FORMATION,     FUNCTION,     ANDINTERPRETATION OF A SUBJECT’SDREAM AT WORKPLACE CONFLICTUALSITUATION DURING 2004-2011: ALO...
CONTENTS:   Chapter –I :    Introduction;        (4 to 90)   Chapter-II :    Review of Literature;(91 to 172)   Chapter...
Acknowledgement I,Naorem Binita Devi,earlier adoc-lecturer at  Zakir Husain College,D.U., now at present  assistant      ...
Continue:1 I am very pleased to thank to those institute  where my case narrative person is working.  Without        thes...
Continue:2 I am using symbols in my study. Thanks to those who played such bullied attitude because that makes me to deve...
INTRODUCTION:   Concept   Meaning of a dream   Types of a Dream   Dream Occurrences   Other associated Phenomena   W...
Concept: Dreams have fascinated people since ancient times.  The Mesopotamians, Hebrews, Babylonians, Chinese,  Greeks, a...
Continue 1 Dreams are unique. No other individual can have  your background, your emotions, or your  experiences. Every d...
MEANING OF A DREAM Finding out what dreams mean has been of  intense interest to philosophers for  thousands of years - o...
Continue-1 According to Domhoff (2005) dreaming is  defined as “a sequence of perceptions, thoughts  and emotions during ...
Continue-2 Research findings have revealed that the occurrence  of recurrent dreams, nightmares and unpleasant  everyday ...
Continue-3 More recent developments suggest that dreams  are more similar than different because they  dramatize people’s...
Continue-4 The ancient Greeks constructed temples they called  Asclepieions, where sick people were sent to be  cured. It...
Continue-5 The two most well known (relatively) modern  schools of psychological dream analysis are  those of Sigmund Fre...
Continue-6 Freud stated that "the interpretation of dreams  is the royal road to a knowledge of the  unconscious activiti...
Continue-7 What is Lucid dreaming and nightmares? The basic definition of lucid dreaming is  becoming aware that you are...
Continue-8 There are three fundamental psychological  questions to be answered: Formation  Where do our dreams come from...
TYPES OF A DREAM:   Daydreams;   False awakening dreams;   Lucid dreams;   Nightmares;   Recurring dreams;   Healing...
Continue 1 Daydreaming is classified as a level of consciousness      between      sleep    and wakefulness. Studies show...
Continue-2 False Awakening Dreams:  Ever thought you were awake and going  about your morning routine of getting up,  bru...
Continue-3 Nightmares:  A nightmare is a disturbing dream that causes the  dreamer to wake up feeling anxious and frighte...
Continue-4 Healing Dreams:  Healing dreams serve as messages for the  dreamer in regards to their health. Many dream  exp...
Continue-5 Prophetic Dreams:  Prophetic dreams, also referred to as  precognitive or psychic dreams, are dreams that  see...
Continue-6 Signal Dreams :  Signal dreams help you how to solve problems or make  decisions in your waking life. Epic Dr...
DREAM OCCURRENCES: Hypnogogic Images Recurring Dreams Nightmares Dreams In Series Out of Body Experiences (OBES) ESP...
Continue-1 Hypnogogic Images: Between being awake and falling asleep, your mind enters the hypnogogic phase. In this stag...
Continue-2 Recurring Dreams:  It is safe to assume that a recurring dream will have  something important to say to us abo...
Continue-3 Dreams In Series:  Dreams tend to come in a series. After you  have recorded a significant amount of  dreams, ...
Continue-4 Out of Body Experiences (OBES):  What is an OBE and how does it differ from  dreaming? An OBE is quite differe...
Continue-5 ESP In Dreams:  Extrasensory perception, better known as ESP, is  response to external stimuli without any kno...
Continue-6 Types of ESP: Precognition Dream Psychometry Synchronous
Continue-7 Precognition –  This is one of the most common types of dream ESP people  talk about. Apparently, they seem to...
Continue-8 Dream Psychometry –  This is the most uncommon of the three areas of dream  ESP. These too, are accounts that ...
Continue-9 Synchronous –  These are dreams in which the dreamer encounters  another familiar character in a dream, and up...
OTHER ASSOCIATED PHENOMENA: Rapid eye movement (REM) False awakening Sleep paralysis Out-of-body experience Rarity
Continue-1 Rapid eye movement: When a person is dreaming, the eyes move rapidly. Scientific research has found that these...
Continue-2 False awakening:  In a false awakening, one suddenly dreams of  having been awakened. Commonly in a false  awa...
Continue-3 Out-of-body experience:  An out-of-body experience (OBE or sometimes  OOBE) is an experience that typically in...
Continue-4 Rarity:  Given the frequent bizarreness, illogic and dislocation of  dreams, some researchers have questioned ...
WHY WE DREAM? There is no proven fact on why we dream, which is  why there are so many theories on the topic. There is F...
Continue: Evans states that dreaming is our bodies way  of storing the vast array of information  gained during the day, ...
DREAM HISTORY: Ancient Dreamers: Early Greek Thinking: Roman Theories: Biblical Visions: Middle-Eastern Ideas: Europ...
Continue-1 Dream interpretations dates back to 3000— 4000 B.C., where they were documented on clay tablets. People in som...
Continue-2 Ancient Dreamers: Dreams were originally believed to be message from  the Gods, or supernatural communication...
Continue-3   Early Greek Thinking:   Dreams in Greek Mythology   Morpheus & The Oneiroi   In Greek mythology Morpheus ...
Continue-4 The Oneiroi lived on the shores of the ocean and were  between them responsible for the dreams of mortals. Of ...
Continue-5 Ovid suggests that Morpheus had a special talent for  mimicking human form in dreams. In Metamorphoses  Ovid s...
Continue-6 Morpheus also had special responsiblity for the  dreams of kings and heroes. For these reasons  Morpheus is of...
Continue-7 The first step into modern Dream interpretation was  taken in the 5th century B.C. the Greek philosopher  Hera...
Continue-8 A century after the death of Heraclitus, Aristotle  (384-322 b.c.) finally put an end to the idea of  dreams a...
Continue-9 He also advanced the theory that dreams were a  reflection of the bodily state, and a doctor could  therefore ...
Continue-10 Roman Theories: Although earlier documents exist ( notably the  Egyptian dream book known as the Chester  Be...
Continue-11 A   second oneirocriticon written by Astrampsychus (c.AD 350) bears some resemblance to the dream books that ...
Continue-12 Biblical Visions: The Christians revived the beliefs that dreams were  supernatural events. The old Testamen...
Continue-13 Middle-Eastern Ideas:  Early work on dream interpretation was not confined  to the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans,...
Continue-14 The most notable early Arabic dream interpreter  was Gabdorrhachaman (c.A.D. 720), whose  theories first appe...
Continue-15 European Attitudes: Robert Cross Smith (1795-1832) from Bristol, set up as an  astrologer under the name “ R...
Continue-16 He dreamed that it was during the Reign of Terror of the  French revolution, and he was condemned and led to ...
Continue-17 Modern Thinking: Freud (1865-1939) set out the theory that, although  they may be prompted by external stimu...
Continue-18 Other theories:  Theories about dreams have continued to be  developed since Freud and Jung published their  ...
