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Mastergin Civil Auto Cad 3d 2010
Mastergin Civil Auto Cad 3d 2010
Mastergin Civil Auto Cad 3d 2010
Mastergin Civil Auto Cad 3d 2010
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  • 1. Mastering AutoCAD® Civil 3D® 2010
  • 2. Mastering AutoCAD® Civil 3D® 2010 James Wedding Scott McEachron Wiley Publishing, Inc.
  • 3. Senior Acquisitions Editor: Willem Knibbe Development Editor: Kathryn Duggan Technical Editor: Jonathan Stewart Production Editor: Liz Britten Copy Editor: Kathy Grider-Carlyle Editorial Manager: Pete Gaughan Production Manager: Tim Tate Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard Swadley Vice President and Publisher: Neil Edde Book Designer: Judy Fung and Bill Gibson Proofreader: Jen Larsen, Word One Indexer: Ted Laux Project Coordinator, Cover: Lynsey Stanford Cover Designer: Ryan Sneed Cover Image: © Pete Gardner / Digital Vision / Getty Images Copyright © 2009 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-0-470-47353-5 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Web site is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Web site may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Web sites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (877) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Wedding, James, 1974- Mastering Autocad Civil 3D 2010 / James Wedding, Scott McEachron. – 1st ed. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-470-47353-5 (paper/website) 1. Civil engineering — Computer programs. 2. Surveying — Computer programs. 3. Three-dimensional display systems. 4. AutoCAD Civil 3D (Electronic resource) I. McEachron, Scott, 1965- II. Title. TA345.W44752 2009 624.0285’836–dc22 2009019191 TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. AutoCAD and Civil 3D are registered trademarks of Autodesk, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  • 4. Dear Reader, Thank you for choosing Mastering AutoCAD Civil 3D 2010. This book is part of a family of premium-quality Sybex books, all of which are written by outstanding authors who combine practical experience with a gift for teaching. Sybex was founded in 1976. More than 30 years later, we’re still committed to producing consis- tently exceptional books. With each of our titles, we’re working hard to set a new standard for the industry. From the paper we print on, to the authors we work with, our goal is to bring you the best books available. I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. I’d be very interested to hear your comments and get your feedback on how we’re doing. Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other Sybex book by sending me an email at nedde@wiley.com. If you think you’ve found a technical error in this book, please visit http://sybex.custhelp.com. Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex. Best regards, Neil Edde Vice President and Publisher Sybex, an Imprint of Wiley
  • 5. For Mom. — JW For Grandma. — SM
  • 6. Acknowledgments This book is a team effort, with more authors than on are the front cover. We both have people to thank and acknowledge. Thank you to our clients and peers. Their generous sharing of data, time, and energy made many of the exercises and lessons in this book possible. We learn as much from our clients as we ever teach them. Thank you to the team at Wiley: Willem Knibbe, Pete Gaughan, Jonathan Stewart, Kathryn Duggan, and Liz Britten. This team of editors performed an incredible job of guiding us through a faster production process than many thought possible. Thank you to our friends in Manchester, New Hampshire. Autodesk has some truly great people working there, delivering the best product they can to users worldwide. Helping us with our questions the whole time they were preparing this release, the development team at Autodesk is an invaluable resource for this authoring team. From The Authors I have to first thank Scott. He took on the lion’s share of the effort this year, and without him, some other team would have created the 2010 edition you have in your hands. Thanks to my partners at EE for understanding my love for this odd pet project, and for keeping the engine running while I was authoring. Thanks to Dan, Dave, Pete, Nick, Jessica, Dana, and Dana for being part of my sounding board and solution team this year. Your generous sharing of time and knowledge makes a task like this possible. Thank you Melinda and the girls for humoring all the ‘‘Hemingway’’ days and for still being excited about Daddy’s books. And thanks Willem — you know why. — James Wedding, P.E. First and foremost I want to thank James for giving me the opportunity to work on this. This also couldn’t have been possible without the trust of the EE team, and for that I’m grateful. I have to thank Nick for having the ability to help me keep things in perspective, and Travis for keeping me thinking outside the box. I need to thank my family and friends, and especially my grandmother for having enough faith in me 20 years ago to help me get started. I want to thank Greg and the team at Sherrill for giving me the opportunity to learn from the best, and Ross for having the courage to give me the push I’ll always be grateful for. Finally, I want to thank Billy W. for being the cheerleader I needed, when I needed it. — Scott McEachron
  • 7. About the Authors This book was written as a team effort from day one. Scott and I have covered the country and parts of the world training and teaching Civil 3D. Here’s a bit more about each of us. James Wedding, P.E., spent nearly a decade in the Dallas/Fort Worth land development indus- try before partnering with Engineered Efficiency (EE) in February 2006. A graduate of Texas Tech with a BSCE in 1997, he worked as a design engineer focused on private development. His design experience includes small commercial to multiphase single-family and master planned communi- ties. James has served as president of the Preston Trail Chapter of the Texas Society of Professional Engineers, and he was selected their Young Engineer of the Year in 2003. One of the earliest gunslingers for the Civil 3D product, James has worked extensively with the Autodesk product team to shape and guide the software’s development. James is a highly rated repeat presenter at Autodesk University and a presenter on the Friday Civil 3D webcasts. Scott McEachron, an Iowa native, received his Associate of Technology in Engineering Tech- nology from the Morrison Institute of Technology in Morrison, Illinois in 1993. Prior to that he had been using AutoCAD and DCA in practice, but it wasn’t until the spring of 1993 that he began a career in the civil/survey world in Edwardsville, IL. Scott began working in the Reseller community in 1998 and found his love for consulting then. Scott has been a speaker at Autodesk University for the past six years and is well known for his real-world approach to solving com- mon civil/survey technology–related issues. Scott is known for his work in implementing Civil 3D under difficult circumstances and had one of the first documented success stories nearly five years ago.
  • 8. Contents at a Glance Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv Chapter 1 • Getting Dirty: The Basics of Civil 3D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 2 • Back to Basics: Lines and Curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Chapter 3 • Lay of the Land: Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Chapter 4 • X Marks the Spot: Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Chapter 5 • The Ground Up: Surfaces in Civil 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Chapter 6 • Don’t Fence Me In: Parcels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Chapter 7 • Laying a Path: Alignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Chapter 8 • Cut to the Chase: Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Chapter 9 • Slice and Dice: Profile Views in Civil 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Chapter 10 • Templates Plus: Assemblies and Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Chapter 11 • Easy Does It: Basic Corridors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Chapter 12 • The Road Ahead: Advanced Corridors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Chapter 13 • Stacking Up: Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 Chapter 14 • The Tool Chest: Parts Lists and Part Builder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 Chapter 15 • Running Downhill: Pipe Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 Chapter 16 • Working the Land: Grading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 Chapter 17 • Sharing the Model: Data Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 Chapter 18 • Behind the Scenes: Autodesk Data Management Server . . . . . . . . . . . 663 Chapter 19 • Teamwork: Vault Client and Civil 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683
  • 9. xii CONTENTS AT A GLANCE Chapter 20 • Out the Door: Plan Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713 Chapter 21 • Playing Nice with Others: LDT and LandXML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739 Chapter 22 • Get The Picture: Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757 Chapter 23 • Projecting the Cost: Quantity Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781 Appendix • The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845
  • 10. Contents Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv Chapter 1 • Getting Dirty: The Basics of Civil 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Windows on the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Toolspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Ribbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 It’s All About Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Label Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Object Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 The Underlying Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Chapter 2 • Back to Basics: Lines and Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Labeling Lines and Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Coordinate Line Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Direction-Based Line Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Creating Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Standard Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Re-creating a Deed Using Line and Curve Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Best Fit Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Attach Multiple Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 The Curve Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Adding Line and Curve Labels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Converting Curve Labels to Tags and Making a Curve Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Using Transparent Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Standard Transparent Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Matching Transparent Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Using Inquiry Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Establishing Drawing Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Drawing Settings: Units and Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Drawing Settings: Ambient Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Checking Your Work: The Mapcheck Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Chapter 3 • Lay of the Land: Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Understanding the Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Databases Everywhere! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 The Equipment Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
  • 11. xiv CONTENTS The Figure Prefix Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 The Survey Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 The Linework Code Sets Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Creating a Field Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Working with Field Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Other Survey Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Chapter 4 • X Marks the Spot: Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Anatomy of a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Creating Basic Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Point Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Importing Points from a Text File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Converting Points from Land Desktop, Softdesk, and Other Sources . . . . . . . . . . 101 Getting to Know the Create Points Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Basic Point Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Physical Point Edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Properties Box Point Edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Panorama and Prospector Point Edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Changing Point Elevations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Point Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Point Label Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Creating More Complex Point and Point-Label Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Point Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 User-Defined Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Creating a Point Table and User-Defined Properties for Tree Points . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Creating a Point Group to Control Visibility and Moving a Point Group to Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Working with Description Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Chapter 5 • The Ground Up: Surfaces in Civil 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Digging In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Creating Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Free Surface Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Inexpensive Surface Approximations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 On-the-Ground Surveying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Refining and Editing Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Surface Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Surface Additions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Surface Styling and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Surface Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Slopes and Slope Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Comparing Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Simple Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
  • 12. CONTENTS xv Volume Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Labeling the Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Contour Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Surface Point Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Chapter 6 • Don’t Fence Me In: Parcels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Creating and Managing Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Best Practices for Site Topology Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Creating a New Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Creating a Boundary Parcel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Creating a Wetlands Parcel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Creating a Right-of-Way Parcel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Creating Subdivision Lot Parcels Using Precise Sizing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Attached Parcel Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Precise Sizing Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Slide Line – Create Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Swing Line – Create Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Creating Open Space Parcels Using the Free Form Create Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Editing Parcels by Deleting Parcel Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Best Practices for Parcel Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Forming Parcels from Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Parcels Reacting to Site Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Constructing Parcel Segments with the Appropriate Vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Labeling Parcel Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Labeling Parcel Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Labeling Multiple Parcel Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Labeling Spanning Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Adding Curve Tags to Prepare for Table Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Creating a Table for Parcel Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Chapter 7 • Laying a Path: Alignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Alignments, Pickles, and Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Alignments and Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Alignment Entities and Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Creating an Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Creating from a Polyline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Creating by Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Creating with Design Constraints and Check Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Editing Alignment Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Grip-Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Tabular Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Component-Level Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Changing Alignment Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
  • 13. xvi CONTENTS Alignments as Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Renaming Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 The Right Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Assigning Design Speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Banking Turn Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Styling Alignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 The Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Labeling Alignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Alignment Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Chapter 8 • Cut to the Chase: Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Elevate Me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Surface Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Layout Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Editing Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Profile Display and Stylization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Profile Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Chapter 9 • Slice and Dice: Profile Views in Civil 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 A Better Point of View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Creating During Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Creating Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Splitting Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 Profile Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Superimposing Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Object Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Editing Profile Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Profile View Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Profile View Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Labeling Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Chapter 10 • Templates Plus: Assemblies and Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . 369 Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 The Corridor Modeling Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Building Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Creating a Typical Road Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Alternative Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 Editing an Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Creating Assemblies for Nonroad Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Working with Generic Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Enhancing Assemblies Using Generic Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
  • 14. CONTENTS xvii Working with Daylight Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Enhancing an Assembly with a Daylight Subassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Saving Subassemblies and Assemblies for Later Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Storing a Customized Subassembly on a Tool Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Storing a Completed Assembly on a Tool Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Chapter 11 • Easy Does It: Basic Corridors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Understanding Corridors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Creating a Simple Road Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Utilities for Viewing Your Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Rebuilding Your Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 Common Corridor Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 Corridor Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Corridor Feature Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Adding a Surface Target for Daylighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Common Daylighting Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Applying a Hatch Pattern to Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Creating a Corridor Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 The Corridor Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Creation Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 Adding a Surface Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 Performing a Volume Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Common Volume Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Creating a Corridor with a Lane Widening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 Using Target Alignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 Common Transition Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Creating a Stream Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Chapter 12 • The Road Ahead: Advanced Corridors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Getting Creative with Corridor Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Using Alignment and Profile Targets to Model a Roadside Swale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Corridor Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Modeling a Peer-Road Intersection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Using the Intersection Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Manually Adding a Baseline and Region for an Intersecting Road . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 Creating an Assembly for the Intersection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 Adding Baselines, Regions, and Targets for the Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 Troubleshooting Your Intersection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 Building a First-Draft Corridor Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
