006 about 3 million of international tourists were attracted in Italy by the image of the over 3.000 typical products and that the 82% of the overall international tourists that visit Italy buy typical products during their permanence. Furthermore a similar study conducted by ICE (Istituto del Commercio Estero) in four different countries (China, Russia, Sweden and USA) reports that the image of italian products like wine, food and fashion is one of the main attributes of the overall image of Italy. Arising from these finding, the local governments and the companies are developing integrated branding strategies in order to enhance the link between product and destination image. The formers can use the product image in order to promote the tourism destination and integrate the local products as part of the tourism experience (i.e. developing touristic itinerary related to the typical product like wine and food or promoting shopping places like the “fashion streets”); the latters - expecially the small firms with a strong linkage to the country of origin but without enough resources and skills for promoting their product internationally - can use the tourism destination image of the country as leverage in their branding strategies, in order to enhance their export performances in the international markets. Although these considerations highlight the relevant linkage between product and destination image, this issue has not yet received enough attention in the international marketing literature. The only studies developed in this field are founded on the assumption of the so-called Product Country Image (PCI) literature and analyse the effect of the international tourism experience on the consumption behaviour toward the country and its products (Papadopoulos and Heslop, 1986; Hallberg, 1996, 2005). At contrary actually no studies analyse the link between the country image and the destination image and the effect of each single constructs and of their interaction on product and destination attitudes. Arising from this issues the model developed in this study will not include the tourism experience as influencing variable; it will focus on the attitudes and believes developed by consumers toward the product and the destination in absence of visiting experience in the country.
  13. 13. The model developed in this study arises from the main literature on PCI and TDI. As reported by Kleppe and Mossberg (2001) these two field of studies exist as two parallel tracks with almost non cross-references: research in country/product image is published foremost in marketing journals while research in destination image appears in tourism journals. Consequently the first step of the research was to identify the main similarity and differences between the two constructs. Arising from the previous considerations the main questions the research attempts to answer to are the followings: 1. Is the image of a country as tourism destination a mediator of the effect of “country image” on product attitudes? And if so when and how? 2. Is the “country image” a mediator of the effect of the tourist image on destination attitude? And if so when and how? 3. What are the main implications for the branding strategies of destinations Although the answer to this questions have relevant implications for the company, the main focus of this study is on the government perspective. Providing empirical evidence of the conditions under which the country and the destination image are related can be helpful in order to develop branding strategies focused on the promotion of the “overall image” of the destination and can open new area of partnership between government and companies. Methodologically the main characteristic of the study is the fact that it will focus on countries with different levels of country and destination image; this issue is consistent with the main purpose of highlighting the impact of each of the two construct and of their relationship on the consumers’ attitude toward the product and the destination. Since at the moment the literature doesn’t provide strong support for this kind of study, the literature review could be integrated by focus group for the hypothesis development and the questionnaire building. The questionnaire will be administered to a sample of Italian and International students. Keywords (3 to 5) Marketing, Economics, Business Management Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): L'analisi dei consumi nei comuni della provincia di Benevento e l'indicazione delle aree di attrazione commerciale, Napolitano, Ricci, Paradiso, Vespasiano
  14. 14. Activities Timing Semester I II III IV V VI Activity
  15. 15. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Italy University: University of Sannio Laboratory/Department: Department of Eonomics Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...): Economics Doctorate Title: Universities and their third mission: an analysis of the “entrepreneurial university” model and its implication for local development in touristic areas Abstract (context of reserach, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): Over the last decades universities have been clearly perceived as more than higher education and research institutions. A third “mission”, contributing directly to social and economic development, has been recognised to knowledge-producing organizations. The university is nowadays required to operate as «an economic actor on its own right» (Etzkowitz, 1998) and it is no longer considered as being «an isolated island of knowledge» (Klofsten, Jones-Evans, 2000) or «an ivory tower isolated from society» (Etzkowitz, 2004). It is required to contribute to the local cultural life and to support economic development, firstly becoming a source of income and employment. Universities are in fact increasingly considered part of the local network of public facilities, attracting individuals and firms and enhancing employment opportunities (Klofsten, Jones-Evans, 2000). More generally, they are supposed to contribute tightly to the local system of innovation through the capitalisation of their knowledge (Clark, 1998, 2004; Etzkowitz, 1983, 1998, 2004; Gibb, 2005), carrying out the core function of entrepreneurs (Schumpeter, 1934, 1991). Such evolution process, from the traditional teaching and research university to the “entrepreneurial university” (Etzkowitz, 1983), has been analysed by a relevant body of literature and from different perspectives. At the same time, the role of universities in triggering innovation and sustaining local development has been discussed with several empirical evidences. The aim of the research is to discuss the concrete diffusion of entrepreneurial activities
  16. 16. among universities, the evolution of organizational models implemented over the past years in order to facilitate such activities and their commitment towards the valorisation and exploitation of their scientific knowledge. In particular, the focus of the research is on the contribution that universities give to the local development of touristic areas. The idea is to analyse both the organizational implications and the educational implications of the entrepreneurial model in the case of universities that seem to play a relevant role for the touristic attractiveness of cities, regions and/or nations. Making a comparison between international cases, the research will try to propose general conclusions and implications. Finally, considering that the analysis of the education activities and of the organization models both integrates quantitative and qualitative information, a wide and rich empirical framework will be examined. Keywords (3 to 5) Marketing, Economics, Business Management Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): L'analisi dei consumi nei comuni della provincia di Benevento e l'indicazione delle aree di attrazione commerciale, Napolitano, Ricci, Paradiso, Vespasiano