Continue-19 The Gestalt Technique sees dreams as aids to  the organization and structuring of  information, so the dreame...
DREAM INTERPRETATION: Recording Your Dreams Interpreting Your Dreams Interpretation Problems Dream interpretation
Continue-1 Recording Your Dreams:    For all of those people out there who are interested in  learning about what their d...
Continue-2 Interpreting Your Dreams:   The first thing you need to know about interpreting your  dreams is that you shoul...
Continue-3 After you have answered all these questions to  yourself you can begin getting to the specifics:  1. How am I ...
Continue-4 Interpretation Problems:   Its not uncommon to have problems with interpretation.  The main thing that you hav...
Continue-5 Dream interpretation:  Dream interpretation is the process of assigning meaning  to dreams. In many of the anc...
Continue-6 Freudian Dream Tools: According to Freud, dreams always have a manifest  and latent content. The manifest con...
Continue-7 To further help in interpreting the cryptic images of  our dreams, Freud classified the images into the  follo...
Continue-8 4. Condensation  This is the process in which the dreamer hides their feelings  or urges by contracting it or ...
Continue-9 Jung  Although not dismissing Freuds model of dream  interpretation wholesale, Carl Jung believed Freuds notio...
Continue-10 Jungian Dream Interpretation: Since dreams were a way of communicating with the  unconscious, Jung felt that...
Continue-11 Jung identified seven such symbols in what is referred to as the  major archetypal characters: 1. The Person...
Continue-12 The Anima / Animus is the female and male aspects of  yourself. Everyone possess both feminine and masculine ...
Continue-13 The Wise Old Man /Woman is the helper in your  dreams. Represented by a teacher, father, doctor,  priest or s...
Continue-14 The Trickster, as the name implies, plays jokes to keep you  from taking yourself too seriously. The trickste...
Continue-15 Jung believed that archetypes such as the animus,  the anima, the shadow and others manifested  themselves in...
Continue-16 Jung stressed that the dream was not merely a devious  puzzle invented by the unconscious to be deciphered, s...
Continue-17 Alfred Adler Alfred Adler (1870 -1937) believed that dreams were  an important vehicle to mastering control ...
Continue-18 Unlike Freud, Adler believed that control, power and  motivation were the driving force behind behavior, not ...
Continue-19 Frederick Perls Frederick Perls (1893-1970) was the founder of  Gestalt therapy. Gestalt therapy seeks to fi...
Continue-20 In order to discover what aspect of yourself is  being disowned, Perls believed that it is  important to rete...
Continue-21 In 1954, Calvin S. Hall developed a theory of dreams  in which dreaming is considered to be a cognitive  proc...
Continue-22 Faraday, et al. In the 1970s, Ann Faraday and others helped bring dream  interpretation into the mainstream ...
Continue-23 New Age Interpretation of dreams is also a part of contemporary pop and  new age culture. Edgar Cayce claime...
THE IMPORTANCE OF DREAMING: Do we dream in order to sleep or do we sleep in order to dream?  Although that question remai...
OBJECTIVES & HYPOTHESIS The present objective of the study as formulated by the  investigator is:  Under the tense situat...
CHAPTER-II Review of Literature:
CHAPTER-III: METHODOLOGY : There are four sources of dream reports,    namely,   The sleep laboratory;   The psychother...
Continue-1 Dream journals are a form of “personal document” long  recognized in psychology as having the potential for pr...
Continue-2 Sample:  Dream of the subject : A longitudinal case narrative  (Neutral person assigned as case narrative pers...
Continue-3 Procedure:  Bullying from bi-cluster groups ( from the investigator point of view)  Bullying can be taken plac...
Continue-4 In each and every institution, there is a post of Head.    Sometimes such head was supervised by groups or    ...
Continue-5 Unwanted candidate:  Here I (nbd) want to depict about a young person  who never knew what is going to the wor...
Continue-6   Failed to the pre-planned act:    Using more and more bullying activities mean that it may involve that    t...
Continue-7 Group Influences:  Group influences are related to the second point. Those  colleagues who could not succeed t...
Continue-8 Removing the unwanted candidate due to failure of their  pre-planned act: Some senior colleague never stop do...
Continue-9 So, due to failure of their pre-plan act, they used  multiple strategies how to remove the unwanted  candidate...
Continue-10   So, in short, the nature of bullying activities are as follows in academic    institution to remove the unw...
Continue-11 Such bullying attitude are very frequently used by seniors    to keep the unwanted person in tension, confusi...
Continue-12 Bi-cluster groups different way of instrumental behaviour to the case  narrative person as mentioned above bu...
CHAPTER—IV : RESULT Case profile: The subject who narrated her case was 31 year old at that time n    working in one Ins...
Continue-1 As she narrated to the investigator about the  dream and spirit the investigator started  enquiring about the ...
Continue-2 “ the person narrated that she joined one academic institution on   the 8th January 2004. She started dreaming...
Continue-3 When the dreamer saw such thing, then something  happened in her duty also. but when she analyze the  situatio...
Continue-4 Earlier such dreams gives her very much anxious  feeling to her but latter when she saturated such  feeling to...
Continue-5 Another dream during this period is that the two  senior colleagues, she saw in her dream. One is  trying to c...
Continue-6 Latter the investigator shall narrate such dreams. Interpretation associating to the earlier job:        If s...
Continue-7   Second longitudinal case narratives:   From the end of 2006 to sept 2011,   Second the case narrative pers...
Continue-8 The way of their bullying behaviour are more or less same.  But under one same cultural groups, some more be a...
Continue-9 METHODS FOE ANALYZING DREAM CONTENT: The four general methods for analyzing dream content include: Collectin...
Continue-10 Now the investigator analyzed the case study the following way: When the subject got the interview letter fr...
Continue-11 When she analyzed her experience, she is really happy  because she got her first teaching experience from the...
Continue-11 The way they try to frame her is very surprising to her. The  post which she joined in S.C. post is occupied ...
Continue-12 Their plan no. to remove her after the 3rd term. Giving reasons like not  coming in time, not teaching well,...
Continue-13 why they want to remove her is that in 2005 one  general category is going to be vacant. Keeping N on  the s....
Continue-14 Now the s.c. post is enjoyed by the s.t. person as  she got the news and she enquired about it and it  is tru...
Continue-15 In her understanding level this bi-polar politics have  some agreements of keeping their own people. One  sid...
Continue-16 As the subject narrated, she met HOD, designated as A in  the 1st week of January 2006 and narrated about the...
Continue-17 Before interview she met deputy registrar, designated as  B, dealing with such Z institutions on the place, t...
Continue-18 When she observes such situation she thinks that instead of  doing research she wants to present scenario and...
Continue-19   Now a days groupism in the higher levels also visible. You know if anyone    commits the crime from their g...
Continue-20 Another observation is that please give the rules and  regulations of the HOD of any department and please gi...
Continue-21 So insecurity may be high while bullying attitude was    happened and such bullying is spreading to the broad...
CHAPTER—V : DISCUSSION As she narrated to the investigator about the  dream and spirit the investigator started  enquirin...
Continue-1   Dreams says something for your present situation and this present    situation gives you latter prediction f...
Continue-2 Dreams are unique. No other individual can have your  background, your emotions, or your experiences. Every dr...