  • 15. xviii CONTENTS Perfecting Your Model to Optimize the Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 Refining a Corridor Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 Modeling a Cul-de-sac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 Adding a Baseline, Region, and Targets for the Cul-de-sac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Troubleshooting Your Cul-de-sac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 Modeling a Widening with an Assembly Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 Using a Feature Line as a Width and Elevation Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 Chapter 13 • Stacking Up: Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 The Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 Lining Up for Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 Creating Sample Lines along a Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Editing the Swath Width of a Sample Line Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 Creating the Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 Creating a Single-Section View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 It’s a Material World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 Creating a Materials List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 Creating a Volume Table in the Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 Adding Soil Factors to a Materials List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497 Generating a Volume Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 A Little More Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Adding a Pipe Network to a Sample Line Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Automating Plotting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 Annotating the Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Chapter 14 • The Tool Chest: Parts Lists and Part Builder . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 Planning a Typical Pipe Network: A Sanitary Sewer Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 The Part Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 The Structures Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 The Pipes Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 The Supporting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 Part Builder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 Parametric Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 Part Builder Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 Adding a Part Size Using Part Builder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520 Sharing a Custom Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 Adding an Arch Pipe to Your Part Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 Part Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 Creating Structure Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 Creating Pipe Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 Part Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 Structure Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 Pipe Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 Creating Structure and Pipe Rule Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
  • 16. CONTENTS xix Parts List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 Adding Part Families on the Pipes Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 Adding Part Families on the Structures Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543 Creating a Parts List for a Sanitary Sewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550 Chapter 15 • Running Downhill: Pipe Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 Exploring Pipe Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 Pipe Network Object Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 Creating a Sanitary Sewer Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Creating a Pipe Network with Layout Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Establishing Pipe Network Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Using the Network Layout Creation Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 Creating a Storm Drainage Pipe Network from a Feature Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563 Creating a Storm Drainage Network from a Feature Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563 Changing Flow Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565 Editing a Pipe Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 Editing Your Network in Plan View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 Making Tabular Edits to Your Pipe Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 Shortcut Menu Edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 Editing with the Network Layout Tools Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Creating an Alignment from Network Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574 Drawing Parts in Profile View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576 Vertical Movement Edits Using Grips in Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578 Removing a Part from Profile View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 Showing Pipes That Cross the Profile View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581 Adding Pipe Network Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583 Creating a Labeled Pipe Network Profile Including Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 Pipe Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587 Structure Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 Special Profile Attachment Points for Structure Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 Creating an Interference Check between a Storm and Sanitary Pipe Network . . . . . . 595 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 Chapter 16 • Working the Land: Grading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 Working with Grading Feature Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 Accessing Grading Feature Line Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 Creating Grading Feature Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602 Editing Feature Line Horizontal Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610 Editing Feature Line Elevation Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 Stylizing and Labeling Feature Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626 Grading Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 Defining Criteria Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 Creating Gradings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 Editing Gradings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635
  • 17. xx CONTENTS Grading Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 Creating Surfaces from Grading Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644 Chapter 17 • Sharing the Model: Data Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 What Are Data Shortcuts? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 Publishing Data Shortcut Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 The Working and Data Shortcuts Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647 Creating Data Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649 Using Data Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 Creating Shortcut References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 Updating and Managing References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660 Chapter 18 • Behind the Scenes: Autodesk Data Management Server . . . . . 663 What Is Vault? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663 ADMS and Vault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664 ADMS and SQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664 Installing ADMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 Managing ADMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670 ADMS Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670 Accessing Vaults via Vault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676 Vault Management via Vault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678 Vault Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678 Vault Administration and Working Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680 Chapter 19 • Teamwork: Vault Client and Civil 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683 Vault and Project Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683 Vault versus Data Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684 Project Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684 Project Workflow with Vault and Civil 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 Feedback from the Vault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686 Working in Vault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687 Preparing for Projects in Civil 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687 Populating Vault with Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690 Working with Vault Data References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695 Pulling It Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700 Team Management in Vault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706 Vault Folder Permission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706 Restoring Previous Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711 Chapter 20 • Out the Door: Plan Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713 Preparing for Plan Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713 Prerequisite Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713
  • 18. CONTENTS xxi Using View Frames and Match Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714 The Create View Frames Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714 Creating View Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721 Editing View Frames and Match Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722 Using Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725 The Create Sheets Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725 Managing Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 730 Supporting Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733 Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733 Styles and Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 Chapter 21 • Playing Nice with Others: LDT and LandXML . . . . . . . . . . . . 739 What Is LandXML? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739 Handling Inbound Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741 Importing Land Desktop Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741 Importing LandXML Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744 Sharing the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749 Creating LandXML Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749 Creating an AutoCAD Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754 Chapter 22 • Get The Picture: Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757 AutoCAD 3D Modeling Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757 Applying Different Visual Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758 Render Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760 Visualizing Civil 3D Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761 Applying a Visual Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762 Visualizing a Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762 Visualizing a Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765 Creating Code Set Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765 Visualizing a Pipe Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767 Visualizing AutoCAD Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770 Creating a 3D DWF from a Corridor Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773 Creating a Quick Rendering from a Corridor Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 774 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779 Chapter 23 • Projecting the Cost: Quantity Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781 Inserting a Pay Item List and Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781 Keeping Tabs on the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786 AutoCAD Objects as Pay Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786 Pricing Your Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788 Pipes and Structures as Pay Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791 Highlighting Pay Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796 Inventory Your Pay Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796 The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798
  • 19. xxii CONTENTS Appendix • The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799 Chapter 1: Getting Dirty: The Basics of 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799 Chapter 2: Back to Basics: Lines and Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802 Chapter 3: Lay of the Land: Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804 Chapter 4: X Marks the Spot: Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805 Chapter 5: The Ground Up: Surfaces in Civil 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808 Chapter 6: Don’t Fence Me In: Parcels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809 Chapter 7: Laying A Path: Alignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811 Chapter 8: Cut to the Chase: Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814 Chapter 9: Slice and Dice: Profile Views in Civil 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 815 Chapter 10: Templates Plus: Assemblies and Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819 Chapter 11: Easy Does It: Basic Corridors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820 Chapter 12: The Road Ahead: Advanced Corridors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821 Chapter 13: Stacking Up: Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822 Chapter 14: The Tool Chest: Parts List and Part Builder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823 Chapter 15: Running Downhill: Pipe Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 826 Chapter 16: Working the Land: Grading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828 Chapter 17: Sharing the Model: Data Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832 Chapter 18: Behind the Scenes: Autodesk Data Management Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833 Chapter 19: Teamwork: Vault Client and Civil 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835 Chapter 20: Out the Door: Plan Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837 Chapter 21: Playing Nice With Others: LDT and LandXML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 839 Chapter 22: Get The Picture: Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 841 Chapter 23: Projecting the Cost: Quantity Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 842 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845
  • 20. Foreword When we began the development of AutoCAD® Civil 3D® software we had three key goals in mind: ◆ Provide automation tools for creating coordinated, reliable design information for a range of project types including land development, transportation, and environmental. ◆ Enable project teams to use the design information to accurately visualize, simulate, and analyze the performance of the project to come up with the best solutions. ◆ Facilitate delivery of higher quality construction documentation. Our approach for achieving these goals was to develop a 3D information model that could accurately represent the civil engineering workflow and design process. The model, which dynam- ically connects design and construction documentation, has facilitated new ways of working and has helped civil engineers complete projects faster and with improved accuracy. Engineers are able to make design changes quickly and evaluate more alternatives, identify design issues and conflicts earlier in the process, and deliver higher quality designs faster. These concepts have revolutionized the Civil Engineering process such that the plan produc- tion phase does not have to wait for the design to be completed. As a result, AutoCAD Civil 3D provides efficiencies in both the design automation and plan production stages of a typical design. This is a departure from traditional 2D drafting based design software and it has a great poten- tial to enhance design productivity and quality of design work. With AutoCAD Civil 3D, the entire design team can work from one model so that all phases of the project, from survey to construction documentation, remain coordinated. The authors of Mastering AutoCAD Civil 3D 2010 have embraced this vision from the start of its development. As the product has matured, I have had many conversations with James Wedding and the team at Engineered Efficiency to discuss product decisions and direction. I can recall conversations where James Wedding and I would discuss the reasons why we designed the product to work the way it does. As a result, this book contains much more than ‘‘picks and clicks.’’ It has insightful tips, workflow recommendations, and best practices for using AutoCAD Civil 3D in a coordinated team environment. On behalf of the entire AutoCAD Civil 3D product development team, I hope that AutoCAD Civil 3D enables you to work in ways that allow for creativity and profitability. This book is a great way to expand your understanding of the product and will help you gain the most out of the software. Daniel A. Philbrick Software Development Manager Autodesk, Inc.
  • 21. Introduction Civil 3D was introduced in 2004 as a trial product. Designed to give the then Land Develop- ment desktop user a glimpse of the civil engineering software future, it was a sea change for AutoCAD-based design packages. Although there was need for a dynamic design package, many seasoned Land Desktop users wondered how they’d ever make the transition. Over the past few years, Civil 3D has evolved from the wobbly baby introduced on those first trial discs to a mature platform used worldwide to handle the most complex engineering designs. With this change, many engineers still struggle with how to make the transition. The civil engineering industry as a whole is an old dog learning new tricks. We hope this book will help you make the transition easier. As the user base grows and users get beyond the absolute basics, more materials are needed, offering a multitude of learning oppor- tunities. Designed to help you get past the steepest part of the learning curve and teach you some guru-level tricks along the way, Mastering AutoCAD Civil 3D 2010 should be a good addition to any Civil 3D user’s bookshelf. Who Should Read This Book The Mastering book series is designed with specific users in mind. In the case of Mastering Auto- CAD Civil 3D 2010, we expect you’ll have some knowledge of AutoCAD in general and some basic engineering knowledge as well. We expect this book should appeal to a large number of Civil 3D users, but we envision a few primary users: ◆ Beginning users looking to make the move into using Civil 3D. These people understand AutoCAD and some basics of engineering, but they are looking to learn Civil 3D on their own, broadening their skillset to make themselves more valuable in their firms and in the market. ◆ Experienced Land Desktop users looking to transition to Civil 3D. These users understand design practice, and they need to learn how to do the familiar tasks in Civil 3D. They’ll be able to jump to specific chapters and learn how to accomplish the task at hand. ◆ Civil 3D users looking for a desktop reference. With the digitization of the official help files, many users still long for a book they can flip open and keep beside them as they work. These people should be able to jump to the information they need for the task at hand, such as further information about a confusing dialog or troublesome design issue. ◆ Classroom instructors looking for better materials. This book was written with real data from real design firms. We’ve worked hard to make many of the examples match the real-world problems we have run into as engineers. This book also goes into greater depth than many basic texts, allowing short classes to teach the basics and leave the in-depth material for self-discovery, while longer classes can cover the full material presented.
  • 22. xxvi INTRODUCTION This book can be used front-to-back as a self-teaching or instructor-based instruction manual. Each chapter has a number of exercises and most (but not all) build on the previous exercise. You can also skip to almost any exercise in any chapter and jump right in. We’ve created a large number of drawing files that you can download from www.sybex.com/masteringcivil3d2010 to make picking and choosing your exercises a simpler task. What You Will Learn This book isn’t a replacement for training. There are too many design options and parameters to make any book a good replacement for training from a professional. This book teaches you to use the tools available, explore a large number of the options available, and leave you with an idea of how to use each tool. At the end of the book, you should be able to look at any design task you run across, consider a number of ways to approach it, and have some idea of how to accomplish the task. To use one of our common analogies, reading this book is like walking around your local home-improvement warehouse. You see a lot of tools and use some of them, but that doesn’t mean you’re ready to build a house. What You Need Before you begin learning Civil 3D, you should make sure your hardware is up to snuff. Visit the Autodesk website and review graphic requirements, memory requirements, and so on. One of the most frustrating things that can happen is to be ready to learn, only to be stymied by hardware-related crashes. Civil 3D is a hardware-intensive program, testing the limits of every computer on which it runs. We also really recommend using a dual-monitor setup. The number of dialogs, palettes, and so on make Civil 3D a real-estate hog. By having the extra space to spread out, you’ll be able to see more of your design along with the feedback provided by the program itself. You need to visit www.sybex.com/go/masteringcivil3d2010 to download all of the data and sample files. Finally, please be sure to visit the Autodesk website at www.autodesk.com to download any service packs that might be available. The Mastering Series The Mastering series from Sybex provides outstanding instruction for readers with intermediate and advanced skills, in the form of top-notch training and development for those already working in their field and clear, serious education for those aspiring to become pros. Every Mastering book includes: ◆ Real-world scenarios ranging from case studies to interviews that show how the tool, tech- nique, or knowledge presented is applied in actual practice. ◆ Skill-based instruction, with chapters organized around real tasks rather than abstract con- cepts or subjects. ◆ Self-review test questions, so you can be certain you’re equipped to do the job right. What Is Covered in This Book Chapter 1: Getting Dirty: The Basics of Civil 3D introduces you to the interface and many of the common dialogs in Civil 3D. This chapter looks at the Toolbox and some underused Inquiry tools as well.