  17. 17. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Italy University. University of Sannio Laboratory/Department: Department of Analysis of Economics and Social Systems Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...): Economics Doctorate Title: Methodologies to determine Tourism Territorial Impact in Mediterranean Area Abstract (context of research, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): According to the Report 2009 of the Mediterranean Travel Association (Meta), the Mediterranean is between the more important tourist destinations in the world with more than 250 million of arrives each year on a total of approximately 800 million movements in the world and a forecast of 400 million arrivals within 2025. The Mediterranean, therefore, is the tourist region for excellence where the tourism is the greater industry in the region, or in occupational terms that of returns, in which two spirits cohabit: on one side the mature destinations in phase of transformation like France, Spain, Italy and Greece; from the other a tourist market to fast increase like that one of the countries Middle Eastern and North Africans. In such total scene the competitiveness of the Mediterranean goes supported and persecuted in the optical of the sustainability, not only environmental them but also economic, social and cultural. He is fundamental, but, to emphasize that the dimension caught up from the tourist phenomenon and the future perspectives of increase does not appear very encouraging from the point of view of the sustainability, as the activities (also and above all tourist) that they will be developed in the years to come, will cause important changes on the coasts and in the inner territories. The tourism in the Mediterranean is characterized for years on the base of a series of variable: from the point of view of the tourism demand the main determinants have been the territorial concentration of the tourist phenomenon, the seasonality of tourism, a tourist product insufficient diversified and obsolete, the strong impact of the tourist phenomenon on the environmental resources; from the point of view of the supply, instead, it has been assisted to the marked presence of largest tour operator international and to the inability of the local production system to control the tendencies not always sustainable of the development, to a necessary standardization of the structures of acceptance, to a loss of quality it is in the destinations consolidated that in those emerged. Consequently, if from a side the benefits of the tourist industry are distributed in not homogenous way on destinations, from the other the negative impact of the transports, the acoustic pollution, the pollution of waters of the sea as a result of the cruise tourism, the production of refusals, the degradation of landscapes and coasts, “the exogenous westernization” of some destinations of Middle Eastern and Africans, are dimensions of the development shared from the entire Mediterranean area. All these elements that till the new millennium have contracted the possibilities of a mature tourist development of the Mediterranean region, that they have answered to policies finalized
  18. 18. to increase the tourist flows and relative infrastructures in order to accommodate them, rather than to give value to the diversity in the Mediterranean and to the cultural and social development, they must be completely removed. It necessary, therefore, to diversify the tourist offer, introducing new products (cultural, natural, cruise tourism, etc…) to promote new inner tourist destinations (in alternative to those coastal ones) and to exceed the strong seasonal concentration of the tourist flows, but also to improve those destination considered outdated in the imaginary collective; to increase the quality of the tourist services supporting the formation of specialized works able to answering fully and timely to the evolution of the tastes and the requirements of the total tourists; to value the environmental and cultural resources according to the principles of sustainability, containing the urbanization, the pollution and the social and environmental, degradation. On the base of the studies and the result on the capability of the single countries, it necessary to prime strategies of development of the entire region heading to a more balanced distribution of the tourist flows it is in terms of single destinations that of tourist season. He is obvious that the opportunities of increase of the Mediterranean region are directly proportional to the product policies, image and communication developed from the several countries, let alone from the modalities with which such competition it will come above all regulated and managed and to the ability to manage, in the optical of the sustainability, the tourist impact in such way to distribute to the positive effects of the tourism on the entire economy of the region, increasing the development integrated of all the activities connected to the tourism (agriculture, craftsman, industry, but also environment, services, infrastructures, etc…), increasing the added value of the tourism for the local communities. The search, therefore, part from some fundamental tasks: - in the time the tourist consumption has grown enormously, being involved bands more and more wide and differentiated of the world-wide population; - in parallel with the quantitative expansion of the demand one has assisted to multiplying themselves of the variety and variability of the behaviours of consumption of the tourists and to the birth of “new forms of tourism”; - in terms of offer, all this has been translate in the requirement to define and to adopt organizational models of the tourist offer of systemic type able to distribute the positive effects of the tourist development of an area on its entire economy; - it is necessary to prime a process of interaction and coevolution between the tourism and the social-economic system of the territory (Valdani, Ancarani, 2000), aware that in every territorial system exists a relation to three, between tourists and tourism operators, local community and institutional actors, relations that beginning from the impacts (positive and/or negatives) of the tourist phenomenon. In the evaluation, in fact, of the territorial, economic and social impacts of the tourism it is necessary to verify the divergence between who benefits of the advantages of the tourism and who supports the costs which had to the impacts negatives, and therefore to clear all the components who participate to this relation. The benefits, as an example, are not only economic and occupational, but they regard also important immaterial values like the cultural exchange, the visibility in the international market, the opening to integration, that is difficultly measurable in quantitative terms but that they correspond to concrete political choices; in the same way the disadvantages, or the costs of the tourism, fall on all the population resident in indirect and arbitrary way. According to these considerations, the objective of the research is that one to identify a methodology of research to estimating the geographic-territorial, social-economic and cultural impact of the tourism in the Mediterranean and to equip itself of an instrument of synthesis that account, at the same time, of the various nature of the tourist impact on a territory, enabling a unitary evaluation. The research path thus will be articulated: a) an preliminary study, through bibliographical deepening on how much product on methodologies of evaluation of the impact of the tourism with reference to the various sector approaches (model DPSIR, carrying capacity, ecological print,…); b) the definition of a system of indicators and indices of impact who are in a position to measuring the impact of the tourism on the single destinations; c) the construction, according to an logical-mathematics approach, of an index of total impact to reading and to reduce the complexity of an analysis lead on a variety of indicators and indices; d) the collection of spatial date territorial, through the consultation of national and