Continue-3 During the Hellenistic period, the main focus of  dreams was centered around its ability to heal.  Temples, ca...
Continue-4 In the early 19th century, dreams were dismissed as stemming  from anxiety, a household noise or even indigest...
Continue-5 The investigator never accept sex was the root cause of what was  happening in your dreams. According to the i...
Continue-6   Adler saw dreams as a way of overcompensating for the shortcomings in our    waking life. For example, if a ...
Continue-7 Since dreams were a way of communicating with the  unconscious, Jung felt that the imageries in dreams  were a...
Continue-8 Perls believed that it is important to retell your dream in  the present tense and act it out. It is important...
Thesis power point dream
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  1. 1. FORMATION, FUNCTION, ANDINTERPRETATION OF A SUBJECT’SDREAM AT WORKPLACE CONFLICTUALSITUATION DURING 2004-2011: ALONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY REPORT. A partial fulfilment of the Doctorate of Philosophy
  2. 2. CONTENTS: Chapter –I : Introduction; (4 to 90) Chapter-II : Review of Literature;(91 to 172) Chapter-III : Methodology; (173 to 180) Chapter-IV: Result; (181 to 196) Chapter-V : Discussion; (197 to 206) Chapter-VI: Summary; (207 to 215) Conclusion; (216 to 219) References. (220 to 240)
  3. 3. Acknowledgement I,Naorem Binita Devi,earlier adoc-lecturer at Zakir Husain College,D.U., now at present assistant professor, dept. of psychology,Mizoram University, is pleased to inform you all that I can able to self-supervise for my Ph.d. thesis based on field study. Now I am keeping it in slide share n read it n give feedback to me. I really very thankful to my case narrative person and her sharing nature of each and every detail of the report.
  4. 4. Continue:1 I am very pleased to thank to those institute where my case narrative person is working. Without these institutions and their cooperation such work is not possible. Thanks you,all so much those who become a part of my study. Next time also I really need help for you,all. Again I am very thankful for those person who makes the investigator to make her complete work. If I am using some unethical statement in my thesis please just ignore. It is just a field study and in the field study, many observations are needed.
  5. 5. Continue:2 I am using symbols in my study. Thanks to those who played such bullied attitude because that makes me to develop something. Thanks to Z institution especially,latter M institution, in the M institution repeating the procedures but already prepared by the subject so less warning dream n can able to prepare.
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION: Concept Meaning of a dream Types of a Dream Dream Occurrences Other associated Phenomena Why we dream Dream History Modern theory Dream Interpretation The importance of dreaming Objectives Hypothesis
  7. 7. Concept: Dreams have fascinated people since ancient times. The Mesopotamians, Hebrews, Babylonians, Chinese, Greeks, and Romans all valued dream interpretation (Van De Castle, 1994), and early psychologists (Freud, 1900/1970; Jung, 1945/1993) wrote of the value of dream interpretation in spurring client insight. Dreams are a succession of images, thoughts, or emotions passing through the mind during sleep. The content and purposes of dreams are not fully understood, though they have been a topic of speculation and interest throughout recorded history. The scientific study of dreams is known as “oneirology”.
  8. 8. Continue 1 Dreams are unique. No other individual can have your background, your emotions, or your experiences. Every dream is connected with your own “reality”. Thus, in interpreting someone’s dream, it is important to draw from your personal life and experiences. A dream unifies the body, mind, and spirit. It provides you with insight ourselves and a means for self-exploration. In understanding your dreams, you will have a better understanding and discovery of your true self. A dream is some sort of mental activity during sleep, usually reported as perceived in a visually imaginative manner ( Webb and Cart weight,1978).
  9. 9. MEANING OF A DREAM Finding out what dreams mean has been of intense interest to philosophers for thousands of years - one of the first "dream dictionaries" was the ancient Greek Oneirocritica of Artemidus. It seems a universal human trait to want to crack the "code" and find out what your dream was about and what, if anything, it meant.
  10. 10. Continue-1 According to Domhoff (2005) dreaming is defined as “a sequence of perceptions, thoughts and emotions during sleep that is experienced as a series of actual events. The nature of these events, the dream content, can be known to the interviewers only in the form of a verbal or written report”. . Dement and Kleitman (1957) observed that subjects reported dreams 80% of the time when awakened during REM sleep, dreams were reported during NREM sleep only 20% of the time (Hartman,1967).
  11. 11. Continue-2 Research findings have revealed that the occurrence of recurrent dreams, nightmares and unpleasant everyday dreams is related to one’s psychological well-being (Blagrove, Farmer,& Williams, 2004; Zadra & Donderi, 2000). Further data demonstrate that the dream reports of people suffering from certain psychopathologies can differ from those of normal control subjects (Kramer, 2000; Schredl & Engelhardt, 2001), and that certain personality dimensions such as extroversion (Bernstein & Roberts, 1995), neuroticism (Schredl, Landgraf, & Zeiler, 2003), and psychological boundaries (Schredl, Schäfer, Hofmann,& Jacob, 1999) are extensively associated to dream content.
  12. 12. Continue-3 More recent developments suggest that dreams are more similar than different because they dramatize people’s conceptions and concerns in relation to personal issues, which probably does not vary much from country to country as culture does. In particular, the continuity hypothesis postulates that the content of everyday dreams reflects the dreamer’s waking states and concerns. In other words, elements from people’s dreams can be related to corresponding waking or psychological variables (Domhoff, 2005).
  13. 13. Continue-4 The ancient Greeks constructed temples they called Asclepieions, where sick people were sent to be cured. It was believed that cures would be effected through divine grace by incubating dreams within the confines of the temple. Dreams were also considered prophetic or omens of particular significance. In ancient Egypt, priests also acted as dream interpreters. Joseph and Daniel are recorded as having interpreted dreams sent from God, and indeed the Bible describes many incidents of dreams as divine revelation. Hieroglyphics depicting dreams and their interpretations are evident. Dreams have been held in considerable importance through history by most cultures.
  14. 14. Continue-5 The two most well known (relatively) modern schools of psychological dream analysis are those of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung who attempted to discover the hidden meaning he believed lay behind the dreams of his patients. Other dream interpertation approaches which build on these include depth psychology, neurocognitive theory, activation-synthesis and Fritz Perls gestalt theory.
  15. 15. Continue-6 Freud stated that "the interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind" (p. 647), and Jung viewed dreams as being a source of personal knowledge and guidance. Despite the attention given to dream interpretation by these and other theorists, and the fascination with dreams by people in a variety of cultures and times, only 10 to 15% of mental health professionals work with dreams (Davis, 2002).
  16. 16. Continue-7 What is Lucid dreaming and nightmares? The basic definition of lucid dreaming is becoming aware that you are dreaming. Yet, the quality of lucidity varies. A nightmare is a dream which causes a strong unpleasant emotional response from the sleeper, typically fear or horror, being in situations of extreme danger, or the sensations of pain, falling, drowning or death.
  17. 17. Continue-8 There are three fundamental psychological questions to be answered: Formation Where do our dreams come from? Function What purpose - if any - do they serve? Interpretation What - if anything - do they mean?
  18. 18. TYPES OF A DREAM: Daydreams; False awakening dreams; Lucid dreams; Nightmares; Recurring dreams; Healing dreams; Prophetic dreams; Signal dreams; Epic dreams.