  • 23. INTRODUCTION xxvii Chapter 2: Back to Basics: Lines and Curves examines various tools for creating linework. These tools include new best-fit tools that will let you interpolate a line or curve between known points. Chapter 3: Lay of the Land: Survey looks at the Survey Toolspace and the unique toolset it contains for handling field surveying and fieldbook data handling. We also look at various sur- face and surveying relationships. Chapter 4: X Marks the Spot: Points introduces Civil 3D points and the various methods of creating them. We also spend some time discussing the control of Civil 3D points with descrip- tion keys and groups. Chapter 5: The Ground Up: Surfaces in Civil 3D introduces the various methods of creating surfaces, using free and low-cost data to perform preliminary surface creation. Then we look at the various surface edits and analysis methods. Chapter 6: Don’t Fence Me In: Parcels describes the best practices for keeping your parcel topology tight and your labeling neat. It examines the various editing methods for achieving the desired results for the most complicated plats. Chapter 7: Laying a Path: Alignments introduces the basic Civil 3D horizontal control element. This chapter also examines using layout tools that maintain the relationships between the tan- gents, curves, and spiral elements that create alignments. Chapter 8: Cut to the Chase: Profiles looks at the sampling and creation methods for the verti- cal control element. We also examine the editing and element level control. Chapter 9: Slice and Dice: Profile Views in Civil 3D examines all the various creation meth- ods for building up profile views to reflect the required format for your design and plans. We also check out the new wizards used for creating split profile views. Chapter 10: Templates Plus: Assemblies and Subassemblies looks at the building blocks of Civil 3D cross-sectional design. We look at the available tool catalogs and at building up full design sections for use in any design environment. Chapter 11: Easy Does It: Basic Corridors introduces the basics of corridors — building full designs from horizontal, vertical, and cross-sectional design elements. We look at the various components to understand them better before moving to a more complex design set. Chapter 12: The Road Ahead: Advanced Corridors looks at using corridors in unusual situa- tions. We look at building surfaces, intersections, and some other areas of corridors that make them powerful in any design situation. Chapter 13: Stacking Up: Cross Sections looks at slicing sections from surfaces, corridors, and pipe networks using alignments and the mysterious sample-line group. Working with the wiz- ards and tools, we show you how to make your sections to order. Chapter 14: The Tool Chest: Parts Lists and Part Builder gets into the building blocks of the pipe network tools. We look at modifying an existing part to add new sizes and then building up parts lists for various design situations. Chapter 15: Running Downhill: Pipe Networks works with the creation tools for creating pipe networks. We look at both plan and profile views to get your plans looking like they should. Chapter 16: Working the Land: Grading examines both feature lines and grading objects. We look at creating feature lines to describe critical areas and then using grading objects to describe mass grading. We also explore using the basic tools to calculate some simple volumes.
  • 24. xxviii INTRODUCTION Chapter 17: Sharing the Model: Data Shortcuts looks at the data-shortcut mechanism for shar- ing data between Civil 3D users. We also look at updating and modifying the data behind the shortcuts and repairing broken references. Chapter 18: Behind the Scenes: Autodesk Data Management Server walks you through installing and managing your own server for using Autodesk Vault as your project-management system. We also look at creating vaults and users for your design teams. Chapter 19: Teamwork: Vault Client and Civil 3D walks you through bringing data into the ADMS created in Chapter 18, creating references between drawings and the update mecha- nism. We also look at the security features that allow team management and access control to individual files. Chapter 20: Out the Door: Plan Production walks through the basics of creating view frame groups and creating sheets, and then it looks at some of the styles, templates, and editing tech- niques involved. Chapter 21: Playing Nice with Others: LDT and LandXML looks at getting data back and forth with other software users. We look at importing data from your existing LDT projects to Civil 3D. We also examine the format of LandXML files to help you better understand what you can expect when you receive or send one out for sharing. Chapter 22: Get the Picture: Visualization completes the main part of the book by taking all of the design elements and making presentation graphics from the design already modeled. We look at using the various rendering methods built into AutoCAD as well as some of the Civil 3D–specific tools. Chapter 23: Projecting the Cost: Quantity Takeoff puts the Civil 3D model to use in the con- struction and contracting phase of the project. We examine pay items lists, tagging items for tabulation, and making the pipe network and corridor part of the inventory process. We also look at some basic reports for totaling up the bill. The Appendix gathers together all the Master It problems from the chapters and provides a solution for each. How to Contact the Authors We welcome feedback from you about this book and/or about books you’d like to see from us in the future. You can reach us by writing to Mastering@eng-eff.com. For more information about our work, please visit our website at www.eng-eff.com. Sybex strives to keep you supplied with the latest tools and information you need for your work. Please check their website at www.sybex.com, where we’ll post additional content and updates that supplement this book if the need arises. Enter Civil 3D in the Search box (or type the book’s ISBN — 9780470473535) and click Go to get to the book’s update page. You can also find updates and more information at www.civil3d.com/errata. Thanks for purchasing Mastering AutoCAD Civil 3D 2010. We appreciate it, and look forward to exploring Civil 3D with you! — James Wedding, P.E.
  • 25. Chapter 1 Getting Dirty: The Basics of Civil 3D Understanding Civil 3D’s controls and operation is critical to mastering it. With its dizzying array of options and settings, getting Civil 3D to look and feel comfortable can take some effort. Learning how to use its numerous dialogs and tool palettes, as well as the Ribbon, is critical to driving Civil 3D and getting feedback about your design. This chapter explores the look and feel of Civil 3D as a CAD program, the unique components that make up the Civil 3D interface, and the creation of a working environment that matches the way you design. By the end of this chapter, you’ll learn to: ◆ Find any Civil 3D object with just a few clicks ◆ Modify the drawing scale and default object layers ◆ Modify the display of Civil 3D tooltips ◆ Add a new tool to the Toolbox ◆ Create a basic label style ◆ Create a new object style ◆ Navigate the Ribbon’s contextual tabs Windows on the Model The most obvious change to the Civil 3D interface over its predecessors is the context-sensitive Ribbon. Many of Civil 3D’s design tools can now be accessed via the Ribbon. A facelift to the Toolspace and enhancements to the general look and feel of the Civil 3D workspace combine to make this release easier to navigate than any of its predecessors. Figure 1.1 shows the Civil 3D palette sets along with the AutoCAD Tool Palettes and context-sensitive Ribbon displayed in a typical environment. Toolspace Toolspace is one of the unique Civil 3D palette sets. Toolspace can have as many as four tabs to manage user data. These tabs are as follows: ◆ Prospector ◆ Settings ◆ Survey ◆ Toolbox
  • 26. 2 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D Figure 1.1 Civil 3D in a typical environment. Toolspace is docked on the left, and Panorama and Tool Palettes float over the drawing window. The Ribbon is at the top of the workspace Using a Microsoft Windows Explorer–like interface within each, these tabs drive a large portion of the user control and data management of Civil 3D. Prospector Prospector is the main window into the Civil 3D object model. This palette or tab is where you go mining for data; it also shows points, alignments, parcels, corridors, and other objects as one concise, expandable list. In addition, in a project environment, this window is where you control access to your project data, create references to shared project data, and observe the check-in and check-out status of a drawing. Finally, you can also use Prospector to create a new drawing from the templates defined in the Drawing Template File Location branch in your AutoCAD Options dialog. Prospector has the following branches: ◆ Open Drawings ◆ Projects (only if the Vault client is installed) ◆ Data Shortcuts ◆ Drawing Templates Master and Active Drawing Views If you can’t see the Projects or Drawing Templates branch in Figure 1.1, look at the top of the Prospector pane. There is a drop-down menu for operating in Active Drawing View or Master View mode. Selecting Active Drawing View displays only the active drawing and Data Shortcuts. Master View mode, however, displays the Projects, the Drawing Templates, and the Data Shortcuts, as well as the branches of all drawings that are currently open. In addition to the branches, Prospector has a series of icons across the top that toggle various settings on and off. Some of the Civil 3D icons from previous versions have been removed, and their functionality has been universally enabled for Civil 3D 2010. Those icons are noted here. Item Preview Toggle Turns on and off the display of the Toolspace item preview within Prospector. These previews can be helpful when you’re navigating drawings in projects (you can select one to check out) or when you’re attempting to locate a parcel on the basis of its visual shape. In general, however, you can turn off this toggle — it’s purely a user preference.
  • 27. WINDOWS ON THE MODEL 3 Preview Area Display Toggle When Toolspace is undocked, this button moves the Preview Area from the right of the tree view to beneath the tree view area. Panorama Display Toggle Turns on and off the display of the Panorama window (which is discussed in a bit). To be honest, there doesn’t seem to be a point to this button, but it’s here nonetheless. Help This should be obvious, but it’s amazing how many people overlook it. Have You Looked in the Help File Lately? The AutoCAD Civil 3D development team in Manchester, New Hampshire, has worked hard to make the Help files in Civil 3D top notch and user friendly. The Help files should be your first line of support! Open Drawings This branch of Prospector contains the drawings currently open in Civil 3D. Each drawing is subdivided into groups by major object type, such as points, point groups, surfaces, and so forth. These object groups then allow you to view all the objects in the collection. Some of these groups are empty until objects are created. You can learn details about an individual object by expanding the tree and selecting an object. Within each drawing, the breakdown is similar. If a collection isn’t empty, a plus sign appears next to it, as in a typical Windows Explorer interface. Selecting any of these top-level collection names displays a list of members in the preview area. Right-clicking the collection name allows you to select various commands that apply to all the members of that collec- tion. For example, right-clicking the Point Groups collection brings up the menu shown in Figure 1.2. Figure 1.2 Context-sensitive menus in Prospector
  • 28. 4 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D In addition, right-clicking the individual object in the list view offers many commands unique to Civil 3D: Zoom to Object and Pan to Object are typically included. By using these commands, you can find any parcel, point, cross section, or other Civil 3D object in your drawing almost instantly. Many longtime users of AutoCAD have resisted right-clicking menus for their daily tasks since AutoCAD 14. In other AutoCAD products this may be possible, but in Civil 3D you’ll miss half the commands! This book focuses on the specific options and commands for each object type during discussions of the particular objects. Projects The Projects branch of Prospector is the starting point for real team collaboration. This branch allows you to sign in and out of Vault, review what projects are available, manage the projects you sort through for information, check out drawings for editing, and review the status of drawings as well as that of individual project-based objects. Data Shortcuts Simply put, a data shortcut identifies the path to a specific object, in a specific drawing. Many users have found data shortcuts to be ideal in terms of project collaboration for two reasons: flexibility and simplicity. Drawing Templates The Drawing Templates branch is added more as a convenience than anything else. You can still create new drawings via the standard File New option, but by using the Drawing Templates branch, you can do the same thing without leaving Prospector. The Drawing Templates branch searches the file path specified in your AutoCAD Options dialog and displays a list of all the .dwt files it finds. You can customize this path to point to a server or other folder, but by default it’s a local user-settings path. Right-clicking the name of a template presents you with the options shown in Figure 1.3. Figure 1.3 Creating a new drawing from within the Draw- ing Templates branch of Prospector. The tem- plates shown here are located in the folder set in your AutoCAD Options window
  • 29. WINDOWS ON THE MODEL 5 Civil 3D is built on both AutoCAD and AutoCAD Map, so Civil 3D 2010 comes with a variety of templates. However, most users will want to select one of the top few, which start with _Autodesk Civil 3D and then have some descriptive text. These templates have been built on the basis of cus- tomer feedback to provide Civil 3D with a varying collection of object styles. These templates give you a good starting point for creating a template that meets your needs or the needs of your firm. Settings The Settings tab of Toolspace is the proverbial rabbit hole. Here you can adjust how Civil 3D objects look and how the Civil 3D commands work. You use this tab to control styles, labels, and command settings for each component of Civil 3D. This book starts by looking at the top level of drawing settings and a few command settings to get you familiar, and then covers the specifics for each object’s styles and settings in their respective chapters. Drawing Settings Starting at the drawing level, Civil 3D has a number of settings that you must understand before you can use the program efficiently. Civil 3D understands that the end goal of most users is to prepare construction documents on paper. To that end, most labeling and display settings are displayed in inches for imperial users and millimeters for metric users instead of nominal units like many other AutoCAD objects. Because much of this is based on an assumed working scale, let’s look at how to change that setting, along with some other drawing options: 1. Open the file Sample Site.dwg from the installed tutorial drawings. 2. Switch to the Settings tab. 3. Right-click the filename, and select Edit Drawing Settings to display the dialog shown in Figure 1.4. Figure 1.4 The Drawing Settings dialog
  • 30. 6 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D Each tab in this dialog controls a different aspect of the drawing. Most of the time, you’ll pick up the Object Layers, Abbreviations, and Ambient Settings from a companywide template. But the drawing scale and coordinate information change for every job, so you’ll visit the Units and Zone and the Transformation tabs frequently. Units and Zone Tab The Units and Zone tab lets you specify metric or imperial units for your drawing. You can also specify the conversion factor between systems. In addition, you can control the assumed plotting scale of the drawing. The drawing units typically come from a template, but the options for scaling blocks and setting AutoCAD variables depend on your working environment. Many engineers continue to work in an arbitrary coordinate system using the settings as shown earlier, but using a real coordinate system is easy! For example, setting up a drawing for a the Dallas, Texas, area, you’d follow this procedure: 1. Select USA, Texas from the Categories drop-down menu on the Units and Zone tab. 2. Select NAD83 Texas State Planes, North Central Zone, US Foot from the Available Coordi- nate Systems drop-down menu. There are literally hundreds, if not thousands, of available coordinate systems. These are established by international agreement; because Civil 3D is a worldwide product, almost any rec- ognized surveying coordinate system can be found in the options. Once your coordinate system has been established, you can change it on the Transformation tab if desired. This tab also includes the options Scale Objects Inserted from Other Drawings and Set Auto- CAD Variables to Match. In Figure 1.4, both are unchecked to move forward. The scaling option has been problematic in the past because many firms work with drawings that have no units assigned and therefore scale incorrectly; but you can experiment with this setting as you’d like. The Set AutoCAD Variables to Match option attempts to set the AutoCAD variables AUNITS, DIMUNITS, INSUNITS, and MEASUREMENT to the values placed in this dialog. You can learn about the nature of these variables via the Help system. Because of some inconsistencies between coordinate-based systems and the AutoCAD engine, sometimes these variables must be approxi- mated. Again, you won’t typically set this flag to True; you should experiment in your own office to see if it can help you. Transformation Tab With a base coordinate system selected, you can now do any further refinement you’d like using the Transformation tab. The coordinate systems on the Units and Zone tab can be refined to meet local ordinances, tie in with historical data, complete a grid to ground transformation, or account for minor changes in coordinate system methodology. These changes can include the following: Apply Sea Level Scale Factor — Takes into account the mean elevation of the site and the spheroid radius that is currently being applied as a function of the selected zone ellipsoid. Grid Scale Factor — Based on a 1:1 value, a user-defined uniform scale factor, a reference point scaling, or a prismoidal transformation in which every point in the grid is adjusted by a unique amount. Reference Point — Can be used to set a singular point in the drawing field via pick or via point number, local northing and easting, or grid northing and easting values. Rotation Point — Can be used to set the reference point for rotation via the same methods as the Reference Point.