  19. 19. international Database (EUROSTAT, WTO, META, WEF, Plan Bleu, Regional Statistics, etc); e) the territorial application of the model of analysis on the base of the data collected, through the elaboration of indicators and indices and the construction of the index of total impact; f) benchmarking of the tourist destinations of the Mediterranean and mapping of the possible levels of impact and location of the good practical Keywords (3 to 5) Sustainable indicators Mediterranean Sustainable Development Tourism Impact Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): MATHIESON A., WALL G. (2007), Tourism: change, impact and opportunities, Pearson, Harlow. Cresta A.(2010), ’’Un'ipotesi di lettura del turismo nell'area del Mediterraneo: dimensioni, caratteristiche, prospettive’’, in Bencardino F., Turismo e territorio. L'impatto economico e territoriale del turismo in Campania, Franco Angeli, Milano. Plan Bleau (2006), Methodological sheets of the 34 priority indicators for the “Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development”, Sofia Antipolis Activities Timing Semester I II III IV V VI Activity a) b) c) d) e) f)
  20. 20. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Italy University: University of Sannio Laboratory/Department: Department of Analysis of Economics and Social Systems Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...): Economics Doctorate Title: Cultural Heritage and territorial identity valorization Abstract (context of research, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): The cultural patrimony, static expression of a represented dynamic process from the action of construction of the same patrimony, constitutes more and more the most important expression of the signs of the identity and, therefore, the diversity of a community regarding the others, showing the ability to consolidate the stability and to strengthen the competitiveness of local territorial systems. In a global system, each local system bases its competitiveness, its internal resources that determine the original the identity of places. The ability to the local actors to comprise and to redefine the roles of the Cultural Heritage represents a competitive advantage factor and source of territorial innovation; in such cases processes of development come beginning from the endogenous resources, from the local vocations that constitute “genius loci”. To analyze the potentialities of a territorial system in relation to its cultural matrices means to promote local projects in global network. The presence of global systems is a strong risk for those systems that are not in a position to “identifying if same”, “to acknowledge”, that they risk a process to decline in absence of an organic development plan. Beginning from such considerations and from the wide scientific literature of reference, the research means to study, in the within of the territorial context of the Campania region, those areas in which the territorial innovation it is, more than in other territories, tied to geographic factors based on local the cultural identity and on the system of cultural and environmental factors them own of the local system. The objective begins them is that one to more understand if in the inquired territories the management of the cultural heritage is only an action, more or less coordinate, or there are coordinated and integrated processes of valorisation of local territorial systems beginning from forms of cultural innovation. From the result of the first phase of research related to that objective knowledge, depend on the operational objectives of the second part of the project in terms of “possible scenes of future development” of the inquired territories. In the specific one, regarding the territorial context of reference of the research, Campania region represents a privileged within of application, inserted in a regional context from the strong landscaped and cultural valences, based in fact its identity on a unitary system of cultural assets and environmental them of great interest to testimony, in many cases, of a balanced relationship between man and territory, history and manifestations of the work of the man, centers and periphery. The use of the land, the division of the agricultural land, the built up one, the handicraft, all is expression of the culture, the traditions, the identity of the local communities. A landscape thus constituted, there where he is simple to find again the features and the symbols of identity, of the historical stratifications and the environmental valences them
  21. 21. not destroy, from the participation unconscious of the man, cannot not be considered a " cultural heritage" , whose function in the processes of territorial innovation is founding. In all the system of the inner areas of the Campania, to understand, to recognize and to decide to invest (time, human resources, economic and financial resources) on local cultural heritage as factor of territorial innovation is of for himself an opportune choice and, for sure backs, obliged. If to this choice it follows a responsible and scientifically founded action of analysis of the factors and the processes, of analysis of the result and realization of the made experimentations, it can be considered primed a process of territorial innovation in which the signs of the culture, the historical centers, the rural complexes, the smaller activities historically become object of valorization and hinge of the qualification of contexts marked from delays and marginality in the development. The definition of the application field of the research and the study of the essential characters of the “cultural heritage” represent the object of first part of the research. In order to characterize those territories that in the regional context are characterized for a territorial innovation connected in good part from a cultural innovation, it will be necessary the putting to point of a system of analysis of the processes of interaction between the cultural resources (archaeological and architectonic patrimony, historical centers, services, activity of conservation and recovery, etc.) and the territorial dimension of the considered system, going to inquire all those factors and those activity to interconnected they: the system of the cultural and environmental goods, the tourism, the activities of cultural interest, the system of secondary, university and professional formation, the tipic production (agriculture, handicraft, etc), etc. All this presupposes these activities from the research: a) the punctual and scientifically examination of the main studies and applied researches in reference to the topic in object and of relative the scientific and cartographic productions to the territorial; b) the study of the main instruments of planning (european, national, regional, local) regarding the inquired topic and applied in the studied contexts; c) the collection of a series of data thought “meaningful” for surveying of the peculiarities of the system of the cultural sites and of the territorial context of reference; d) the recognition of the technologies and the applications of informative models applied to the dealt topic (GIS, satellite platforms, remote sensing, models of date mining and forecast, etc). In methodological terms, the analysis of the system of the cultural sites and of the territorial context of reference, the development of models to support and the realization of the platform will be based on integrated and multidisciplinary approach, through the use of innovative techniques of research and mathematical supports. Detail relief will have, therefore, the analysis of the cartographic, published and unknown documentation, conserved near the regional, provincial and communal offices technical, the libraries, the archives of state, etc. In terms of attended result, the aim of research is: 1) to define the analysis model to adopt