  19. 19. Continue 1 Daydreaming is classified as a level of consciousness between sleep and wakefulness. Studies show that we all have the tendency to daydream an average of 70-120 minutes a day. It occurs during our waking hours when we let our imagination carry us away. As our minds begin to wander and our level of awareness decreases, we lose ourselves in our imagined scenario and fantasy.
  20. 20. Continue-2 False Awakening Dreams: Ever thought you were awake and going about your morning routine of getting up, brushing your teeth, eating breakfast and going to work only to wake up "again" and realize that was just a dream. That sensation is referred to as a false awakening. Lucid Dreams : Lucid dreams occurs when you realize you are dreaming.
  21. 21. Continue-3 Nightmares: A nightmare is a disturbing dream that causes the dreamer to wake up feeling anxious and frightened. Nightmares may be a response to real life trauma and situations. These type of nightmares fall under a special category called Post-traumatic Stress Nightmare (PSN). Recurring Dreams: Recurring dreams repeat themselves with little variation in story or theme. Dreams may recur because a conflict depicted in the dream remains unresolved or ignored. Once you have found a resolution to the problem, your recurring dreams will cease.
  22. 22. Continue-4 Healing Dreams: Healing dreams serve as messages for the dreamer in regards to their health. Many dream experts believe that dreams can help us avoid potential health problems and help us to heal when we are ill. Our bodies are able to communicate to us through our dreams to "tell" us that something is not quite right with our bodies even before any physical symptoms show up. Dreams of this nature may be telling the dreamer that he/she needs to go to the dentist or doctor.
  23. 23. Continue-5 Prophetic Dreams: Prophetic dreams, also referred to as precognitive or psychic dreams, are dreams that seemingly foretell the future. One rational theory to explain this phenomenon is that our dreaming mind is able to piece together bits of information and observation that we normally overlook or that we do not seriously consider. In other words, our unconscious mind knows what is coming before we consciously piece together the same information.
  24. 24. Continue-6 Signal Dreams : Signal dreams help you how to solve problems or make decisions in your waking life. Epic Dreams : Epic dreams (also known as Great Dreams or Cosmic Dreams) are so huge, so compelling, and so vivid that you cannot ignore them. The details of such dreams remain with you for years, as if your dreamt it last night. These dreams possess much beauty and contain many archetypal symbology. When you wake up from such a dream, you feel that you have discovered something profound or amazing about yourself or about the world. It feels like a life-changing experience .
  25. 25. DREAM OCCURRENCES: Hypnogogic Images Recurring Dreams Nightmares Dreams In Series Out of Body Experiences (OBES) ESP In Dreams
  26. 26. Continue-1 Hypnogogic Images: Between being awake and falling asleep, your mind enters the hypnogogic phase. In this stage you begin to lose touch with the world around you without showing the physiological stages of sleep. Pictures form inside our heads like still photographs and although you may have never noticed them, they are there.
  27. 27. Continue-2 Recurring Dreams: It is safe to assume that a recurring dream will have something important to say to us about the way we are conducting our waking lives, so it will be worth trying to discover what its message is. Nightmares : Nightmares are the way in which our subconscious scolds us and says, "pay attention!" Anyone who has had a vivid nightmare, knows it is very difficult to forget it once you awaken. If a nightmare occurs, your subconscious is trying to tell you something very important, perhaps something you have been ignoring or refusing to accept as a truth within your life situation.
  28. 28. Continue-3 Dreams In Series: Dreams tend to come in a series. After you have recorded a significant amount of dreams, you will begin to see that a certain dream theme was being dealt with for several nights in a row. Consider this like a school course, and each dream a lesson pertaining to your life. If you learn from the dream theme, and alter your behavior or belief system, the series will end.
  29. 29. Continue-4 Out of Body Experiences (OBES): What is an OBE and how does it differ from dreaming? An OBE is quite different from any of the other dream experiences. The only difficulties is studying these phenomenons, since no one has had one under the study of a dream psychologist. It is similar to lucid dreaming only in the fact that consciousness is present. It is not uncommon to see the body, as we drift upward and out of it, sleeping upon the bed. Most everyone has heard of people who have been clinically pronounced "dead" but then return to their body. This is referred to as a NDE or Near Death Experience.
  30. 30. Continue-5 ESP In Dreams: Extrasensory perception, better known as ESP, is response to external stimuli without any known sensory contact. Many people have claimed to have dreams in which they have predicted future events, learned about a subject that they had no previous knowledge of, or even met up with a friend in a dream only to find upon awakening that their friend also dreamt about the meeting. These are all cases of ESP in dreams.
  31. 31. Continue-6 Types of ESP: Precognition Dream Psychometry Synchronous
  32. 32. Continue-7 Precognition – This is one of the most common types of dream ESP people talk about. Apparently, they seem to dream about an event before it happens in reality, and in startlingly accurate detail. Some do not even realize that their dream are precognitive until the event starts to happen in real life exactly as they had in the dream. If these dreams really do predict future events, this could have great implications. It may be that they future has already been decided and that we are just following a set path in our life. There are people without a precognitive dreaming background that believe this as well, but even though it may sound a bit strange, it could confirm their beliefs if ESP in dreams in found to be factual.
  33. 33. Continue-8 Dream Psychometry – This is the most uncommon of the three areas of dream ESP. These too, are accounts that cannot be proved because they are based purely on what the dreamer experiences. Dream psychometry is gaining information about an object in your dreams of which you know nothing about in waking life. The easiest way to do this would be to take a picture of a person you dont know and think about this person before you go to sleep at night. Then, when you wake up in the morning, record your dream and analyze them for any meaning that could relate to the picture. You may even want to try this with a book, such as calculus, the night before you have a test on the subject and see if you learn anything. This is not suggested unless you have no other options, this is referred to as osmosis, when you arent in the dreaming state.
  34. 34. Continue-9 Synchronous – These are dreams in which the dreamer encounters another familiar character in a dream, and upon awakening and talking to that person they also recount the same dream experience during the night. If shared dreams are possible, it could prove the astral projection theory that goes along with OBEs. Even though most people are skeptical about this idea, that is the way we have been brought up, especially in western culture, which is not believing something unless there is sufficient scientific evidence to back it up. We may never be sure whether any of these theories will be proven, since the study of these rare occurrences is very difficult, so the only thing we can do is keep dreaming and know what we believe for ourselves.
  35. 35. OTHER ASSOCIATED PHENOMENA: Rapid eye movement (REM) False awakening Sleep paralysis Out-of-body experience Rarity
  36. 36. Continue-1 Rapid eye movement: When a person is dreaming, the eyes move rapidly. Scientific research has found that these eye movements correspond to the direction in which the dreamer is "looking" in his/her dreamscape; this has enabled trained lucid dreamers to communicate whilst dreaming to researchers by using eye movement signals.
  37. 37. Continue-2 False awakening: In a false awakening, one suddenly dreams of having been awakened. Commonly in a false awakening, the room is similar to the room in which the person fell asleep. Sleep paralysis: During REM sleep the body is paralyzed by a mechanism in the brain in order to prevent the movements which occur in the dream from causing the physical body to move.