  • 31. WINDOWS ON THE MODEL 7 Specify Grid Rotation Angle — Enter an amount or set a line to North by picking an angle or deflection in the drawing. You can use this same method to set the azimuth if desired. Most engineering firms work on either a defined coordinate system or an arbitrary system, so none of these changes are necessary. Given that, this tab will be your only method of achieving the necessary transformation for certain surveying and Geographic Information System (GIS)–based, and Land Surveying–based tasks. Object Layers Tab Setting object layers to your company standard is a major part of creating the feel you’re after when using Civil 3D in your office. The nearly 50 objects described here make up the entirety of the Civil 3D modeling components and the objects you and other users will deal with daily. The layers listed in this dialog by default reflect a modified AIA CAD Layer Guideline as part of the National CAD Standard (NCS). This layering standard is built into many places in Civil 3D’s templates and is becoming more widely adopted in the land-development industry. In addition to being fairly comprehensive and well known among engineering firms, the NCS has the benefit of being the roadmap for the future in terms of out-of-the-box content from Autodesk. Adopting this standard means you’ll have fewer things to change with every release of the software. Nevertheless, it is important that every user know how to modify these defaults. One common issue with the shipping templates is that the templates assume road design is the primary use of alignments. Use the following procedure to change the Alignment setting to the NCS for laying out a sanitary sewer: 1. Click the Layer column in the Alignment row, as shown in Figure 1.5. Figure 1.5 Changing the Layer setting for the Align- ment object 2. In the Layer Selection dialog list, select C-SSWR-CNTR and click OK.
  • 32. 8 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D One Object at a Time Note that this procedure only changes the Alignment object. If you want to change the standard of all the objects, you need to adjust the Alignment Labeling, Alignment Table, Profile, Profile View, Profile View Labeling, and so on. To do this, it’s a good idea to right-click in the grid view and select Copy All. You can then paste the contents of this matrix into Microsoft Excel for easy formatting and reviewing. One common question that surrounds the Object Layers tab is the check box at lower left: Immediate and Independent Layer On/Off Control of Display Components. What the heck does that mean? Relax — it’s not as complicated as it sounds. Many objects in Civil 3D are built from underlying components. Take an alignment, for example. It’s built from tangents, curves, spirals, extension lines, and so on. Each of these components can be assigned its own layer — in other words, the lines could be assigned to the LINES layer, curves to the CURVES layer, and so on. When this check box is selected, the component’s layer exerts some control. In the example given, if the alignment is assigned to the ALIGN layer and the box is selected, turning off (not freezing) the LINES layer will make the line components of that alignment disappear. Deselect this control, and the LINES layer’s status won’t have any effect on the visibility of the alignment line components. Finally, it’s important to note that this layer control determines the object’s parent layer at creation. Civil 3D objects can be moved to other layers at any time. Changing this setting doesn’t change any objects already in place in the drawing. Abbreviations Tab One could work for years without noticing the Abbreviations tab. The options on this tab allow you to set the abbreviations Civil 3D uses when labeling items as part of its automated routines. The prebuilt settings are based on user feedback, and many of them are the same as the settings from Land Desktop, the last-generation civil engineering product from Autodesk. Changing an abbreviation is as simple as clicking in the Value field and typing a new one. Notice that the Alignment Geometry Point Entity Data section has a larger set of values and some formulas attached. These are more representative of other label styles, and we’ll visit the label editor a little later in this chapter. There’s Always More to Learn Until December 2006, James was still advising users to add ‘‘t.’’ to their labels to get ‘‘Rt.’’ or ‘‘Lt.’’ in the final label. He’d forgotten that the abbreviations being used were set here! By changing the Left and Right abbreviation from ‘‘L’’ and ‘‘R’’ to ‘‘Lt.’’ and ‘‘Rt.’’, respectively, you can skip that step in the label setup. Sometimes there are just too many options to remember them all! Ambient Settings Tab The Ambient Settings tab can be daunting at first. The term ambient means ‘‘surround’’ or ‘‘sur- rounding,’’ and these settings control many of the math, labeling, and display features, as well as the user interaction surrounding the use of Civil 3D. Being familiar with the way this tab works will help you further down the line, because almost every other setting dialog in the program works like the one shown in Figure 1.6.
  • 33. WINDOWS ON THE MODEL 9 Figure 1.6 The Ambient Settings tab with the General branch expanded You can approach this tab in the following ways: ◆ Top to bottom — Expand one branch, handle the settings in that branch, and then close it and move to the next. ◆ Print and conquer — Expand all the branches using the Expand All Categories button found at lower right. After you have expanded the branches, right-click in the middle of the displayed options and select Copy to Clipboard. Then paste the settings to Excel for review, as you did with the Object Layers tab. Sharing the Workload The Print and Conquer approach makes it easy to distribute multiple copies to surveyors, land plan- ners, engineers, and so on and let them fill in the changes. Then, creating a template for each group is a matter of making their changes. If you’re asking end users who aren’t familiar with the product to make these changes, it’s easy to miss one. Working line by line is fairly foolproof. After you decide how to approach these settings, get to work. The settings are either drop-down menus or text boxes (in the case of numeric entries). Many of them are self-explanatory and com- mon to land-development design. Let’s look at these settings in more detail (see Figure 1.6). Plotted Unit Display Type Remember, Civil 3D knows you want to plot at the end of the day. In this case, it’s asking you how you would like your plotted units measured. For example, would you like that bit of text to be 0.25 tall or 1 4 high? Most engineers are comfortable with the Leroy method of text heights (L80, L100, L140, and so on), so the decimal option is the default.
  • 34. 10 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D Set AutoCAD Units This displays whether or not Civil 3D should attempt to match Auto- CAD drawing units, as specified on the Units and Zone tab. Save Command Changes to Settings This setting is incredibly powerful but a secret to almost everyone. By setting it to Yes, your changes to commands will be remembered from use to use. This means if you make changes to a command during use, the next time you call that Civil 3D command, you won’t have to make the same changes. It’s frustrating to do work over because you forgot to change one out of the five things that needed changing, so this setting is invaluable. Show Event Viewer Event Viewer is Civil 3D’s main feedback mechanism, especially when things go wrong. It can get annoying, however, and it takes up valuable screen real estate (especially if you’re stuck with one monitor!), so many people turn it off. We recommend leaving it on and pushing it to the side if needed. Show Tooltips One of the cool features that people remark on when they first use Civil 3D is the small pop-up that displays relevant design information when the cursor is paused on the screen. This includes things such as Station-Offset information, Surface Elevation, Section information, and so on. Once a drawing contains numerous bits of information, this display can be overwhelming; therefore, Civil 3D offers the option to turn off these tooltips universally with this setting. A better approach is to control the tooltips at the object type by editing the individual feature settings. You can also control the tooltips by pulling up the properties for any individual object and looking at the Information tab. Imperial to Metric Conversion This displays the conversion method specified on the Units and Zone tab. The two options currently available are US Survey Foot and International Foot. New Entity Tooltip State You can also control tooltips on an individual object level. For instance, you might want tooltip feedback on your proposed surface but not on the existing surface. This setting controls whether the tooltip is turned on at the object level for new Civil 3D objects. Driving Direction Specifies the side of the road that forward-moving vehicles use for travel. This setting is important in terms of curb returns and intersection design. Drawing Unit, Drawing Scale, and Scale Inserted Objects These settings were specified on the Units and Zone tab but are displayed here for reference and so that you can lock them if desired. Independent Layer On This is the same control that was set on the Object Layers tab. The settings that are applied here can also be applied at the object levels. For example, you may typically want elevation to be shown to two decimal places; but when looking at surface elevations, you might want just one. The Override and Child Override columns give you feedback about these types of changes. See Figure 1.7. The Override column shows whether the current setting is overriding something higher up. Because you’re at the Drawing Settings level, these are clear. However, the Child Override column displays a down arrow, indicating that one of the objects in the drawing has overridden this setting. After a little investigation through the objects, you’ll find the override is in the Edit Feature Settings of the Profile View as shown in Figure 1.8. Notice that in this dialog, the box is checked in the Override column. This indicates that you’re overriding the settings mentioned earlier, and it’s a good alert that things have changed from the general Drawing Settings to this Object Level setting.
  • 35. WINDOWS ON THE MODEL 11 Figure 1.7 The Child Override indi- cator in the Elevation values Figure 1.8 The Profile Elevation Settings and the Over- ride indicator But what if you don’t want to allow those changes? Each Settings dialog includes one more column: Lock. At any level, you can lock a setting, graying it out for lower levels. This can be handy for keeping users from changing settings at the lower level that perhaps should be changed at a drawing level, such as sign or rounding methods.