for the study of the cultural heritage and the connected system of creation of territorial value, coherent with the legislation and the European, national and regional lines guides in topic of protection, safeguard and valorization of the cultural assets; 2) to define the system of relations between the Network of the Cultural Assets and the factors and the activities of the territorial system; 3) to estimate the degree of “interaction” between cultural heritage, identity and social and economic development of the territorial system; 4) to classify, on the base of such degree of interaction, the systems inquired second cluster of analyses that classify local System in: a) Innovative Systems, in the event in which the level of integration between cultural heritage and territorial development are such from being able themselves to think already sufficiently present a territorial innovation that is born from the cultural innovation, correlated to local projects; b) Innovative Systems to express potentiality: in the event in which the level of integration between cultural heritage and local plans of development to cultural specialization it is discreet, but it is remained in a phase of simply project, that does not become innovation territorial; c) Innovative Systems to unexpressed potentiality in the event in which the elements of the patrimony and the cultural services they still do not express a degree of territorial specialization based on the cultural dimension, and the level of local projects is low. 5) to make a GIS inside of which to make to meet the collected data and the various data banks produced or managed from the offices of the MiBAC, from the national Catalogue of the cultural assets and from the various plans of developed of the patrimony on the regional
  22. 22. territory. The result of this first part of the research will be use to the development of the second part of the activity in terms of definition of the “possible scenes of future development” of the inquired territories. This object is to put of the future actors of the planning and the protection of the territory a cognitive patrimony of methods, techniques and procedures to explore the territorial transformations, to represent of the evolution (through the most recent techniques types them which the GIS) and to develop appropriate actions oriented to the innovative development. The analysis of the cultural resources of a territory which factor of innovative development becomes an element still more important in relation to the topic of the state property federalism, currently under discussion. At the same time, the research is proposed to delineate new models of analysis of the processes of territorial transformation induced from the same new technologies of the information, supplying instruments for the control of the such effects of territorial modification. The search, in fact, activating the cycle resources- knowledge - competences, can to improve local skills through the sharing transparent and total of the information for all the local actors, in coherence with the regional indications. The Research will contribute to develop infrastructures of R& S and the equipment and the instrumentation of the search centers, strengthening the cooperation between enterprises and the publics institutes. A last observation in order to the effectiveness and the territorial fallen back ones of such research is tied to the choice of the geographic factors to which tying the territorial innovation: be a matter itself of a model of development based on local cultural Heritage, it is not replicable in similar contexts and is not, therefore, an only factor of competitive advantage. The main result of the research activity will be collected in scientific articles to introduce to national and international conventions and to subject to scientific reviews. Keywords (3 to 5) CULTURAL HERITAGE TERRITORIAL INNOVATION GIS IDENTITY VALORIZATION Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): - Azzari M.(a cura di) (2002), Beni ambientali e culturali e Geographical Information Systems - GIS per l'archeologia del paesaggio, in “Atti del Workshop” (Firenze, 29maggio 2000), Firenze, Edizioni Firenze University Press. - Manzi E. (a cura di) (2003). Beni culturali e territorio, La valorizzazione dei beni culturali nell'esperienza italiana. ROMA: Società Geografica Italiana vol. n.13. - Zerbi M.C. (2007), Il paesaggio rurale: un approccio patrimoniale, Giappichelli, Torino. Activities Timing Semester I II III IV V VI Activity a) a)-b) b) c) c) d)
  23. 23. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Italy University: University of Sannio Laboratory/Department: Engineering, Production and Management Laboratory Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...): Production Management Doctorate Title: The Value chain analysis in touristic productions Abstract (context of reserach, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): The development of mass production makes the production line layout an architecture upon which most production systems are built. Assembly lines are flow-oriented production systems which are still typical in the industrial production of high quantity standardized commodities and even gain importance in low volume production of customized products. To obtain a good (possibly an “optimal”) “operator scheduling” is a central task when the line is very complex, specially for firms that have less workers than workstations where to compute a schedule can be a critical issue. The workers’ shifts optimization it’s important to increase the line throughput. A correct planning can improve the production level and the workers’ management. In fact, with an optimal distribution of the human resources around the lines, it’s possible to avoid additional costs (the firms can distribute workforce in a better way and the workstation, with their costs, are off when it is convenient). So the advantage can be very useful in industrial competition. The goals of this work are: To find an optimal solution to the problem of cost analysis and optimization to the handycraft production; To improve some performance parameters (e. g.: Man-hours, makespan, throughput) of all the actors of souvenir supply chain; To test new production techniques and production management techniques for the tourism industry To use simulation tools to apply new production configuration to the tourism industries producing hadycraft and souvenir
  24. 24. Keywords (3 to 5): Production Engineering, simulation, Supply Chain Management, Production Techniques Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): 1. - Production and Operations Analysis, - Steven Nahmias – McGraw-Hill 2. Flow shop scheduling with partials resource Flexibility Daniels, Richard L. ; Mazzola, Joseph B. ; Shi, Dailun, 2004 3. Pooling Strategy for Call Centre Agent Cross-Training (2004, )E. Tekin, W.J. Hopp, M.P.Van Oyen 4. Operator-scheduling using a constraint satisfaction technique in port container terminals, K.H. Kim,K.W. Kim, H.Hwang, C.S. Ko – Computers & Industrial Engineering 46 (2004) -