  38. 38. Continue-3 Out-of-body experience: An out-of-body experience (OBE or sometimes OOBE) is an experience that typically involves a sensation of floating outside of ones body and, in some cases, perceiving ones physical body from a place outside ones body (autoscopy). About one in ten people have had an out-of- body experience at some time in their lives.Scientists are starting to learn about the phenomenon.
  39. 39. Continue-4 Rarity: Given the frequent bizarreness, illogic and dislocation of dreams, some researchers have questioned why dreamers are not lucid all of the time. How can our dreaming selves accept as real so many settings, images and events that in waking life, we assume, would immediately jolt us into disbelief? The answer to this has been approached in three categories of investigation.Depth psychology suggests that the unconscious “dream- work” is repressing or inhibiting critical evaluation of the dream in order to perform its salutary function. “Belief” in the dream symbols and experience is required for healing, personality integration or catharsis to take place. Lucidity can only arise if a person is relatively free of un-reconciled conflicts which form barriers.
  40. 40. WHY WE DREAM? There is no proven fact on why we dream, which is why there are so many theories on the topic. There is Freud’s theory that dreams carry our hidden desires and there is Jung’s theory that dreams carry meaning, although not always of desires, and these dreams can be interpreted by the dreamer. After these theories, others continued such as the Cayce theory in that dreams are our bodies means of building up of the mental, spiritual and physical well- being. Finally came the argument between Evans’ theory and the Crick and Mitchinson theory.
  41. 41. Continue: Evans states that dreaming is our bodies way of storing the vast array of information gained during the day, whereas Crick and MItchinson say that this information is being dumped rather than stored. Whichever theory is true, we may never know, but from these following theories we can decide for ourselves what we believe to be true and further help us into understanding our dreams.
  42. 42. DREAM HISTORY: Ancient Dreamers: Early Greek Thinking: Roman Theories: Biblical Visions: Middle-Eastern Ideas: European Attitudes: Modern Thinking:
  43. 43. Continue-1 Dream interpretations dates back to 3000— 4000 B.C., where they were documented on clay tablets. People in some primal societies were unable to distinguish between the dream world and waking world or they simply choose not to make such a distinction. They saw that the dream world was not only an extension of reality, but that it was a more powerful world.
  44. 44. Continue-2 Ancient Dreamers: Dreams were originally believed to be message from the Gods, or supernatural communications of some kind. During the 12th dynasty (1991-1786 bc), the Egyptians were certainly attempting to interpret their dreams, for they published a book setting, out some of the conclusions they had reached about dream symbols. It was in ancient Egypt that the process of “dream incubation” began: a person who was emotionally disturbed or wanted to ask the Gods fro help, would be put to sleep in a temple, and the priest ( or Master of the secret things) would interpret their dreams.
  45. 45. Continue-3 Early Greek Thinking: Dreams in Greek Mythology Morpheus & The Oneiroi In Greek mythology Morpheus was one of the four sons of Hypnos, the god of sleep. The four sons of Hypnos and Pasithea (herself associated with relaxation and hallucination) were Icelus, Morpheus, Phobetor and Phantasos. These four were known collectively as the Oneiroi. Some stories tell that Icelus and Phobetor were one and the same which would mean there were only three Oneiroi.
  46. 46. Continue-4 The Oneiroi lived on the shores of the ocean and were between them responsible for the dreams of mortals. Of the four Oneiroi, Morpheus is the most important. That said, he doesnt appear a great deal in mythology and is mainly known through the works of Ovid. Morpheus - Greek God of Dreams: Morpheus (sometimes incorrectly spelt "Morpeheus") was the chief shaper of dreams (his name means "he who shapes"). He was assisted by his brothers. Icelus concentrated on those aspects of dreams that reflected reality, Phobetor made fearsome dreams (hence "phobia") whilst Phantasus produced tricky and unreal dreams (hence "fantasy", "phantasmagoria", etc).
  47. 47. Continue-5 Ovid suggests that Morpheus had a special talent for mimicking human form in dreams. In Metamorphoses Ovid says: "King Sleep was father of a thousand sons - indeed a tribe - and of them all, the one he chose was Morpheus, who had such skill in miming any human form at will. No other Dream can match his artistry in counterfeiting men: their voice, their gait, their face - their moods; and, too, he imitates their dress precisely and the words they use most frequently. But he mimes only men..." Phobetor and Phantasos had responsibility for dreams about animals and inanimate objects respectively.
  48. 48. Continue-6 Morpheus also had special responsiblity for the dreams of kings and heroes. For these reasons Morpheus is often referred to as "Morpheus the Greek god of dreams" in superiority to his brothers. Morpheus himself was said to sleep in a rather unusual bedroom - a dark cave decorated with poppy flowers. This is perhaps a reference to the opium poppy; morphine was named after Morpheus (initially morphine was called "morphium").
  49. 49. Continue-7 The first step into modern Dream interpretation was taken in the 5th century B.C. the Greek philosopher Heraclitus ( c.544-483) suggested that a person’s dream would was peculiar to them, and was not necessarily a result of outside influences—even those of the GODS. Most Greek philosophers at some time concerned themselves with dreams and what they might mean: Plato (c.428-c.348 b.c.) realised how radically dreams could affect a personality or a life,. In the Phaedo Plato dercribes how Socrates studied music and the arts because he was instructed to do so in a dream.
  50. 50. Continue-8 A century after the death of Heraclitus, Aristotle (384-322 b.c.) finally put an end to the idea of dreams as messages from the Gods, and tried to study the dreams process in a rational way. He points out ( in his Dedivinatione per Somnum) that “most so-called prophetic dreams are the to be classed as mere coincidences, especially all such as are extravagant”, and latter asserts that “ the most skilful interpreter of dreams is he who has the faculty of absorbing resemblances. In his Parva naturalia, Aristotle suggested that dreams were in fact fragments of recollections of events of the day.
  51. 51. Continue-9 He also advanced the theory that dreams were a reflection of the bodily state, and a doctor could therefore use a patient’s dream as a means of diagnosing an illness. This idea was supported by Hippocrates (c.460-357 B.C), the founder of modern medicine, and is prevalent today. Galen of Pergamum (AD 129-99),a Greaco-Roman physician, followed the same line. For example, he recorded that a man dreamed that his left thigh was turned into marble, and soon after lost the use of his left leg as a result of a palsy.
  52. 52. Continue-10 Roman Theories: Although earlier documents exist ( notably the Egyptian dream book known as the Chester Beatty Papyrus), the Oneirocriticon or the interpretation of dreams by the Roman Artemidorus (c.A.D.150) is the first comprehensive book on the interpretation of dreams. Artemidorus argued that dreams were unique to the dreamer: the person’s occupation, social status, and health would all affect the symbols in a dream.
  53. 53. Continue-11 A second oneirocriticon written by Astrampsychus (c.AD 350) bears some resemblance to the dream books that the Victorians produced Astrampsychus’s volume contained statements such as “ to wear a purple robe threatens a long disease” and “ to hold or eat eggs symbolises vexation in the book may be accurate, for example: “sitting naked signifies less of property”.