  • 36. 12 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D Object Settings If you click the Expand button next to the drawing name, you see the full array of objects that Civil 3D uses to build its design model. Each of these has special features unique to the object being described, but there are some common features as well. Additionally, the General collection contains settings and styles that are applied to various objects across the entire product. The General collection serves as the catchall for styles that apply to multiple objects and for settings that apply to no objects. For instance, the Civil 3D General Note object doesn’t really belong with the Surface or Pipe collections. It can be used to relate information about those objects, but because it can also relate to something like ‘‘Don’t Dig Here!’’ it falls into the general category. The General collection has three components (or branches): Multipurpose Styles These styles are used in many objects to control the display of compo- nent objects. The Marker Styles and Link Styles collections are typically used in cross-section views, whereas the Feature Line Styles collection is used in grading and other commands. Figure 1.9 shows the full collection of multipurpose styles and some of the marker styles that ship with the product. Figure 1.9 General multipur- pose styles and some marker styles Label Styles The Label Styles collection allows Civil 3D users to place general text notes or label single entities outside the parcel network while still taking advantage of Civil 3D’s flex- ibility and scaling properties. With the various label styles shown in Figure 1.10, you can get some idea of their usage. Figure 1.10 Line label styles
  • 37. WINDOWS ON THE MODEL 13 Because building label styles is a critical part of producing plans with Civil 3D, a later section of this chapter looks at how to build a new basic label and some of the common components that appear in every label style throughout the product. Commands Almost every branch in the Settings tree contains a Commands folder. Expanding this folder, as shown in Figure 1.11, shows you the typical long, unspaced command names that refer to the parent object. Figure 1.11 Surface command set- tings in Toolspace Survey The Survey palette is displayed optionally and controls the use of the survey, equipment, and figure prefix databases. Survey is an essential part of land-development projects. Because of the complex nature of this tab, all of Chapter 3, ‘‘Lay of the Land: Survey,’’ is devoted to it. Toolbox The Toolbox is a launching point for add-ons and reporting functions. To access the Toolbox, from the Home tab in the Ribbon, select Toolspace Palettes Toolbox. Out of the box, the Toolbox contains reports created by Autodesk, but you can expand its functionality to include your own macros or reports. The buttons on the top of the Toolbox, shown in Figure 1.12, allow you to customize the report settings and add new content. Figure 1.12 The Toolbox palette with the Edit Toolbox Content button circled
  • 38. 14 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D A Toolbox Built Just for You You can edit the Toolbox content and the Report Settings by selecting the desired tool, right-clicking, and then executing. Don’t limit yourself to the default reports that ship in the Toolbox, though. Many firms find that adding in-house customizations to the Toolbox gives them better results and is more easily managed at a central level than by customizing via the AutoCAD custom user interface (CUI) and workspace functionality. Let’s add one of the sample Civil 3D Visual Basic Application (VBA) macros to a new Toolbox: 1. Click the Edit Toolbox Content button shown in Figure 1.12 to open the Toolbox Editor in Panorama. 2. Click the button shown here to add a new root category. 3. Click the Root Category1 toolbox that appears. The name will appear in the preview area, where you can edit it. Change the name to Sample Files, and press 5. 4. Right-click the Sample Files toolbox, and select New Category as shown here. 5. Expand the Sample Files toolbox to view the new category, and then click the name to edit it in the preview area. Change the name to VBA, and press 5.
  • 39. WINDOWS ON THE MODEL 15 6. Right-click the VBA category, and select New Tool. 7. Expand the VBA category to view the new tool, and then click the name to edit it in the preview area. Change its name to Pipe Sample. 8. Change the Description to Sample VBA. 9. Working down through the properties in the preview area, select VBA in the drop-down menu in the Execute Type field. 10. Click in the Execute File field, and then click the More button. 11. Browse to C:Program FilesAutocad Civil 3D 2010SampleCivil 3D APICOMVbaPipe, and select the file PipeSample.dvb. 12. Click Open. 13. Click in the Macro Name text field, and type PipeSample as shown here. 14. Click the green check box at upper right to dismiss the editor. 15. You will be asked ‘‘Would you like to apply those changes now?’’ Select Yes. You’ve now added that sample VBA macro to your Toolbox. By adding commonly used macros and custom reports to your Toolbox, you can keep them handy without modifying the rest of your Civil 3D interface or programming buttons. It’s just one more way to create an interface and toolset for the way you work. Panorama The Panorama window is Civil 3D’s feedback and tabular editing mechanism. Designed to be a common interface for a number of different Civil 3D–related tasks, you can use it to provide information about the creation of profile views, to edit pipe or structure information, or to run basic volume analysis between two surfaces. For an example of Panorama in action, change to the View tab, and then select Palettes Event Viewer. You’ll explore and use Panorama more during this book’s discussion of specific objects and tasks.
  • 40. 16 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D Running Out of Screen Real Estate? It’s a good idea to turn on Panorama using this technique and then drag it to the side so you always see any new information. Although it’s possible to turn it off, doing so isn’t recommended — you won’t know when Civil 3D is trying to tell you something! Place Panorama on your second monitor (now you see why you need to have a second monitor, don’t you?), and you’ll always be up to date with your Civil 3D model. And in case you missed it, you were using Panorama when you added the sample VBA macro in the previous exercise. Ribbon As with AutoCAD, the Ribbon is the primary interface for accessing Civil 3D commands and fea- tures. When you select an AutoCAD Civil 3D object, the Ribbon displays commands and features related to that object. If several object types are selected, the Multiple contextual tab is displayed. Use the following procedure to familiarize yourself with the Ribbon: 1. Select one of the line labels in the northwest portion of the Sample Site drawing. 2. Notice that both the General Tools and Modify tabs are displayed as shown in Figure 1.13. Figure 1.13 The context-sensitive Ribbon 3. Select a parcel label (the labels in the middle of the lot areas) and notice the display of the Multiple contextual tab. 4. Use the Esc key to cancel all selections. 5. Navigate to the Prospector and expand the Alignments Centerline Alignments collection. 6. Select the Avery Drive alignment, right-click, and choose the Select option on the menu. Notice the change in the Ribbon.
  • 41. IT’S ALL ABOUT STYLE 17 7. Select the down arrow next to the Modify panel. Using the pin at the bottom-left corner of the panel, pin the panel open. 8. Select the Properties command in the General Tools panel to open the AutoCAD Properties palette. Notice that the Modify panel remains opened and pinned. It’s All About Style Before you get into the program itself, it’s important to understand one bit of vocabulary and how it relates to Civil 3D: style. To put it simply, styles control the display properties of Civil 3D objects and labels. Styles control everything from the color of your point markers to the interval of your surface contours, and from your profile-view grid spacing to the text height in the Station-Offset label of your road alignment. Styles truly are where the power lies in Civil 3D. Label styles and object styles are the two major categories. The difficult thing about styles is that it’s hard to talk about them without being specific. Later chapters spend a fair amount of time talking about the specifics of the styles for each object, and this chapter looks at the common aspects of style manipulation; but styles may remain a mystery until you get your hands dirty later in the book. Label Styles To get started, look at the styles in the Spot Elevation branch by expanding the Surface branch and then the Label Styles branch on the Settings tab, as shown in Figure 1.14. Figure 1.14 Spot Elevation label styles There are two basic label styles in the Spot Elevation branch. Let’s create a new one and explore the options for making labels. Remember, almost all of these options are present in other, object-specific label styles. 1. Right-click the Spot Elevation folder, and select New in the pop-up menu to open the Label Style Composer, as shown in Figure 1.15. 2. On the Information tab, change the style name to something appropriate. For this example, use JW-EG.
  • 42. 18 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D Figure 1.15 The Label Style Composer Who Built That Style? It’s a good idea to always put something in the style name to indicate it wasn’t in the box. Putting your initials or firm name at the beginning of the style is one way to make it easy to differenti- ate your styles from the prebuilt ones. Here, JW stands for James Wedding (EG stands for Existing Ground). 3. Switch to the General tab. Change the layer to C-TOPO-TEXT by clicking the layer cell and then the More button to the right of that cell. There are a fair number of options here, so let’s pause the exercise, and look at them fur- ther: Text Style is the default style for text components that are created on the Layout tab. It’s a good practice to use a zero-height text style with the appropriate font, because you’ll set the plotted heights in the style anyway. Layer is the layer on which the components of a label are inserted, not the layer on which the label itself is inserted. Think of labels as nested blocks. The label (the block) gets inserted on the layer on the basis of the object layers you saw earlier. The components of the label get inserted on the layer that is set here. This means a change to the specified layer can control or change the appearance of the components if you like. Orientation Reference sets an object to act as the up direction in terms of readability. Civil 3D understands viewpoint rotation and offers the option to rotate or flip labels to keep them plan-readable. Most users set this to View to maintain the most plan-readable labels with the smallest amount of editing later.
  • 43. IT’S ALL ABOUT STYLE 19 Forced Insertion makes more sense in other objects and will be explored further. This feature essentially allows you to dictate the insertion point of a label on the basis of the object being labeled. Plan Readable text maintains the up direction in spite of view rotation. This tends to be the ‘‘Ooooh, nice’’ feature that makes users smile. Rotating 100 labels is a tedious, thankless task, and this option handles it with one click. Readability Bias is the angle at which readability kicks in. This angle is measured from the 0 degree of the x-axis that is common to AutoCAD angle measurements. When a piece of text goes past the readable bias angle, the text spins to maintain vertical orientation, as shown in Figure 1.16. Note how the label on the far left has rotated to accommodate the rotation past 110 degrees, the default bias angle. If you set the readability bias to 90.01, which is a typical setting, the text flips at a near-vertical angle. Figure 1.16 Examples of plan-readable text Flip Anchors with Text determines how the text flips. Most users find that setting this to False gives the best results, but sometimes flipping an anchor point positions text as needed. You’ll learn more about anchor points on the Layout tab. 4. Switch to the Layout tab. Again, a lot is going on here, so you’ll work through the options and then make changes. As shown in Figure 1.17, each component of the label has a host of options. On the right is a preview of the label you’re creating or editing. You can pan or zoom this view as needed to give you a better feel for the label style’s appearance as you make changes. A Full Three-Dimensional Label Preview? This preview defaults to a 3D Orbit control. Don’t ask why; we’re as confused as you are. Inevitably, you’ll rotate the view out of a plan-top view, making the plan harder to understand. When this hap- pens, right-click and select Preset Views 5 Top to reorient yourself, or use the Viewcube function to pull to the top.
  • 44. 20 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D Figure 1.17 Options for the label components Again, pause and review some of the other options on this tab. Labels are made of indi- vidual components. A component can be text, a block, or a line, and the top row of buttons controls the selection, creation, and deletion of these components: The Component drop-down menu activates which component is being modified in the options below. These components are listed in the order in which they were created. The Create Text Component button lets you create new components. These components can be Text, Lines, Blocks, Reference Text, or Ticks. Some options aren’t available for every label style. The ability to label one object while referencing another (reference text) is one of the most powerful labeling features of Civil 3D. This is what allows you to label a spot ele- vation for both an existing and a proposed surface at the same time, using the same label. Alignments, COGO points, parcels, profiles, and surfaces can all be used as ref- erence text. The Copy Component button does just that. It copies the component currently selected in the Component drop-down menu. The Delete Component button deletes components. Elements that act as the basis for other components can’t be deleted. The Component Draw Order button lets you shuffle components up and down within the label. This feature is especially important when you’re using masks or borders as part of the label. You can work your way down the component properties and adjust them as needed for a label: Name is self-explanatory. It’s the name used in the Component drop-down menu and when selecting other components. When you’re building complicated labels, a little name description goes a long way.
  • 45. IT’S ALL ABOUT STYLE 21 Visibility set to True means this component shows on screen. Invisible components can be invaluable when you’re creating complicated labels, as you’ll see in later chapters. Anchor Component and Anchor Point are straightforward, but many users have issues when first using these options. Every component of the label has an anchor component, anchor point, and attachment. The Anchor Component is how you tell Civil 3D where you want to hang the label component. This component is bounded by a box with nine anchor points, as shown in Figure 1.18. In this illustration, the nine possible anchor points are represented with Xs and the nine possible attachments with Os. Figure 1.18 Anchor and attach- ment points Now let’s continue with the exercise and add a reference text component to this label. 5. Click the arrow on the right side of the component drop-down menu and select Reference Text to open the Select Type dialog as shown in Figure 1.19. 6. Select Surface as the type of reference object, and then click the OK button to exit the dialog. 7. The name of the text component is Reference Text.1 by default. Change the name to Ref- erence Text: Proposed Surface and click the Apply button in the lower-right of the dialog. The middle portion of the dialog changes depending on the type of component, but the concepts are similar. In the case shown here, the middle portion is the Text property. Under Text, the first option is Contents, which determines the actual content of the text: 8. Click the Contents Value cell, and then click the ellipsis button that appears to the right to open the Text Component Editor. 9. Click in the preview window of the Text Component Editor. This is a simple text editor, and you can type anything you’d like in a label. You can also insert object information from Civil 3D objects, as you’ll do now. 10. Highlight and delete the text in the preview window. 11. At left, select Surface Elevation from the drop-down list in the Properties text box if necessary.