  25. 25. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Italy University: University of Sannio Laboratory/Department: Department of Business Administration - DASES Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...):Economics Doctorate Title: The role of accountability for the sustainability of regional tourism Abstract (context of reserach, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): General educational goals: Tourism is a composite field that requires knowledge and character studies of both the economic and best companies to be run profitably and generate opportunities for economic growth. Inside, in fact, act operators with dynamic characteristics quite peculiar. This is even more evident in the case of emerging new forms of tourism. In the latter cases, in addition to open spaces for the creation of new business ideas, create new employment opportunities for skilled professionals. However, if it is true that tourism can generate economic and employment growth, it is also true that it can cause significant environmental and social problems. The question of sustainability of tourism must be addressed, both from the demand that the supply side. The demand for tourist values is mainly, though not exclusively, the application of environmental and cultural values. The conservation of these resources may be threatened by excessive development of tourism. In the delicate relationship between tourism and the environment, broadly interpreted, can trigger a vicious circle between the attraction of the places tourists have on the environmental degradation associated with excessive levels of tourism and the repulsion that tourist numbers have shown in the degraded environments. In order to adequately exploit in terms of long-term income and employment opportunities related to tourism development is therefore necessary to make tourism an element of exploitation and consumption of environmental quality, as evidenced by the various EU programs specifically targeted to support the
  26. 26. ideas of sustainable tourism. The objectives of sustainable development bring new responsibilities to supranational and national governments but also local governments, businesses and citizens towards the environment as a whole, requiring a conscious review of management policies of territorial systems in general and the role that must be accountability for the sustainability of regional tourism. The PhD program aims to develop an adequate knowledge of economic issues and environmental management and levels of accountability, with particular emphasis on those related to the tourism sector and the actors involved in it. The course also aims to provide students with a thorough knowledge of some of the most recent standards, models and tools of accountability finalizing the study application in the tourism sector in general and in particular the cultural and environmental. The course will also acquire knowledge in the recognition, measurement and monitoring of results achieved. The course is organized so as to provide students with basic training in both subject areas in economic, business, legal, mathematical, statistical, and computer language, that the knowledge necessary to form professionals capable of addressing the organizational needs and administrative companies and institutions working in the tourism sector. Moreover, the knowledge gained in the economic, business and law, will train a multi-purpose can create profitable relationships between companies and between private and public sector and easy access to various sources of law for the acquisition of funds regional, national and EU level. The course is organized so as to provide students with basic training in both subject areas in economic, business, legal, that the knowledge necessary to form professionals capable of addressing the organizational and administrative needs of companies and institutions working in the tourism sector. • Examples of searches - Analysis and evaluation of projects of sustainable tourism development through surveys on the territory in its valence complex systems. • Objectives - Development of models of accountability and reporting necessary for the enhancement of local tourist attractions including through the 'identification of a methodology for defining a plan for the reception and visitor management; - Management and enhancement of museums through the application of concepts derived from recent theory of cognitive and behavioral finance to traditional valuation models of cultural heritage; - Identification of tools for the protection of historical heritage through accountability and enhancement of historic, architectural and cultural on the national territory.
  27. 27. • Methodology Environmental analysis through the model input / output to verify through the models of accountability adopted in the research phase, the sustainability of tourism in protected areas through the use of models, input / output. Keywords (3 to 5) - Sustainable tourism; - Accountability (Budget of the Territory); - Computerization; - Networking; - Local tourist systems. Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): - Economic impact studies: Relating the positive and negative impacts to tourism development (Fleming, L Toepper, 1990) - Profiles of management and accounting records of the hotels (Ricci, Jannelli, Migliaccio, 2003) - The applicability of the IAS / IFRS Italian tourist and hotel business (Migliaccio, 2003) Activities Timing Activities: - Courses; - Seminars; - Matches; - Case study; - Benchmarking; - Dissemination of best practices; - Incubator of ideas; Semester I II III IV V VI Activity
  28. 28. Semesters: - I Study of models of accountability and reporting necessary for the enhancement of regional tourist attractions. - II Finding a method for setting a floor for the reception and visitor management - III The role of accountability for the management and enhancement of - IV Application of concepts derived from recent theory of cognitive - V Study of behavioral finance to traditional valuation models of cultural - VI Development of models of accountability for the use and protection of historical and architectural heritage and culture on the national territory
  29. 29. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Benevento, Italy University: University of Sannio Laboratory/Department: Department of Analysis of Social and Economic Systems (DASES) Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...): Food and Rural Economics Doctorate Title: Agricultural value chains and new models of sustainable rural tourism Abstract: Context of research The development of economic and social dynamics and the renewed social needs associated with the new behavioural and cultural values and tendencies have led to new needs, expectations and life styles since the 1980s and, consequently, to new citizen/tourist and/or consumer behaviour. Consumers now show a greater awareness of environmental issues, healthiness and functionality of agro-food products as well as a new relationship between tourism and wellbeing, that is quality of life. These new intangible needs have characterised a new demand of rurality and tourism which accounts for the restoration of activities and functions of the rural social and production system. The interaction between these new social needs and the productive function of the agricultural and rural sector has boosted market development posing new challenges to agriculture. The reformed Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) has attempted to respond to the challenges by promoting and supporting a multifunctional and differentiated “European agricultural model” aimed at enhancing the social functions of agriculture. By producing both food products (primary function) and broadened/deepened and public goods (care and educational farms, farm houses, landscape and environmental protection and conservation services, quality and typicality of produce, agri-tourism, rural and green tourism, agro-food processing) (secondary function), this model meets the new citizens’ or tourists’ or consumers’ needs and wants. These secondary activities/productions/functions, influenced directly by the new consumer’s demands, have paved the way to innovative forms of value creation aimed at repositioning farms in a more competitive way. All of these processes has led citizens/tourists from developed countries to address “new questions” at the agriculture and farms, opening for them and for rural local systems, horizons and perspectives of tourism development, which prefigure a wide range of possible ways of creating new value chains. Essentially, the response to new demands for sustainable life practices, citizens /tourists, he found satisfaction in rural areas, in the modern configuration of agricultural multifunctionality. Farms have adapted to the above-mentioned social and economic changes leading the former to seek new opportunities in different production-consumption circuits. Consequently, farms have had to reposition themselves by means of boundary shift strategies (deepening, broadening, re-grounding), (Banks, Long, van der Ploeg, 2002). The broadening, deepening and re-grounding strategies represent the change to new agricultural models which, by diversifying the business areas of farms, lead to new pathways to value creation. The focus is therefore on the production of public goods and on an integrated exploitation of territorial specificities which, in turn, have a positive impact in terms of sustainable touristic development. In this way, modern farms should therefore be considered as a complex productive reality which can generate the positive externalities (public goods). The positive externalities virtue of its close links with local products enable the farm to develop and deliver new forms and activities of sustainable tourism, available on the farm and in its rural local system, through new