  54. 54. Continue-12 Biblical Visions: The Christians revived the beliefs that dreams were supernatural events. The old Testament of the Bible is full of dreams: the most famous is probably Jacob’s dream of a ladder or staircase from earth to heaven. St.John Chrysostom (347-407) preached that God revealed himself through dreams. He also made the remarkably modern statement that we are not responsible for our dreams, and should not therefore be ashamed of any images that appear in them. both St. Augustine (354-430) and St. Jerome (c.342-420) claimed that the directions of their lives were affected by their dreams. Most religions had considerable respect for dreams. Mohammed (c.570-632) “received” much of the text of the Koran in a dream, and interpreted his disciples dreams for them.
  55. 55. Continue-13 Middle-Eastern Ideas: Early work on dream interpretation was not confined to the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Christians. In Persia, “Sifat-i-Sirozah” ( an unidentified writer) devised a scheme relying on time: a dream could only be interpreted according to the particular day it occurred. The Zoroastrians were particularly devoted to this theory, which set out rules for each day of the month, for example: “ the second day is that of Bahman...events dreamed of will occur in four days, but the hopes which may be cherished will be disappointed.”
  56. 56. Continue-14 The most notable early Arabic dream interpreter was Gabdorrhachaman (c.A.D. 720), whose theories first appeared in the west in 1664, published in French as L’onirocrite Mussulman. He considers that dreams was prophetic, and could only be interpreted by those who possessed “ a clean spirit, chaste morals, and the world of Truth”. Gabadarrhachaman’s aphorisms seem to have been based on his own instinct rather than on any particular understanding of symbolism: “he who dreams that his tongue has shortened immoderately will utter much folly and ribaldry”.
  57. 57. Continue-15 European Attitudes: Robert Cross Smith (1795-1832) from Bristol, set up as an astrologer under the name “ Raphael” and became enormously successful. Two years before his death, he published “ the royal book of dreams, inwhich he devised a procedure for interpreting dreams by the use of “ ciphers”. “ thy dream presages a saturnine enemy,” or “A full merry, and right joyful dream; it tells of banquets and feasting.” Modern dream interpretation may have begun with Alfred Maury, a French doctor who is reputed to have studied over 3000 dreams. He believed that dreams arose from external stimuli. A particular dream of his own suggested to him that dreams might arise so quickly that they were almost simultaneous with the stimulus that produced them.
  58. 58. Continue-16 He dreamed that it was during the Reign of Terror of the French revolution, and he was condemned and led to the guillotine. As the blade of the guillotine fell, he woke up to find that the top of the bed had fallen down and had struck the top of his spine. Just as the guillotine would actually have struck him. However, this line of thought proved to be relatively unimportant, and it was the development of the theory of the unsconscious that marked the beginning of the modern attitude to dream interpretation. Johann Fichte (1762-1814) and his disciple Friedrich Schelling (1775-1854) had already begun to suspect that dreams revealed our unconscious fears and desires, but it was with the publication in 1900 of Sigmund Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams, that modern work on dream interpretation really begun.
  59. 59. Continue-17 Modern Thinking: Freud (1865-1939) set out the theory that, although they may be prompted by external stimuli, wish fulfilment was the basis of most dreams. According to him, our dreams reflected our deepest desires, rooted in our infancy, and always held a serious meaning. He stressed the erotic content of dreams. Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) collaborated with Freud for some years, but disagreed with him on this very point: hidden sexual problems were not, Jung argued, at the root of most dreams. Jung suggested that dreamer, in fact important messages from ourselves to ourselves, and messages that we ignore to our loss.
  60. 60. Continue-18 Other theories: Theories about dreams have continued to be developed since Freud and Jung published their respective views. Some psychologists, like Medard Boss in the Analysis of Dreams (1958), have suggested that it is pointless to have any theory about dreams—that they are simply another facet of life, as meaningless as waking existence. Similarly, some psychologists believe that dreams merely “wipe the tape”; they dispose of memories that would otherwise clutter our minds with numerous remembered experiences and emotions.
  61. 61. Continue-19 The Gestalt Technique sees dreams as aids to the organization and structuring of information, so the dreamer should consider every element of the dream, which will relate to some “unfinished business” of the mind.
  62. 62. DREAM INTERPRETATION: Recording Your Dreams Interpreting Your Dreams Interpretation Problems Dream interpretation
  63. 63. Continue-1 Recording Your Dreams: For all of those people out there who are interested in learning about what their dreams mean to them in their life need to live by one rule. Always write down your dreams whenever you have them, soon after you have them. However well you think you can remember your dreams, you should have a record that you can work with to help you see any patterns that occur in your dream. The best way to interpret your own dreams is to first begin with having your own dream journal. You should allow yourself an area where you can write the dreams on the left side of the journal and the interpretations on the right side, or vice-versa. By having this journal will already get your mind set into the idea of having dreams, since you already have the journal to record them in.
  64. 64. Continue-2 Interpreting Your Dreams: The first thing you need to know about interpreting your dreams is that you should never use a dream dictionary because dreams are yours and yours only to interpret. You may want to start large with the dream itself and asking it questions, such as: 1. What were you doing in the dream? 2. What are the major contrasts and similarities in the dream and how do they relate? 3. What are the major symbols and relationships between these symbols? 4. What are the issues, conflicts, and unresolved situations in the dream? 5. What relationship does this dream or the symbols in the dream, have to do with any other dream?
  65. 65. Continue-3 After you have answered all these questions to yourself you can begin getting to the specifics: 1. How am I acting in the dream? 2. What symbols in this dream are important to me? 3. What are the different feelings in this dream? 4. What are the major actions in this dream? 5. Who or what is the adversary in this dream? 6. What is helping in this dream? 7. What would I like to avoid in this dream? 8. What actions might this dream be suggesting? 9. What does this dream want from me? 10. Why did I need this dream?
  66. 66. Continue-4 Interpretation Problems: Its not uncommon to have problems with interpretation. The main thing that you have to realize is that you have the answer. Sometimes its easy to see. Sometimes it isnt. The best approach to tackling a tough dream is to relax. It has been found that the more difficult the dream, the more important it is to your life. The main thing you need to realize is that the dream will come to you, whether it takes a few mintues, hours, or possibly the next day. Give it some time, because it may not be ready to reveal its true meaning. All you need to do is make a record of the dream and one day it may make so much sense to you that you couldnt possibly imagine why it gave you so much trouble. Give it some time, because it may not be ready to reveal its true meaning.
  67. 67. Continue-5 Dream interpretation: Dream interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to dreams. In many of the ancient societies, including Egypt and Greece, dreaming was considered a supernatural communication or a means of divine intervention, whose message could be unravelled by those with certain powers. In modern times, various schools of psychology have offered theories about the meaning of dreams. Freud’s book The Interpretation of Dreams (Die Traumdeutung; literally dream-interpretation), first published in 1899 (but dated 1900), that Sigmund Freud first argued that the foundation of all dream content is wish-fulfilment, and that the instigation of a dream is always to be found in the events of the day preceding the dream.
  68. 68. Continue-6 Freudian Dream Tools: According to Freud, dreams always have a manifest and latent content. The manifest content is what the dreams seems to be saying. It is often bizarre and nonsensical. The latent content is what the dream is really trying to say. Dreams gives us a look into our unconscious. Utilizing the technique of "free association", Freud believed that we can chip through the dreams manifest content to reveal the underlying significance of our dreams and its latent content. In this technique, you start with one dream symbol and then follow what comes to your mind next and see where it leads.