  • 46. 22 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D Figure 1.19 Reference text object selection 12. Change the precision to one decimal place by clicking in the column next to Precision and selecting 0.1, as shown in Figure 1.20. Figure 1.20 Setting label precision 13. Click the arrow circled in Figure 1.21 to insert your label text and elevation code into the preview area. 14. Click OK to exit this dialog, and you’ll be back at the Label Style Composer. 15. Your label is complete. You can click OK to exit, but you might want to leave the label open as we discuss the Dragged State and Summary tabs next.
  • 47. IT’S ALL ABOUT STYLE 23 Figure 1.21 Don’t forget the arrow! How Many Dialogs Is That? You can see why many Civil 3D instructors refer to label creation as ‘‘heading down the rabbit hole.’’ You’re a couple of dialogs deep just making the simplest of label styles, with one static text component. It’s easy to get confused, but don’t worry — it becomes second nature! The Text Component Editor is another common dialog that appears in every label-style creation exercise. Let’s look at the rest of the options, even though you won’t be making any changes: Text Height determines the plotted height of the label. Remember, Civil 3D knows you’re going to print and will attempt to give you inches or millimeters. Rotation Angle, X Offset, and Y Offset give you the ability to refine the placement of this com- ponent by rotating or displacing the text in an x or y direction. Attachment determines which of the nine points on the label components bounding box are attached to the anchor point. See Figure 1.18 for an illustration. Change the attachment of the reference text component to Top Left. This will attach the upper-left corner of this proposed elevation reference text to the bottom left of the Surface Elevation component. Color and Lineweight allow you to hard-code a color if desired. It’s a good idea to leave these values set to ByLayer unless you have a good reason to change them. The final piece of the component puzzle is a Border option. These options are as follows: Visibility is obvious, turning the border on and off for this component. Remember that com- ponent borders shrink to the individual component: if you’re using multiple components in a label, they all have their own borders. Type allows you to select a rectangle, a rounded rectangle (slot), or a circle border. Background Mask lets you determine whether linework and text behind this component are masked. This can be handy for construction notes in place of the usual wipeout tools. Gap determines the offset from the component bounding box to the outer points on the border. Setting this to half of the text size usually creates a visually pleasing border. Linetype and Lineweight give you the usual control of the border lines.
  • 48. 24 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D After working through all the options for the default label placement, you need to set the options that come into play when a label is dragged. Switch to the Dragged State tab. When a label is dragged in Civil 3D, it typically creates a leader, and text rearranges. The settings that control these two actions are on this tab. Unique options are explained here: Arrow Head Style and Size control the tip of the leader. Note that Arrow Head Size also con- trols the tail size leading to the text object. Type controls the leader type. Options are Straight Leader and Spline Leader. At the time of this writing, the AutoCAD multiple leader object can’t be used. Display controls whether components rearrange their placement to a stacked set of compo- nents (Stacked Text) or maintain their arrangement as originally composed (As Composed). Most users expect this to be set to As Composed for the most predictable behavior. Every label has a Summary tab, and clicking the Expand All button circled in Figure 1.22 will present you with a full array of details about the label. Working down the Summary tab, you can review all of the options that have been selected for an individual label, as well as look for overrides, just like you did on the Settings tab. Click OK to exit the dialog; your new style will appear on the Settings tab. Figure 1.22 Summary tab with the Expand All button circled The purpose of this exercise wasn’t to build a Surface Spot Elevation label style; it was to familiarize you with the common elements of creating a label: the Label Style Composer and the Text Component Editor. However, you can try out the new label to check your work! Object Styles Beyond the styles used to label objects, Civil 3D also depends on styles to control the display of the native objects, including points, surface, alignments, and so on. Just as in label styles, certain
  • 49. IT’S ALL ABOUT STYLE 25 components of the object styles are common to almost all objects, so let’s create a new alignment style to introduce these common elements: 1. Expand the Alignment branch on the Settings tab, and then right-click the Alignment Styles folder. Select New, as shown in Figure 1.23. Figure 1.23 Creating a new alignment style via Prospector 2. Type a new name for your style on the Information tab, and enter a description if desired. 3. Switch to the Display tab. The other two tabs are unique for alignment objects, but the Dis- play tab is part of every Civil 3D object style. 4. Turn off the Arrow component by clicking the lightbulb in the column next to it. 5. Near the top of the dialog, change the View Direction setting in the drop-down menu to Model, and notice the change. 6. Click OK to dismiss the dialog. Your new alignment style appears under the Alignment Styles branch in the Settings tab. Objects can have distinctly different appearances when viewed in a plan view versus a 3D view. For example, surfaces are often represented by contours in plan view, but by triangular faces or a grid in 3D. Object styles are a major component of efficient Civil 3D object modeling. Objects appear differ- ently in varying plans. Having a full set of object styles to handle all of these uses can help make plan production as painless as possible. A good way to start creating object styles is to pull out a set of existing plans that accurately represent your firm’s standards. Pick an object, such as alignments or surfaces, and then begin working your way through the plan set, creating a new object style for each use case. Once you complete one object, pick another and repeat the exercise.
  • 50. 26 CHAPTER 1 GETTING DIRTY: THE BASICS OF CIVIL 3D The Underlying Engine Civil 3D is part of a larger product family from Autodesk. During its earliest creation, various features and functions from other products were recognized as important to the civil engineer- ing community. These included the obvious things such as the entire suite of AutoCAD drafting, design, modeling, and rendering tools as well as more esoteric options such as Map’s GIS capabil- ities. An early decision was made to build Civil 3D on top of the AutoCAD Map product, which in turn is built on top of AutoCAD. This underlying engine provides a host of options and powerful tools for the Civil 3D user. AutoCAD and Map add features with every release that change the fundamental makeup of how Civil 3D works. With the introduction of workspaces in 2006, users can now set up Civil 3D to display various tools and palettes depending on the task at hand. Creating a workspace is like having a quick-fix bag of tools ready for the job at hand: preliminary design calls for one set of tools, and final plan production calls for another. Workspaces are part of a larger feature set called the custom user interface (referred to as CUI in the help documentation and online). As you grow familiar with Civil 3D and the various tool palettes, menus, and toolbars, be sure to explore the CUI options that are available from the Workspace toolbar. The Bottom Line Find any Civil 3D object with just a few clicks. By using Prospector to view object data collections, you can minimize the panning and zooming that are part of working in a CAD program. When common subdivisions can have hundreds of parcels or a complex corridor can have dozens of alignments, jumping to the desired one nearly instantly shaves time off everyday tasks. Master It Open Sample Site.dwg from the tutorials, and find parcel number five without using any AutoCAD commands. Modify the drawing scale and default object layers. Civil 3D understands that the end goal of most drawings is to create hard-copy construction documents. By setting a drawing scale and then setting many sizes in terms of plotted inches or millimeters, Civil 3D removes much of the mental gymnastics that other programs require when you’re sizing text and symbols. By setting object layers at a drawing scale, Civil 3D makes uniformity of drawing files easier than ever to accomplish. Master It Change Sample Site.dwg from a 200-scale drawing to a 40-scale drawing. Modify the display of Civil 3D tooltips. The interactive display of object tooltips makes it easy to keep your focus on the drawing instead of an inquiry or report tools. When too many objects fill up a drawing, it can be information overload, so Civil 3D gives you granular control over the heads-up display tooltips. Master It Within the same Sample Site drawing, turn off the tooltips for the Avery Drive alignment. Add a new tool to the Toolbox. The Toolbox provides a convenient way to access macros and reports. Many third-party developers exploit this convenient interface as an easier way to add functionality without disturbing users’ workspaces. Master It Add the Sample Pipe macro from C:Program FilesAutocad Civil 3D 2010SampleCivil 3D APICOMVbaPipe, and select PipeSample.dvb.
  • 51. THE BOTTOM LINE 27 Create a basic label style. Label styles determine the appearance of Civil 3D annotation. The creation of label styles will constitute a major part of the effort in making the transition to Civil 3D as a primary platform for plan production. Your skills will grow with the job requirements if you start with basic labels and then make more complicated labels as needed. Master It Create a copy of the Elevation Only Point label style, name it Elevation With Border, and add a border to the text component. Create a new object style. Object styles in Civil 3D let you quit managing display through layer modification and move to a more streamlined style-based control. Creating enough object styles to meet the demands of plan production work will be your other major task in preparing to move to Civil 3D. Master It Create a new Surface style named Contours_Grid, and set it to show contours in plan views but a grid display in any 3D view. Navigate the Ribbon’s contextual tabs. As with AutoCAD, the Ribbon is the primary inter- face for accessing Civil 3D commands and features. When you select an AutoCAD Civil 3D object, the Ribbon displays commands and features related to that object. If several object types are selected, the Multiple contextual tab is displayed. Master It Using the Ribbon interface, access the Alignment Style Editor for the Proposed Alignment style. (Hint: it’s used by the Avery Drive alignment.)
  • 52. Chapter 2 Back to Basics: Lines and Curves Engineers and surveyors are constantly creating lines and curves. Whether the task at hand involves re-creating and checking existing geometry from deeds or record plats, or designing a new land plan, it’s important to have tools to assist in the accurate creation of this linework. The lines and curves tools in Civil 3D, along with the complementary tools on the Transpar- ent Commands and Inquiry toolbars, provide robust methods for creating and checking lines and curves. This linework can then be used as is, or as a foundation for creating sound parcels, alignments, and other Civil 3D object geometry. It’s important to note that creating Civil 3D objects such as parcels and alignments from this foundation geometry is necessary for robust reporting and labeling, such as legal descriptions, segment tables, and more detailed design and analysis. By the end of this chapter, you’ll learn to: ◆ Create a series of lines by bearing and distance ◆ Use the Inquiry commands to confirm that lines are drawn correctly ◆ Create a curve tangent to the end of a line ◆ Create a best-fit line for a series of Civil 3D points ◆ Label lines and curves Labeling Lines and Curves You can draw lines many ways in an AutoCAD-based environment. The tools found on the Draw panel of the Home tab create lines that are no more intelligent than those created by the standard AutoCAD Line command. How the Civil 3D lines differ from those created by the regular Line command isn’t in the resulting entity, but in the process of creating them. In other words, in Civil 3D you provide directions to these line commands in survey terminology rather than in generic Cartesian parameters (see Figure 2.1). Note that you can switch between any of the line commands without exiting the command. For example, if your first location is a point object, use Line by Point Object; then, without leaving the command, go back to the Lines/Curves menu and choose any Line or Curve command to continue creating your linework. You can also press the Esc key once, while in a Lines/Curves menu command, to resume the regular Line command.
  • 53. 30 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES Figure 2.1 Line-creation tools Coordinate Line Commands The next few commands discussed in this section help you create a line using Civil 3D points and/or coordinate inputs. Each command requires you to specify a Civil 3D point, a location in space, or a typed coordinate input. These line tools are useful when your drawing includes Civil 3D points that will serve as a foundation for linework, such as the edge of pavement shots, wetlands lines, or any other points you’d like to connect with a line.
  • 54. LABELING LINES AND CURVES 31 Line Command The Create Line command on the Draw panel of the Home tab issues the standard AutoCAD Line command. It’s equivalent to typing line on the command line or clicking the Line tool on the Draw toolbar. Create Line by Point # Range Command The Create Line by Point # Range command prompts you for a point number. You can type in an individual point number, press 5, and then type in another point number. A line is drawn connecting those two points. You can also type in a range of points, such as 640-644. Civil 3D draws a line that connects those lines in numerical order — from 640 to 641, and so on (see Figure 2.2). This order won’t give you the desired linework for edge of asphalt, for example. Figure 2.2 A line created using 640-644 as input
  • 55. 32 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES Alternatively, you can enter a list of points such as 640, 643, 644 (Figure 2.3). Civil 3D draws a line that connects the point numbers in the order of input. This is useful when your points were taken in a zigzag pattern (as is commonly the case when cross sectioning pavement), or when your points appear so far apart in the AutoCAD display that they can’t be readily identified. Figure 2.3 A line created using 640, 643, 644 as input Create Line by Point Object Command The Create Line by Point Object command prompts you to select a point object. To select a point object, locate the desired start point and click any part of the point. This tool is similar to using the regular Line command and a Node osnap. Create Line by Point Name Command The Create Line by Point Name command prompts you for a point name. A point name is a field in Point properties, not unlike the point number or description. The difference between a point name and a point description is that a point name must be unique. It is important to note that some survey instruments name points rather than number points as is the norm. To use this command, enter the names of the points you want to connect with linework.