  30. 30. models related to short markets. The positive externalities generated, qualify the internal resources of farms which become distinctive and more attractive because they can provide intangible goods that are in high demand from citizens or consumers or tourists (Marotta, Nazzaro, 2010a,b,c). Each of the goods and services produced in the farm is the result of a development model based on long or short production markets and territories, which generates different value chains. In this perspective, a market-oriented production identifies in the quantity of public goods associated to it one of the main factors of competitive advantage (“distinctive qualities” of territories of origin, opportunities for satisfying new needs and wants). The vast range of broadened/deepened goods and services (local and quality produce, food-processing, farm houses, agro-energy, direct sale, food and wine tasting, social and artisan activities, agri- tourism, rural and green tourism, wellness and tourist services, etc.) and internalized public goods can therefore satisfy both demands of food authenticity, healthiness and traditionality and those which result from the new relationship between wellness and agriculture thus contributing towards an integrated rural touristic development model. Nevertheless, the various value chains created are not always strategic alternatives, but, as they co-exist in a farm, they contribute to form a value portfolio (VP), (Marotta, Nazzaro, 2010a,b,c). In this way, the “new” model of multifunctional farms shows a “multi-value”, pattern which results from the broadening/deepening activities, the protection and promotion of local resources and territory integration allowing multifunctional farms to create their value portfolio for new sustainable tourism and business opportunities. Objectives Research objective of the course of study is the analysis of the factors that determine the development of values portfolio of agricultural farm, producing goods and services to support sustainable tourism in the marginal rural areas. In theoretical and methodological terms, the analysis models of the new pathways to value creation in multifunctional farms will be analyzed by means of the boundary shift strategies (Banks, Long, van der Ploeg, 2002) in order to understand the turistic functional transformation processes of such farms. Methodology The course of study will be divided in: Desk analysis • The research will cover the desk study and analysis of the literature on the subject of recent theoretical and methodological contributions, applications of the proposed model. Field analysis • The activities of field survey, however, will be achieved through an empirical analysis (Case Study) aimed to investigate the determinants of portfolio optimal value (PVO) and choice of strategic repositioning of the multi-value agricultural farm, in terms of: internal resources of the farm and interaction with the resources of the territorial context, with the political sector, which promote the activities of differentiation / diversification in the key tourist and the needs of the citizens/tourists (market), to which farms, with the choices for change want to respond. The empirical analysis, in short, will aim to assess the real potential of application of the theoretical model and effectiveness of the proposed methodology, in terms of ability to interpret the processes of transformation, with a view of tourism, taking place in multifunctional agricultural enterprises, fielded to meet the new and articulated demands in developed societies. This is in order to contribute to theoretical debate on the issue, is to define useful lines of policy to support decision making for the preparation and implementation of instruments targeted. Keywords (3 to 5) Multifunctional Agriculture, Sustainability, New Tourism, Value Chain. Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): 1. Marotta G., Nazzaro C. (2010), “Verso un nuovo paradigma per la creazione di valore nell’impresa agricola multifunzionale. Il caso della filiera zootecnica”, in Rivista di Economia Agro-Alimentare, Milano, FrancoAngeli.
  31. 31. 2. Marotta G., Nazzaro C. (2010), “Competitive repositioning and value creation in multifunctional farms: the value portfolio paradigm”, Paper presented at the 119 EAAE Seminar ‘Sustainability in the Food Sector: Rethinking the Relationship between the Agro- Food System and the Natural, Social, Economic and Institutional Environments’, Capri, Italy, June, 30th - July, 2nd 3. Marotta G., Nazzaro C. (2010), “Multifunctionality and value creation in rural areas of Southern Italy”, in Proceedings of the 118th Seminar of the EAAE ‘Rural development: governance, policy design and delivery’, Ljubljana, Slovenia, August 25-27. Activities Timing Semester/Activity I Semester II Semester 1° Anno Reference research Desk Analysis 2° Anno Desk Analysis Field Analysis 3° Anno Doctoral Dissertation Doctoral Dissertation
  32. 32. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Italy University: University of Sannio – joined with University of Naples Federico II Laboratory/Department: Materials Engineering and Operations Management Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...): Engineering, Management Doctorate Title: Sustainable operation management and e-commerce in tourism industry Abstract (context of reserach, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): Tourism constitutes an important sector of the world and, in particular, of the European economy. Worldwide, States have given tourism greater consideration in their policies, by adopting an integrated approach, as it presents a positive scope for its future development. For this reason, an expansion of tourism is expected so as to transform this activity in the first industry of the XXI century. However, this generates great concern from an environmental perspective, as tourism, although contributing to the attainment of socioeconomic and cultural objectives, can also be the cause of environmental degradation and loss of local identity. The context of the research deals with e-tourism, innovation and growth. The Internet is revolutionising the distribution of tourism information and sales. At the beginning it is necessary to face a deep literature review, then to describe the possible strategies and methodologies which can be used by local authorities and policy makers in tourist destinations in order to promote sustainable tourism, building new models through a comparison with sustainable operations management. The study should examines problems and solutions related to electronic commerce in the tourism industry and suggests recommendations for successful e- commerce strategies in tourism to be applied by the industry and the government in Italy. The definitions of tourism innovation (e.g. product, service and technological innovations) remains unclear, with the exception maybe of the Internet. New technologies can produce an essential contribution