  69. 69. Continue-7 To further help in interpreting the cryptic images of our dreams, Freud classified the images into the following five processes: 1. Displacement This occurs when the desire for one thing or person is symbolized by something or someone else. 2. Projection This happens when the dreamer propels their own desires and wants onto another person. 3. Symbolization This is characterized when your repressed urges or suppressed desired or acted out metaphorically.
  70. 70. Continue-8 4. Condensation This is the process in which the dreamer hides their feelings or urges by contracting it or underplaying it into a brief dream image or event. The meaning of this dream imagery may not be apparent or obvious. 5. Rationalization This is seen as the final stage of dreamwork where the dreaming mind organizes an incoherent dream into one that is more comprehensible and logical. Also known as secondary revision. Freud was particularly preoccupied with sexual content in dreams. He believed that sex was the root cause of what was happening in your dreams. For Freud, every long slender or elongated objects (i.e. knives, cigars, guns, etc) represent the phallus, while any cavity or receptacle (bowls, caves, tunnels, etc) denotes the female genitalia.
  71. 71. Continue-9 Jung Although not dismissing Freuds model of dream interpretation wholesale, Carl Jung believed Freuds notion of dreams as representations of unfulfilled wishes to be simplistic and naive (Freud returned the favor by publicly opining that Jung was fine for those who were looking for a prophet [Freud, "Introductory Lecutures"]). Jung was convinced that the scope of dream interpretation was larger, reflecting the richness and complexity of the entire unconscious, both personal and collective. Jung believed the psyche to be a self-regulating organism in which conscious attitudes were likely to be compensated for unconsciously (within the dream) by their opposites.[1]
  72. 72. Continue-10 Jungian Dream Interpretation: Since dreams were a way of communicating with the unconscious, Jung felt that the imageries in dreams were a way of revealing something about ourselves, our relationships with others, and situations in our waking life. Dreams guided our personal growth and helped to self achieve our potential. He also believed that the dreams manifest content is just as significant and revealing as the latent content. Often discussing what is currently going on in your life, helps to interpret and unlock the cryptic and bizarre images of your dreams. Jungs method of dream interpretation is placed more confidently on the dreamer. He believed that we all possess the necessary tools to interpret our own dreams. There is no one correct way to interpret a dream. The meaning of your dreams is a personal judgment and is up to you on how to interpret them. Whatever interpretation felt right to you is most significant and more important than what someone else thinks or believes.
  73. 73. Continue-11 Jung identified seven such symbols in what is referred to as the major archetypal characters: 1. The Persona is the image you present to the world in your waking life. It is your public mask. In the dream world, the persona is represented by the Self. The Self may or may not resemble you physically or may or may not behave as your would. For example, the persona can appear as a scarecrow or a beggar in your dream. However, you still know that this "person" in your dream is you. 2. The Shadow is the rejected and repressed aspects of yourself. It is the part of yourself that you do not want the world to see because it is ugly or unappealing. It symbolizes weakness, fear, or anger. In dreams, this figure is represented by a stalker, murderer, a bully, or pursuer. It can be a frightening figure or even a close friend or relative. Their appearance often makes you angry or leaves you scared. They force you to confront things that you dont want to see or hear. You must learn to accept the shadow aspect of yourself for its messages are often for your own good, even though it may not be immediately apparent.
  74. 74. Continue-12 The Anima / Animus is the female and male aspects of yourself. Everyone possess both feminine and masculine qualities. In dreams, the anima appears as a highly feminized figure, while the animus appears as a hyper masculine form. Or you may dream that you are dressed in womens clothing, if you are male or that you grow a beard, if you are female. These dream imageries appear depending on how well you are able to integrate the feminine and masculine qualities within yourself. They serve as a reminder that you must learn to acknowledge or express your masculine (be more assertive) or feminine side (be more emotional). 4. The Divine Child is your true self in its purest form. It not only symbolizes your innocence, your sense of vulnerability, and your helplessness, but it represents your aspirations and full potential. You are open to all possibilities. In the dreamscape, this figure is represented by a baby or young child.
  75. 75. Continue-13 The Wise Old Man /Woman is the helper in your dreams. Represented by a teacher, father, doctor, priest or some other unknown authority figure, they serve to offer guidance and words of wisdom. They appear in your dream to steer and guide you into the right direction. 6. The Great Mother is the nurturer. The Great Mother appears in your dreams as your own mother, grandmother, or other nurturing figure. She provides you with positive reassurance. Negatively, they may be depicted as a witch or old bag lady in which case they can be associated with seduction, dominance and death. This juxtaposition is rooted in the belief by some experts that the real mother who is the giver of life is also at the same time jealous of our growth away from her.
  76. 76. Continue-14 The Trickster, as the name implies, plays jokes to keep you from taking yourself too seriously. The trickster may appear in your dream when you have overreach or misjudge a situation. Or he could find himself in your dream when you are uncertain about a decision or about where you want to go in life. The trickster often makes you feel uncomfortable or embarrassed, sometimes mocking you or exposing you to your vulnerabilities. He may take on subtle forms, sometimes even changing its shape. Archetypal dreams, also referred to as "mythic dreams" or "grand dreams", usually occur at significant times or transitional periods in your life. They often leave you with a sense of awe or that you have learned something important about yourself. Such dreams have a cosmic quality or an element of impossibility if occurred in reality. They are often extremely vivid and stay in your mind long after you had the dream.
  77. 77. Continue-15 Jung believed that archetypes such as the animus, the anima, the shadow and others manifested themselves in dreams, as dream symbols or figures. Such figures could take the form of an old man, a young maiden or a giant spider as the case may be. Each represents an unconscious attitude that is largely hidden to the conscious mind. Although an integral part of the dreamers psyche, these manifestations were largely autonomous and were perceived by the dreamer to be external personages. Acquaintance with the archetypes as manifested by these symbols serve to increase ones awareness of unconscious attitudes, integrating seemingly disparate parts of the psyche and contributing to the process of holistic self understanding he considered paramount.[2]
  78. 78. Continue-16 Jung stressed that the dream was not merely a devious puzzle invented by the unconscious to be deciphered, so that the true causal factors behind it may be elicited. Dreams were not to serve as lie detectors, with which to reveal the insincerity behind conscious thought processes. Dreams, like the unconscious, had their own language. As representations of the unconscious, dream images have their own primacy and logic. Jung believed that dreams may contain ineluctable truths, philosophical pronouncements, illusions, wild fantasies, memories, plans, irrational experiences and even telepathic visions.[3] Just as the psyche has a diurnal side which we experience as conscious life, it has an unconscious nocturnal side which we apprehend as dreamlike fantasy. Jung would argue that just as we do not doubt the importance of our conscious experience, then we ought not to second guess the value of our unconscious lives.
  79. 79. Continue-17 Alfred Adler Alfred Adler (1870 -1937) believed that dreams were an important vehicle to mastering control over our waking lives. They were problem solving devices. Dreams need to be brought to conscious light and interpreted so that we can better understand and solve our problems. It is important to learn from our dreams and incorporate them into our waking life. Because of Adlers belief that dreams were correlated with the problems in our daily life, he further went on to say that the more dreams we have, then the more problems we are likely to have. And thus the less dreams we have, then the less problems we have and more psychologically healthy we are.
