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Research method ch01 introduction Research method ch01 introduction Presentation Transcript

  • Research Methods in Health Chapter 1. Introduction Young Moon Chae, Ph.D. Graduate School of Public Health Yonsei University, Korea ymchae@yuhs.ac 1
  • Table of Contents I Introduction II Concepts III Research process IV Building block of theory V Types of research VI Reference
  • I Introduction II Concepts III Research process IV Building block of theory V Types of research VI Reference 3
  • Introduction • The aim of this course is to provide an overview of the scientific method by examining the processes of health research. • During your career as a health professional there will be many advances in clinical knowledge. By understanding the scientific processes that underpin the advances in clinical knowledge, you will be in a better position to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the various research publications. 4
  • Objectives of Chapter 1 • Outline the scientific method • Describe the contentiousness concerning the scientific method • Describe how the scientific method is applied to health sciences research 5
  • I Introduction II Concepts III Research process IV Building block of theory V Types of research VI Reference 6
  • Concepts • Scientific Methods Many people, not only scientists, undertake research. What distinguishes scientific from other forms of research is not the research itself, but the approach to the research. Hence, science is a "systematic approach to the discovery of knowledge based on a set of rules that defines what is acceptable knowledge" (Dane, 1990, p.21). • Research The manner in which we attempt to solve problems in a systematic effort to push back the frontiers of human ignorance or to confirm the validity of the solutions to problems others have presumably resolved • Health Research Systematic gathering, recording, and analyzing of data about health problems in order to find their solutions 7
  • Characteristics of Research • Begins with a problem in the form of a question in the mind of the researcher • Demands the identification of a problem, stated in clear, unambiguous terms • Requires a plan • Deals with the main problem through appropriate sub-problems • Seeks direction through appropriate hypotheses and is based upon obvious assumption • Deals with facts and their meaning – The significance of the data depends upon the way in which the facts are regarded. • It is circular 8
  • Research Process is Cyclical 9
  • What is Good Research? • Purpose clearly defined • Research process detailed • Research design thoroughly planned • Limitations frankly revealed • High ethical standards applied • Adequate analysis • Findings presented unambiguously • Conclusions justified • Researcher’s experience reflected 10
  • Criteria for a Research Project • Universality – The research project should be such that it could be carried out by any competent person other than the researcher himself. • Replication – The research should be repeatable. Any other competent researcher should be able to take the problem and collecting data under the same circumstances and within the identical parameters as you have observed, achieve results comparable to those you have been able to secure • Control – All research is conducted within an area sealed off by given parametric limitation. By such control, we isolate those factors which are critical to the research • Measurement – The data should be susceptible to “measurement.” • Research design – A careful early inventory of your resources, your problem, and the sources of the data may be highly desirable to conduct a good research 11
  • Research Planning vs Research Methodology • Research Planning - It is a process of choosing a viable research problem and consider that nature of the data which the investigation of such a problem will demand and the feasible means of collecting and interpreting those data - It is executed within the framework of a clearly conceived and feasible design • Research Methodology - It is employed by separate academic disciplines in collecting and processing data within the framework of the research process - The research method the one researcher employs is entirely different from that which the other researcher uses the data in the one situation are entirely different from the data in the other 12
  • I Introduction II Concepts III Research process IV Building block of theory V Types of research VI Reference 13
  • Source: Leedy PD, Practical research. Macmillan, 1985 14
  • Working with the Hierarchy • Fine tune the Research question - Examine concepts and constructs - Break research questions into specific second-and –third-level questions - Verify hypotheses with quality tests - Determine what evidence answers the various questions and hypothesis - Set the scope of your study • Investigative questions - Questions the researcher must answer to satisfactorily arrive at a conclusion about the research questions • Measurement questions - The questions we actually ask or extract from respondents 15
  • Research Process Problem • The favored technique syndrome • Unresearchable questions • Ill-defined management problems • Politically motivated research • Inaccessible data 16
  • Other Steps in Research • Research Proposal • Pilot testing - To detect weakness in design and instruments - Pre-testing • Data collection - Primary vs. secondary data • Data analysis • Reporting the results - Executive summary - Overview, Findings, Implications (practical and academic), Limitations, Conclusion, appendix 17
  • The Thought Process: Reasoning • Rationalism vs. Empiricism - Rationalism: The theory that an individual's actions and beliefs should be based on reason rather than on intuition or the teachings of others - Empiricism: Observations and propositions based on sense experience and/or derived from such experience by methods of inductive logic, including statistics • Deduction vs. Induction - Deduction: A form of reasoning in which the conclusion must necessarily follow from the reasons given; a deduction is valid if it is impossible for the conclusion to be false if the premises are true - Induction: A form of reasoning in which a conclusion is drawn from one or more particular facts or pieces of evidence; the conclusion explains the facts 18
  • I Introduction II Concepts III Research process IV Building block of theory V Types of research VI Reference 19
  • Building Block of Theory (I) • Theory - A set of systematically interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that are advanced to explain and predict phenomena - Generalizations about variables and the relationships among them - Hypothesis play an important role in the development of theory - Theories tend to be complex, be abstract, and involve multiple variables. - Hypothesis, in the other hand, tend to be more simple, limited-variable statements involving concrete instances • Model - A representation of a system that is constructed to study some aspect of that system or the system as a whole - Model differ from theories in that a theory’s role is explanation whereas a model’s role is representation - Models are an important means of advancing theories and aiding decision makers 20