to tourism development.For tourism businesses, the Internet offers the potential to make information and booking facilities available to large numbers of tourists at relatively low costs. It also provides a tool for communication between tourism suppliers, intermediaries, as well as end-consumers. the advent of Internet-based electronic commerce offers considerable opportunities for firms to expand their customer base, enter new product markets and rationalise their business. WTO (2001) also indicated that electronic business offers SMEs the opportunity to undertake their business in new and more cost-effective ways. According to WTO, the Internet is revolutionising the distribution of tourism information and sales. An increasing proportion of Internet users are buying on–line and tourism will gain a larger and larger share of the online commerce market. Obviously, the Internet is having a major impact as a source of information for tourism. However, the SMEs are facing more stringent impediments to the adoption of new information technology, in particular, e-business. Part of the problem relates to the scale and affordability of information technology, as well as the facility of implementation within rapidly growing and changing organisations. In addition, new solutions configured for large, stable, and internationally-oriented firms do not fit well for
  33. 33. small, dynamic, and locally-based tourism firms. Despite these challenges, SMEs with well- developed and innovative Web sites can now have “equal Internet access” to international tourism markets. This implies equal access to telecom infrastructure, as well as to marketing management and education. According to a UN report (2001), “it is not the cost of being there, on the on-line market place, which must be reckoned with, but the cost of not being there.” It is certain that embracing digital communication and information technology is no longer an option, but a necessity. Thus, one of the most important characteristics of electronic commerce is the opportunity and promise it holds for SMEs to extend their capabilities and growth. Furthermore the aim of this research is to develop indicators that can be used by consumers to assist in their choice of holidays and promote a more sustainable form of tourism. The aim of the research is to identify what expert opinion believes constitutes sustainable tourism, what criteria are necessary for successful indicators and which indicators can promote a more sustainable form of tourism. Later research will seek to identify industry and consumer opinion. Hart (1997) simply describes an indicator as “something that helps you to understand where you are, which way you are going and how far you are from where you want to be”, while the Department of Culture Media and Sport ( DCMS, 1999) more simply states the “aim of indicators is to produce what is measurable and show us something”. Indicators today have an increasing resonance in politics, with a seemingly endless desire to measure the previously unmeasured and to compare the performance of different providers of service. Schools are monitored for the value they add, health services for the standard of care they provide, and transport for the punctuality and quality of provision. The increased need for transparency of investment and consumer involvement has fuelled much of the need to measure what may previously have been considered too subjective. Operations management researchers face new challenges in integrating issues of sustainability with their traditional areas of interest. During the past 15 years, there has been growing pressure on business to pay more attention to the environmental and resources consequences of the products and services they offer and the process they deploy. The result is more concerns on the relationship of profit, people, and the planet. The simulation models can be used starting from the theoretical study and standards, developing new e-Tourism models and their prototype implementations, followed by comparative analysis of various implementation options. In conclusion, this research suggests some recommendations for decision makers, entrepreneurs and practitioners in the tourism industry field, particularly for SM Tourism Es, once the sustainable tourism development has been introduced, and the sustainable operations managed has been studied. Keywords (3 to 5) Sustainable Management Design, Indicators, Customer satisfaction, Simulation, Service Operations Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): - - - Activities Timing Semester I II III IV V VI Activity Literature Study Research methodology Building new models Simulation models Applying strategies Results analysis
  34. 34. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Italy University: University of Sannio Laboratory/Department: Department of Business Administration - DASES Domain (Computer Science, Management, Economics...): Statistics Doctorate Title: Multivariate statistical methods for the evaluation of tourists satisfaction Abstract (context of reserach, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): The tourism industry consists of a number of different sectors including the travel, hospitality and visitor services sector. Within each of these sectors there are a number of individual enterprises that provide a range of services to people who are travelling away from their home environment. This travel could be for a variety of reasons including for pleasure, to visit friends and relatives, to work on a short term basis, to attend conferences, to participate in business activities, or any of a number of specific reasons. While the industry distinguishes between the various groups according to their purpose for travel, convention has it that all these short-term travellers are defined as ‘tourists’. Despite the large body of literature available on satisfaction research in general, few studies have focused directly on customer satisfaction amongst tourists. Generally the term customer satisfaction is used in order to describe the fulfilment of a motivating state, the meeting of an expectation, through the purchase of a product or service. The satisfaction is furthermore influenced by perceptions of service quality, product quality and price as well as situational factors and personal factors. About tourists satisfaction we can assert that it depends on some characteristics of the tourist product offered, such as transportation, accommodation, gastronomy, attractiveness and cost of the service. It can be studied through two points of view. The first one describes the association between the satisfaction degree and tourists expectation; the second one focuses on the association between the satisfaction degree and the current or previous tourists experience. To measure in a correct way the tourists satisfaction is then necessary an adequate system of data collection and data analysis. The aims of the PhD program is then to detect some adequate systems for collecting data about tourists satisfaction. So it is necessary a proper preparation of the questionnaire, of the sampling plan and of the data collection. In a second time, it is then important to individuate the adequate statistical methods for the evaluation of the satisfaction. The first consideration to keep in mind is that the data collected in a satisfaction survey are generally ordinal data and they need to be transformed in quantitative variable. Different methods have been proposed for the transformation, for example Rasch Analysis, Thurstone psychometric approach and other kinds of transformations and they must be considered according to the nature of the data that have been collected. After data transformation the new numerical value must be analyzed and many techniques have been applied in last years about the customer satisfaction, for example Principal Component Analysis, Structural Equation Models, Logistic Regression and so on, but the tourists satisfaction needs deeper attention.