  • 56. LABELING LINES AND CURVES 33 Create Line by Northing/Easting and Create Line by Grid Northing/Easting Commands The Create Line by Northing/Easting and Create Line by Grid Northing/Easting commands let you input northing (y) and easting (x) coordinates as endpoints for your linework. The Create Line by Grid Northing/Easting command requires that the drawing have an assigned coordinate system. This command can be useful when working with known monumentation in a State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS). Create Line by Latitude/Longitude Command The Create Line by Latitude/Longitude command prompts you for geographic coordinates to use as endpoints for your linework. This command also requires that the drawing have an assigned coordinate system. For example, if your drawing has been assigned Delaware State Plane NAD83 US Feet and you execute this command, your Latitude/Longitude inputs are translated into the appropriate location in your state plane drawing. This command can be useful when drawing lines between waypoints collected with a standard handheld GPS unit. Direction-Based Line Commands The next few commands help you specify the direction of a line. Each of these commands requires you to choose a start point for your line before you can specify the line direction. You can specify your start point by physically choosing a location, using an osnap, or using one of the point-related line commands discussed earlier. Create Line by Bearing Command The Create Line by Bearing command will likely be one of your most frequently used line commands. This command prompts you for a start point, followed by prompts to input the Quadrant, Bearing, and Distance values. You can enter values on the command line for each input, or you can graphically choose inputs by picking them on screen. The glyphs at each stage of input guide you in any graphical selections. After creating one line, you can continue drawing lines by bearing, or you can switch to any other method by clicking one of the other Line By commands on the Draw panel (see Figure 2.4). Create Line by Azimuth Command The Create Line by Azimuth command prompts you for a start point, followed by a north azimuth, and then a distance (Figure 2.5). Create Line by Angle Command The Create Line by Angle command prompts you for a turned angle and then a distance (Figure 2.6). This command is useful when you’re creating linework from angles right (in lieu of angles left) and distances recorded in a traditional handwritten field book (required by law in many states). Create Line by Deflection Command By definition, a deflection angle is the angle turned from the extension of a line from the backsight extending through an instrument. Although this isn’t the most frequently used surveying tool in
  • 57. 34 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES this day of data collectors and GPSs, on some occasions you may need to create this type of line. When you use the Create Line by Deflection command, the command line and tooltips prompt you for a deflection angle followed by a distance (Figure 2.7). In some cases, deflection angles are recorded in the field in lieu of angles right. Figure 2.4 The tooltips for a quadrant (top), a bearing (middle), and a distance (bottom) Create Line by Station/Offset Command To use the Create Line by Station/Offset command, you must have a Civil 3D Alignment object in your drawing. The line created from this command allows you to start and/or end a line on the basis of a station and offset from an alignment.
  • 58. LABELING LINES AND CURVES 35 Figure 2.5 The tooltip for the Create Line by Azimuth command Figure 2.6 The tooltip for the Create Line by Angle command Figure 2.7 The tooltips for the Create Line by Deflection command You’re prompted to choose the alignment and then input a station and offset value. The line begins at the station and offset value. On the basis of the tooltips, you might expect the line to be drawn from the alignment station at offset zero and out to the alignment station at the input offset. This isn’t the case. When prompted for the station, you’re given a tooltip that tracks your position along the align- ment, as shown in Figure 2.8. You can graphically choose a station location by picking in the drawing (including using your osnaps to assist you in locking down the station of a specific fea- ture). Alternatively, you can enter a station value on the command line.
  • 59. 36 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES Figure 2.8 The Create Line by Station/Offset command provides a tooltip to track stationing along the alignment Once you’ve selected the station, you’re given a tooltip that is locked on that particular station and tracks your offset from the alignment (see Figure 2.9). You can graphically choose an offset by picking in the drawing, or you can type an offset value on the command line. Figure 2.9 The Create Line by Station/Offset command gives a tooltip to track the offset from the alignment Create Line by Side Shot Command The Create Line by Side Shot command lets you occupy one point, designate a backsight, and draw a line that has endpoints relative to that point. The occupied point represents the setup of your surveying station, whereas the second point represents your surveying backsight. This tool may be most useful when you’re creating stakeout information or re-creating data from field notes. If you know where your crew set up, and you have their side-shot angle measurements but you don’t have electronic information to download, this tool can help. To specify locations relative to your occupied point, you can specify the angle, bearing, deflection, or azimuth on the command line or pick locations in your drawing. In some cases, it is more appropriate to supply a survey crew with handwritten notes regarding backsights, foresights, angles right, and distances rather than upload the same information to a data collector. While the command is active, you can toggle between angle, bearing, deflection, and azimuth by following the command-line prompts.
  • 60. LABELING LINES AND CURVES 37 When you’re using the Create Line by Side Shot command, you’re given a setup glyph at your occupied point, a backsight glyph, and a tooltip to track the angle, bearing, deflection, or azimuth of the side shot (see Figure 2.10). You can toggle between these options by following the command-line prompts. Figure 2.10 The tooltip for the Create Line by Side Shot command tracks the angle, bearing, deflection, or azimuth of the side shot Backsight Station Setup Create Line Extension Command The Create Line Extension command is similar to the AutoCAD Lengthen command. This com- mand allows you to add length to a line or specify a desired total length of the line. You are first prompted to choose a line. The command line then prompts you to Specify distance to change, or [Total]. This distance is added to the existing length of the line. The command draws the line appropriately and provides a short summary report on that line. The summary report in Figure 2.11 indicates the beginning line length was 100 and that an addi- tional distance of 50 was specified with the Line Extension command. It is important to note that in some cases, it may be more desirable to create a line by a turned angle or deflection of 180 degrees so as not to disturb linework originally created from existing legally recorded documents. Figure 2.11 The Create Line Extension command provides a summary of the changes to the line If, instead, you specify a total distance on the command line, then the length of the line is changed to the distance you specify. The summary report shown in Figure 2.12 indicates that the beginning of the line was the same as in Figure 2.11 but with a total length of only 100 .
  • 61. 38 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES Figure 2.12 The summary report on a line where the command specified a total distance Create Line from End of Object Command The Create Line from End of Object command lets you draw a line tangent to the end of a line or arc of your choosing. Most commonly, you’ll use this tool when re-creating deeds or other survey work where you have to specify a line that continues tangent from an arc (see Figure 2.13). Figure 2.13 The Create Line from End of Object command can add a tangent line to the end of the arc Create Line Tangent from Point Command The Create Line Tangent from Point command is similar to the Create Line from End of Object command, but Create Line Tangent from Point allows you to choose a point of tangency that isn’t the endpoint of the line or arc (see Figure 2.14). Create Line Perpendicular from Point Command Using the Create Line Perpendicular from Point command, you can specify that you’d like a line drawn perpendicular to any point of your choosing. In the example shown in Figure 2.15, a line is drawn perpendicular to the endpoint of the arc. This command can be useful when the distance from a known monument perpendicular to a legally platted line must be labeled in a drawing.
  • 62. CREATING CURVES 39 Figure 2.14 The Create Line Tangent from Point command can place a line tangent to the midpoint of an arc (or line) Figure 2.15 A perpendicular line is drawn from the endpoint of an arc, using the Create Line Perpendicular from Point command Creating Curves Curves are an important part of surveying and engineering geometry. In truth, curves are no different from AutoCAD arcs. What makes the curve commands unique from the basic AutoCAD commands isn’t the resulting arc entity but the inputs used to draw that arc. Civil 3D wants you to provide directions to these arc commands using land surveying terminology rather than with generic Cartesian parameters. Figure 2.16 shows the Create Curves menu options. Figure 2.16 Create Curves commands
  • 63. 40 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES Standard Curves When re-creating legal descriptions for roads, easements, and properties, engineers, surveyors, and mappers often encounter a variety of curves. Although standard AutoCAD arc commands could draw these arcs, the AutoCAD arc inputs are designed to be generic to all industries. The following curve commands have been designed to provide an interface that more closely matches land surveying, mapping, and engineering language. Create Curve between Two Lines Command The Create Curve between Two Lines command is much like the standard AutoCAD Fillet com- mand, except you aren’t limited to a radius parameter. The command draws a curve that is tangent to two lines of your choosing. This command also trims or extends the original tangents so their endpoints coincide with the curve endpoints. In other words, the lines are trimmed or extended to the resulting PC (point of curve; in other words, the beginning of a curve) and PT (point of tangency; in other words, the end of a curve) of the curve. You may find this command most use- ful when you’re creating foundation geometry for road alignments, parcel boundary curves, and similar situations. The command prompts you to choose the first tangent and then the second tangent. The com- mand line gives the following prompt: Select entry [Tangent/External/Degree/Chord/i Length/Mid-Ordinate/miN-dist/Radius]<Radius>: Pressing 5 at this prompt lets you input your desired radius. As with standard AutoCAD commands, pressing T changes the input parameter to tangent, pressing C changes the input parameter to chord, and so on. As with the Fillet command, your inputs must be geometrically possible. For example, your two lines must allow for a curve of your specifications to be drawn while remaining tangent to both. Figure 2.17 shows two lines with a 25 radius curve drawn between them. Note that the tangents have been trimmed so their endpoints coincide with the endpoints of the curve. If either line had been too short to meet the endpoint of the curve, then that line would have been extended. Create Curve on Two Lines Command The Create Curve on Two Lines command is identical to the Curve between Two Lines command, except that the Create Curve on Two Lines command leaves the chosen tangents intact. The lines aren’t trimmed or extended to the resulting PC and PT of the curve. Figure 2.18, for example, shows two lines with a 25 radius curve drawn on them. The tangents haven’t been trimmed and instead remain exactly as they were drawn before the Create Curve on Two Lines command was executed. Create Curve through Point Command The Create Curve through Point command lets you two choose two tangents for your curve fol- lowed by a pass-through point. This tool is most useful when you don’t know the radius, length, or other curve parameters but you have two tangents and a target location. It isn’t necessary that the pass-through location be a true point object; it can be any location of your choosing. This command also trims or extends the original tangents so their endpoints coincide with the curve endpoints. The lines are trimmed or extended to the resulting PC and PT of the curve.