  • Example of Model A Model of Stages in the Innovation-Decision Process Knowledge Persuasion Decision Implementation Confirmation (Source: Rogers EM. Diffusion of innovations. Third Edition. The Free Press.1983 21
  • The Role of Reasoning in Model Development • Models are developed through the use of inductive and deductive reasoning, which is integral to accurate conclusion about business decision • A model may be originate from empirical observations about behavior based on researched facts and relationships among variables Empirical data Inductive reasoning Develop premises Test outcomes Conclusions about Model development behavior Specify relationships Theory/Experience Deductive among variables reasoning 22
  • Building Block of Theory (II) • Concepts A bundle of meanings or characteristics associated with certain events, objects, conditions, situations, and the like • Constructs/Variables An image or idea specifically invented for a given research and /or theory-building purpose • Operational definition A definition stated in terms of specific testing criteria or operations 23
  • Variables/Propositions/Hypotheses • Independent/Dependent variables - Independent variable (IV): The variable manipulated by the researcher, thereby causing an effect or change on the dependent variable - Dependent variable (DV): The variable measured, predicted, or otherwise monitored by the researcher; expected to be affected by a manipulation of the independent variable • Moderating/Mediating variables (MV) - It is a second independent variable that is included because it is believed to have a significant contributory or contingent effect on the originally stated independent – dependent variable relationship 24
  • Variables/Propositions/Hypotheses (cont.) • Extraneous Variables (EV) - It is a control variable which introduced to help interpret the relationship between variables • Intervening variables (IVV) - Factor which theoretically affects the observed phenomenon but cannot be seen, measured, or manipulated - Its effect must be inferred from the effects of the independent and moderator variables on the observed phenomenon - For example: A promotion campaign (IV) will increase savings activity (DV), especially when free prizes are offered (MV), but chiefly among smaller savers (EV- control). The results come from enhancing the motivation to save (IVV) 25
  • Variables/Propositions/Hypotheses (cont.) • Propositions/Hypotheses - Proposition: A statement about observable phenomena (concepts) that may be judged as true or false. When a proposition is formulated fro empirical testing, we call it a hypotheses - Hypothesis: A proposition formulated for empirical testing; a tentative descriptive statement that describes the relationship between two or more variables • The Role of the Hypothesis - It guides the direction of the study - It identifies facts that are relevant and those that are not - It suggests which form of research design is likely to be most appropriate - It provides a framework for organizing the conclusions that result 26
  • I Introduction II Concepts III Research process IV Building block of theory V Types of research VI Reference 27
  • Types of Research The types of research can be categorized as: • Description (fact finding) • Exploration (looking for patterns) • Analysis (explaining why or how) • Prediction (forecasting the likelihood of particular events) • Problem Solving (improvement of current practice) 28
  • Descriptive Research • Seeks to accurately describe current or past phenomena - to answer such questions as: § What is the absentee rate for particular lectures? § What is the pass rate for particular courses? § What is the dropout rate on particular degree programs? § What effect does a particularly quality audit process have on teacher morale? 29
  • Analytical Research • Seeking to explain the reasons behind a particular occurrence by discovering causal relationships. Once causal relationships have been discovered, the search then shifts to factors that can be changed (variables) in order to influence the chain of causality. Typical questions are: § Why is there a preponderance of female students on 1st level teacher training programs? § What factors might account for the high drop-out rate on a particular degree programs? 30
  • Predictive Research • Seeks to forecast the likelihood of particular phenomena occurring in given circumstances. It seeks to answer such questions as: § Will changing the start time achieve a higher attendance rate at our lectures? § Will increasing the weighting for course work encourage students to adopt deep learning strategies? 31
  • Problem Solving Research / Action Research • Action-research is a form of problem solving based on increasing knowledge through observation and reflection, then following this with a deliberate intervention intended to improve practice. § Educational action-research describes a family of activities in curriculum development, professional development, school improvement programs, and systems planning and policy development. § Participants in the action being considered are intricately involved with all of these activities. 32
  • Typical Methods Descriptive Statistical Surveys Research Sampling Interviews Analytical Research Case Studies Attitude Surveys Observations Statistical Surveys Historical Analysis Predictive Identifying and / or defining measurable Research (quantifiable) variables and manipulating them to cause measurable. Problem Action-research spiral: Solving/Active observe à reflect à plan à act à Research observe à reflect à plan à act ……… 33
  • Types of Paper 1. Papers that are descriptive (surveys, observational studies) 2. Papers that report trials (e.g. diet, H Prom, drug), other intervention studies 3. Papers that go beyond numbers (qualitative research) 4. Papers that summarize other papers (systematic reviews and meta- analyses) 5. Papers that tell you what things cost (economic analyses) 6. Papers that report diagnostic or screening tests 7. Case studies 8. Others 34
  • Review Questions 1. The results of scientific research: • should be made available for critique and replication • should not be used to support existing theories • must be obtained in controlled laboratory situations • must conform to public expectations about the outcome. 2. The scientific method is a set of rules specifying how: • scientific knowledge should be acquired, stated and tested • scientists should conduct their life • how society should conduct its affairs • all of the above a, b, and c. 3. A scientific theory is a set of statements: • conforming to the rules of logic • explaining the relationships which pertain among apparently diverse phenomena • which lead to empirically testable hypotheses • all of the above a, b, and c. 35
  • References th Cooper DR, Schindler PS. Business research methods. 9 Edition, 2006 Dane, FC. Research methods. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1990 Leedy PD, Practical research. Macmillan, 1985 Polgar S, Thomas SA. Introduction to research in the health sciences. Churchill Livingston, 1991 36