  35. 35. For this reason the program must focus first of all on the traditional methods for customer satisfaction, detecting the possibility to apply them to tourists satisfaction too. In this case it is obvious that the methods need some adjustments to be applied to the particular kind of survey. In a second moment, the study, the development and the application of new statistical techniques and methods will be the core of the program. Keywords Tourists satisfaction, Data transformation, Multivariate statistical methods Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): - Pietro Amenta, Biagio Simonetti (2006), “Customer Satisfaction Evaluation: an approach based on simultaneous diagonalization”, In Data Analysis, Classification and the Forward Research. Zani S., Cerioli A., Riani M., Vichi M., (Editors), Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer-Verlag, 2006. - Pietro Amenta (2006), “Generalized PLS Discriminant Analysis for the “multimodules” satisfaction evaluations”. In Metodi, Modelli e Tecnologie dell’Informazione a Supporto delle Decisioni, Amenta P., D’Ambra L., Squillante M., Ventre A. (Editors), Franco Angeli. pp. 125- 133, 2006. - Luigi D’Ambra, Pietro Amenta, Rosaria Lombardo, Michele Gallo, Pasquale Sarnacchiaro (2004), “L'analisi statistica multivariata per la valutazione della patient e job satisfaction”, in Qualità e valutazione delle strutture sanitarie, Pagano A., Vittadini G. (Editors), Edizioni ETAS, 2004 Activities Timing Activities: - Courses; - Seminars; - Matches; - Case study; - Development of statistical routine in R-software and Matlab Semester I II III IV V VI Activity Semesters: - I Study of models for the enhancement of regional tourist attractions. Finding methods for setting a floor for the reception and visitor management - II Planning of the model for the data collection - III Transformation of the data with different techniques of quantification
  36. 36. - IV Using of the appropriate multivariate statistical methods - V Elaboration of specialized software - VI Interpretation of the results on real cases
  37. 37. PhD Subject Proposal Erasmus Mundus Sustainable eTourism Programme Nov.2011 - Sep. 2014 (34 months) Country: Italy University: University of Sannio – joined with University Florence Laboratory/Department: Energy Engineering Department – Logistics Laboratory Domain: Engineering Doctorate Title: New RFID technologies in the tourism and edutainment area Abstract (context of reserach, objectives, methodology... - 1 page min, 2 pages max): The subject of the study concerns the application of new technologies in the tourism and edutainment area. Indeed, the number of radio frequency identification (RFID) applications in different industries increases continuously. Cumulative sales of RFID tags up to the beginning of 2006 reached 2.4 billion. In 2005 alone, 600 million tags were sold, which presents the actual trend in RFID allocation. While the initial RFID application areas were generally industrial, applications like retail sector, supply chain management, warehouse management, logistics, manufacturing, military applications, and service sector also present a potential for RFID applications. As a general definition, radio transmissions containing some type of identifying information are considered as radio frequency identification. RFID is about devices and technology that use radio signals to exchange identifying data. In the usual context, this implies a small tag or label that identifies a specific object. Radio frequency identification is a relatively new automatic identification system (auto-Id). Auto-Id refers to the methods of recognizing objects, getting information about them, and entering that data or feeding it directly into computer systems without any human involvement. Automatic identification and data capture technologies include barcodes, optic character recognition (OCR), magnetic stripes, smart cards, and biometrics. Typically, RFID systems consist of a microchip with a coiled antenna and a reader. Data and energy are transmitted without any contact between the microchip and the reader. The reader sends out electromagnetic waves that form a magnetic field so that the microchip’s circuits are powered. The chip modulates the waves and sends back to the reader. The reader converts the new waves into digital data. Some of the current uses of RFID technology include point of sale (POS), automated vehicle identification (AVI) systems, access control within buildings, animal identification, asset tracking, warehouse management and logistics, product tracking in a supply chain, and raw material tracking/parts movement within factories. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of utilizing RFID in hospitality industry as well as in educational and museum sectors, as a tool for improving service quality, customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability. RFID applications in tourism can be illustrated in four major subgroups based on different aims of usage. The first group of applications is mainly designed for human tracking and control. A broad extent of applications ranging from e-passports to customer loyalty management systems can be given as an example. The second group is also for tracking purposes but to control assets and valuables rather than human beings. RFID-tagged casino chips and luggage-tracking systems can be grouped in this subtopic. Contactless payment systems, including contactless billing and paying, are the third main subtopic of RFID applications in tourism. RFID-based toll collection systems and public transport cards are the major examples
  38. 38. of this kind of applications. RFID-based information devices are the final group. Most of these systems are designed to inform the user by giving information about nearby objects. For example, the PDA or mobile–phone integrated systems are already widely used in museums to inform the users about the exhibited pieces. During the study, a first service quality literature review will be done and important quality dimensions will be selected for further analysis. After a deep review on RFID technology, applications, future threats, and opportunities in the selected application areas, finally an experimental application of one of the technologies will be projected and held. The city of Florence with its artistic value will be a great help for the identification of the case study. The instrumentation and know how of the Logistics Laboratory Staff of the University of Florence will supply the practical knowledge and instrumentation needed in the work. Via the analysis of the results of the case study, changes in business process will be suggested and the contributions of RFID-based solutions will be discussed according to the selected service quality dimensions. Keywords (3 to 5) RFID TOURISM EDUTAINMENT SERVICE QUALITY Publications related to the subject (2 to 3 references): • N. Nambiar, “RFID Technology: A Review of its Applications,” in Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, vol. 2, 2009. • S. Isaksson, “Possible Applications of RFID Technology in Tourism Services,” USCCS 2010, pag. 51. • N. Zeni, N. Kiyavitskaya, S. Barbera, B. Oztaysi, e L. Mich, “RFID-based action tracking for measuring the impact of cultural events on tourism,” Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2009, pagg. 223–235, 2009. Activities Timing Semester I II III IV V VI Activity Service Quality Literature review RFID Literature review RFID Laboratory Practice Case study definition and preparation Case study analysis PhD Thesis completion RFID Technology selection Case study design Case study analysis PhD Thesis organization Case study discussion Case study discussion