  • 64. CREATING CURVES 41 Figure 2.17 Two lines before (top) and after (bottom) using the Create Curve between Two Lines command Figure 2.18 The original lines stay the same after you execute the Create Curve on Two Lines command Figure 2.19, for example, shows two lines and a desired pass-through point. Using the Create Curve through Point command allows you to draw a curve that is tangent to both lines and that passes through the desired point. In this case, the tangents have been trimmed to the PC and PT of the curve. Create Multiple Curves Command The Create Multiple Curves command lets you create several curves that are tangentially con- nected. The resulting curves have an effect similar to an alignment spiral section. This command can be useful when re-creating railway track geometry based upon field survey data. The command prompts you for the two tangents. Then, the command-line prompts as follows: Enter Number of Curves:
  • 65. 42 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES Figure 2.19 The first image shows two lines with a desired pass-through point. In the second image, the Create Curve through Point command draws a curve that is tangent to both lines and passes through the chosen point The command allows for up to 10 curves between tangents. One of your curves must have a flexible length that’s determined on the basis of the lengths, radii, and geometric constraints of the other curves. Curves are counted clockwise, so enter the number of your flexible curve: Enter Floating Curve #: Enter the length and radii for all your curves: Enter curve 1 Radius: Enter curve 1 Length: The floating curve number will prompt you for a radius but not a length. As with all other curve commands, the specified geometry must be possible. If the command can’t find a solution on the basis of your length and radius inputs, it returns no solution (see Figure 2.20). Figure 2.20 Two curves were specified with the #2 curve designated as the floating curve
  • 66. CREATING CURVES 43 Create Curve from End of Object Command The Create Curve from End of Object command enables you to draw a curve tangent to the end of your chosen line or arc. The command prompts you to choose an object to serve as the beginning of your curve. You can then specify a radius and an additional parameter (such as delta, length, and so on) for the curve or the endpoint of the resulting curve chord (see Figure 2.21). Figure 2.21 A curve, with a 25 radius and a 30 length, drawn from the end of a line Create Reverse or Compound Curves Command The Create Reverse or Compound Curves command allows you to add additional curves to the end of an existing curve. Reverse curves are drawn in the opposite direction (i.e., a curve to the right tangent to a curve to the left) from the original curve to form an S shape. In contrast, compound curves are drawn in the same direction as the original curve (see Figure 2.22). This tool can be useful when re-creating a legal description of a road alignment that contains reverse and/or compound curves. Re-creating a Deed Using Line and Curve Tools This exercise will help you apply some of the lines and curve tools you’ve learned so far to recon- struct a parcel similar to the property deed shown in Figure 2.23. For ease of reading and clarity, the following is a summary of that description (note that like many real-world deeds, this deed will have a gap in closure of about 5 ): From Point of Beginning Lines: South 12 degrees 15 minutes 00 seconds West 828.23 feet to a point North 86 degrees 18 minutes 25 seconds West 1039.50 feet to a point
  • 67. 44 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES North 18 degrees 40 minutes 07 seconds East 442.98 feet to a point North 60 degrees 08 minutes 48 seconds East 107.43 feet to a point Curve to the RIGHT: Radius 761.35 feet Arc length 204.70 Chord Length 204.08 feet Chord Bearing North 67 degrees 50 minutes 56 seconds East to a point Lines: North 75 degrees 33 minutes 05 seconds East 671.23 feet to a point North 77 degrees 10 minutes 37 seconds East 78.66 feet to a point Curve to the RIGHT: Radius 937.094 Arc length 62.94 feet Chord Length 62.82 Chord Bearing North 79 degrees 52 seconds 29 minutes East Returning to Point of Beginning The resulting enclosure should be: 15.11 acres (more or less) Figure 2.22 A tangent and curve before adding a reverse or compound curve (left); a compound curve drawn from the end of the original curve (right); and a reverse curve drawn from the end of the original curve (bottom)
  • 68. CREATING CURVES 45 Figure 2.23 A parcel deed Follow these steps: 1. Open the Deed Create Start.dwg file, which you can download from www.sybex.com/ masteringcivil3d2010. 2. From the Draw panel on the Home tab, select the Line drop-down and select the Create Line by Bearing command. 3. At the Select first point: prompt, select any location in the drawing to begin the first line. 4. At the >>Specify quadrant (1-4): prompt, enter 3 to specify the SW quadrant, and then press 5. 5. At the >>Specify bearing: prompt, enter 12.1500, and press 5. 6. At the >>Specify distance: prompt, enter 828.23, and press 5. 7. Repeat steps 4 through 6 for the next three courses. 8. Press Esc to exit the Create Line by Bearing command. 9. From the Draw panel on the Home tab, select the Curves Create Curve from End of Object and select the Create Curve from End of Object command. 10. At the Select arc or line object: prompt, select the northeast end of the last line drawn.
  • 69. 46 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES 11. At the Select entry [Radius/Point] <Radius>: prompt, press 5 to confirm the radius selection. 12. At the Specify Radius, or [degreeArc/degreeChord]: prompt, enter 761.35, and then press 5. 13. At the Select entry [Tangent/Chord/Delta/Length/External/Mid-Ordinate] <Length>: prompt, press 5 to confirm the length selection. 14. At the Specify length of curve: prompt, enter 204.70. The curve appears in the draw- ing, and a short report about the curve appears on the command line. 15. Continue using the Create Line by Bearing and the Create Curve from End of Object com- mands to complete the deed as listed at the beginning of this exercise. 16. The finished linework should look like Figure 2.24. There will be an error of closure of 4.55 . Typically, rounding errors, especially with the different curve parameters, can cause an error in closure. Perhaps reworking the deed holding a different curve parameter would improve your results. Consult your office survey expert about how this would be handled in house, and refer to Chapter 3, ‘‘Lay of the Land: Survey,’’ for more information about traverse adjustment and similar tools. Figure 2.24 The finished linework 17. Save your drawing. You’ll need it for the next exercise. Best Fit Entities Although engineers and surveyors do their best to make their work an exact science, sometimes tools like the Best Fit Entities are required. Roads in many parts of the world have no defined alignment. They may have been old carriage roads or cart paths from hundreds of years ago that evolved into automobile roads. Survey- ors and engineers are often called to help establish official alignments, vertical alignments, and right-of-way lines for such roads on the basis of a best fit of surveyed centerline data. Other examples for using Best Fit Entities include property lines of agreement, road rehabilita- tion projects, and other cases where existing survey information must be approximated into ‘‘real’’ engineering geometry (see Figure 2.25). Create Best Fit Line Command The Create Best Fit Line command under the Best Fit drop-down on the Draw panel takes a series of Civil 3D points, AutoCAD points, entities, or drawing locations and draws a single best-fit line
  • 70. CREATING CURVES 47 segment from this information. In Figure 2.26, for example, the Create Best Fit Line command draws a best-fit line through a series of points that aren’t quite collinear. Note that the best-fit line will change as more points are picked. Figure 2.25 The Create Best Fit Entities menu options Figure 2.26 A preview line drawn through points that aren’t quite collinear Once you’ve selected your points, a Panorama window appears with information about each point you chose, as shown in Figure 2.27. Figure 2.27 The Panorama window lets you optimize your best fit This interface allows you to optimize your best fit by adding more points, selecting the check box in the Pass Through column to force one of your points on the line, or adjusting the value under the Weight column. Figure 2.28 shows a line drawn by best fit. Figure 2.28 The resulting best-fit line through a series of points that aren’t collinear
  • 71. 48 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES Create Best Fit Arc Command The Create Best Fit Arc command under the Best Fit drop-down works identically to the Create Best Fit Line command, except the resulting entity is a single arc segment as opposed to a single line segment (see Figure 2.29). Figure 2.29 A curve created by best fit Create Best Fit Parabola Command The Create parabola command under the Create Best Fit Entities option works in a similar way to the line and arc commands just described. This command is most useful when you have TIN sampled or surveyed road information and you’d like to replicate true vertical curves for your design information. After you select this command, the Parabola by Best Fit dialog appears (see Figure 2.30). Figure 2.30 The Parabola by Best Fit dialog You can select inputs from entities (such as lines, arcs, polylines, or profile objects) or by pick- ing on screen. The command then draws a best-fit parabola on the basis of this information. In Figure 2.31, the shots were represented by AutoCAD points; more points were added by selecting the By Clicking on the Screen option and using the Node osnap to pick each point. Figure 2.31 The best-fit preview line changes as more points are picked
  • 72. CREATING CURVES 49 Once you’ve selected your points, a Panorama window appears, showing information about each point you chose. Also note the information in the right pane regarding K-value, curve length, grades, and so forth. In this interface (shown in Figure 2.32), you can optimize your K-value, length, and other values by adding more points, selecting the check box in the Pass Through column to force one of your points on the line, or adjusting the value under the Weight column. Figure 2.32 The Panorama window lets you make adjustments to your best-fit parabola Attach Multiple Entities The Attach Multiple Entities command is a combination of the Line from End of Object command and the Curve from End of Object command. This command is most useful for reconstructing deeds or road alignments from legal descriptions when each entity is tangent to the previous entity. Using this command saves you time because you don’t have to constantly switch between the Line from End of Object command and the Curve from End of Object command (see Figure 2.33). Figure 2.33 The Attach Multi- ple Entities command draws a series of lines and arcs so that each segment is tangent to the previous one In previous releases, this command was part of the Lines and Curves menu. In Civil 3D 2010, the Attach Multiple Entities command isn’t in a panel, but you can access it by typing attachmul- tiple at the command line. Creating an Edge-of-Asphalt Line Using Best Fit Entities It’s common for surveyors to locate points along the edge of a road. Although road plans may call for perfectly straight edges, road construction is a different matter. Imperfections, branches, and other
  • 73. 50 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES obstacles often make surveying the edge of asphalt difficult. When you’re working with these types of points, you may find the Best Fit tools to be helpful for creating an optimized edge-of-asphalt linework. Try this exercise: 1. Open the Best Fit.dwg file, which you can download from www.sybex.com/ masteringcivil3d2010. 2. From the Draw panel of the Home tab, select Best Fit Best Fit Line. The Line by Best Fit dia- log appears. 3. Confirm that From Civil 3D Points is selected. Click OK. 4. At the Select point objects or [Numbers/Groups]: prompt, type N for numbers. Press 5. 5. At the Enter point numbers or [Select/Groups]: prompt, type 2-7 and press 5 to indi- cate that you’d like to connect point numbers 2 through 7 with a line of best fit. A red, dashed preview line appears. 6. At the Enter point numbers or [Select/Groups/Undo]: prompt, press 5. The Best Fit Panorama window appears. Click the green check box to dismiss Panorama and accept the best fit. 7. The best-fit line is drawn. Repeat the process for the other side of the road, noting what hap- pens if you exclude certain points or force the line to a pass through them. The Curve Calculator Sometimes you may not have enough information to draw a curve properly. Although many of the curve-creation tools assist you in calculating the curve parameters, you may find an occasion where the deed you’re working with is incomplete.
  • 74. CREATING CURVES 51 The Curve Calculator found in the Curves drop-down on the Draw panel helps you calculate a full collection of curve parameters on the basis of your known values and constraints. The units used in the Curve Calculator match the units assigned in your Drawing Settings. The Curve Calculator can remain open on your screen while you’re working through com- mands. You can send any value in the Calculator to the command line by clicking the button next to that value (see Figure 2.34). Figure 2.34 The Curve Calculator The button at upper left in the Curve Calculator inherits the arc properties from an existing arc in the drawing, and the drop-down menu in the Degree of Curve Definition selection field allows you to choose whether to calculate parameters for an arc or a chord definition. The drop-down menu in the Fixed Property selection field also gives you the choice of fixing your radius or delta value when calculating the values for an arc or a chord, respectively (see Figure 2.35). Whichever parameter is chosen as the fixed value is held constant as additional parameters are calculated. Figure 2.35 The Fixed Property drop-down menu gives you the choice of fixing your radius or delta value As explained previously, you can send any value in the Curve Calculator to the command line using the button next to that value (see Figure 2.36). This is most useful while you’re active in a curve command and would like to use a certain parameter value to complete the command. Adding Line and Curve Labels Although most robust labeling of site geometry is handled using Parcel or Alignment labels, limited line- and curve-annotation tools are available in Civil 3D. The line and curve labels are
  • 75. 52 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES composed much the same way as other Civil 3D labels, with marked similarities to Parcel and Alignment Segment labels. Figure 2.36 Click the button next to any value to send it to the command line Where Is Delta? In the Text Component Editor for a curve label, the value that most people would refer to as a delta angle is called the General Segment Total Angle. To insert the Delta symbol in a label, simply type U+0394 in the Text Editor window on the right side of the Text Component Editor dialog box as shown here. The next exercise leads you through labeling the deed you re-created earlier in this chapter: 1. Continue working in the Deed Create Start.dwg file. 2. Click the Labels button in the Labels & Tables panel on the Annotate tab. The Add Labels dialog appears, as shown in Figure 2.37. 3. Choose Line and Curve from the Feature drop-down menu.
  • 76. CREATING CURVES 53 Figure 2.37 The Add Labels dialog, set to Multiple Segment Labels 4. Choose Multiple Segment from the Label Type drop-down menu. The Multiple Segment option places the label at the midpoint of each selected line or arc. 5. Confirm that the Line Label Style is Bearing over Distance and that the Curve Label Style is Distance-Radius and Delta. 6. Click the Add button. 7. At the Select Entity: prompt, select each line and arc that you drew in the previous exercise. A label appears on each entity at its midpoint, as shown in Figure 2.38. Figure 2.38 The labeled linework 8. Save the drawing — you’ll need it for the next exercise.
  • 77. 54 CHAPTER 2 BACK TO BASICS: LINES AND CURVES Converting Curve Labels to Tags and Making a Curve Table Civil 3D 2010 added the ability to convert line and curve labels into tags for table creation. It’s common to use tags or sequentially numbered short labels to identify lines and/or curves on the plan and then list the detailed information in a table. The following exercise shows you how to convert the curve labels that you added in the previous exercise into tags and make a table with the corresponding curve data: 1. Continue working in Deed Create Start.dwg. 2. Change to the Annotate tab in the Ribbon. 3. From the Labels & Tables panel, select Add Tables menu Line and Curve Add Curve Tables. The Table Creation dialog appears. 4. Select the Apply check box for General Curve: Distance-Radius and Delta, as shown in Figure 2.39. Click OK. Figure 2.39 Select the Apply check box for General Curve: Distance-Radius and Delta 5. At the Select upper left corner: prompt, select any location. A table appears, as shown in Figure 2.40. Note that the curves that were formerly labeled with Distance-Radius and Delta are now labeled with sequentially numbered tags. Figure 2.40 The curve table 6. Save your drawing.