  80. 80. Continue-18 Unlike Freud, Adler believed that control, power and motivation were the driving force behind behavior, not sexual impulses. Furthermore, he did not think that our actions and behavior or ruled by our unconscious, but rather the strive for perfection and need for control is what cause us to do the things we do. In fact, Adler did not believe that the conscious and unconscious functioned against each other. We acted the same way whether we are awake or sleeping. Adlers view of dreams was that they were an open pathway toward our true thoughts, emotions and actions. In our dreams, we are able to clearly see our aggressive impulses and desires. Adler saw dreams as a way of overcompensating for the shortcomings in our waking life. For example, if a person is unable to stand up to their boss, then he or she may feel more comfortable (and safely) to lash out their anger at the boss in a dream. Dreams offer some sort of satisfaction that may be more socially acceptable.
  81. 81. Continue-19 Frederick Perls Frederick Perls (1893-1970) was the founder of Gestalt therapy. Gestalt therapy seeks to fill your emotional voids so that you can then become a unified whole. Perls believed that dreams contain the rejected, disowned parts of the Self. Every character and every object in a dream represents an aspect of the Self. You are the tornado, you are the attacker, you are the broken down car and you are the dusty book. Perls rejected the notion that dreams were part of a universal symbolic language. He believed that each dream is unique to the individual who dreams it.
  82. 82. Continue-20 In order to discover what aspect of yourself is being disowned, Perls believed that it is important to retell your dream in the present tense and act it out. It is important to verbalize how each and every component in your dream feels, even inanimate objects. Reenact the dream and take on the role of the different characters and objects. Start a dialogue with the dream object and express how you feel toward each other. By taking on a different role within your dream and reenact it, you may then be able to acknowledge and realize feelings that you may have overlooked or buried.
  83. 83. Continue-21 In 1954, Calvin S. Hall developed a theory of dreams in which dreaming is considered to be a cognitive process.[4] Hall argued that a dream was simply a thought or sequence of thoughts that occurred during sleep, and that dream images are visual representations of personal conceptions. For example, if one dreams of being attacked by friends, this may be a manifestation of fear of friendship; a more complicated example, which requires a cultural metaphor, is that a cat within a dream symbolizes a need to use ones intuition. For English speakers, it may suggest that the dreamer must recognise that there is "more than one way to skin a cat", or in other words, more than one way to do something.
  84. 84. Continue-22 Faraday, et al. In the 1970s, Ann Faraday and others helped bring dream interpretation into the mainstream by publishing books on do-it-yourself dream interpretation and forming groups to share and analyze dreams. Faraday focused on the application of dreams to situations occurring in ones life. For instance, some dreams are warnings of something about to happen – e.g. a dream of failing an examination, if one is a student, may be a literal warning of unpreparedness. Outside of such context, it could relate to failing some other kind of test. Or it could even have a " punny" nature, e.g. that one has failed to examine some aspect of his life adequately. Faraday noted that "one finding has emerged pretty firmly from modern research, namely that the majority of dreams seem in some way to reflect things that have preoccupied our minds during the previous day or two."[5]
  85. 85. Continue-23 New Age Interpretation of dreams is also a part of contemporary pop and new age culture. Edgar Cayce claimed that through dreaming, people are given access to their spirit, and further, that all possible questions could be answered from the inner consciousness given the proper awareness [6] A shamanistic model of dream work gained some popularity in the consciousness movement through the work of two dream researchers and authors, Ariadne Green and Stanley Krippner. In Ariadne Green’s model outlined in her book Ariadne’s Book of Dreams, dreams are viewed as coming from three interior worlds, the upper world, lower world and the middle world, honoring the indigenous shaman’s perspective on the terrain of the soul. Some dream characters are viewed as messengers who bring insights and gifts of wisdom from the divine realms while others enter the stage to bring new insights into the dreamer’s personality. Animals in dreams are viewed as powerful archetypes from the lower world that initiate the dreamer and lend spiritual power and healing potentials.
  86. 86. THE IMPORTANCE OF DREAMING: Do we dream in order to sleep or do we sleep in order to dream? Although that question remains debatable, researchers agree that there is a purpose and importance to dreaming. Research have shown that people who are deprived from entering the dream phase of sleep (i.e. REM stage), exhibit symptoms of irritability and anxiety. In one dream study, volunteers were woken up right before they entered into the dream state. Then they were allowed to fall back to sleep. Again, right before they enter REM sleep, they were woken up. This continued on through the night. The volunteers slept the same amount of time as they normally did. The next day, these volunteers went about their day. They were observed to be disoriented, depressed, crabby, and quick tempered. There was a general impairment in their daily functioning. Some ate more than usual. As this study continued on through several nights, subjects became more and more noticeably agitated. Deprivation of REM sleep causes over- sensitivity, lack of concentration and memory loss. This study shows the importance of dreaming and its role in our well- being and health. Some researchers believe that dreams help us tackle stress. It is clear that dreaming help recharge the mind and revitalize the body. Dreaming is a necessity.
  87. 87. OBJECTIVES & HYPOTHESIS The present objective of the study as formulated by the investigator is: Under the tense situation, the dreamer has more terrific dream; Under the calm situation, the dreamer has no more terrific dream. The Hypothesis of the study is: It is expected that under the tense situation (due to bullied attitude to the case narrative person that was totally unknown to the subject),the dreamer has more terrific dream. It is expected that under the calm situation( means already known bullied is going to happen and prepared by the subject in her own), the dreamer has no more terrific dream.
  88. 88. CHAPTER-II Review of Literature:
  89. 89. CHAPTER-III: METHODOLOGY : There are four sources of dream reports, namely, The sleep laboratory; The psychotherapy relationship; Personal dream journels; and Report written down on anonymous forms in group settings, of which the classroom is the most typical. In this present work, the investigators used dream journals as a narrative case study.
  90. 90. Continue-1 Dream journals are a form of “personal document” long recognized in psychology as having the potential for providing insights into personality. They are “nonreactive” archival sources that have not been influenced by the purposes of the investigators who analyze them. dream journals have been extremely valuable in establishing the considerable consistency in what people dream about whatever the purposes of the journal writer. Dream journals are a third source of dream reports. The best known dream journals are those discussed by Jungian analysts, but journals kept for personal, artistic, or intellectual reasons have been studied with great profit as well. For all their potential usefulness, dream journals are not without their drawbacks. Even after showing initial willingness, some people may not want to provide dreams for scientific scrutiny. Journals may have gaps or omissions. The journal writer may not be willing to reply to inferences about his or her personal life based on a blind analysis of the journal’s contents. Dream journals therefore are best used selectively and into he context of other dream samples.
  91. 91. Continue-2 Sample: Dream of the subject : A longitudinal case narrative (Neutral person assigned as case narrative person) are those who does not make any group system in either of the bi-cluster groups but he/she minutely observes the ongoing situation of the either of the working process of the bi- cluster groups and give intervention consciously or unconsciously on their ongoing process. These bi-cluster groups also observes in what way the neutral person can be used for their own opportunistic goal. Instruments: Deep observation Period of study: from 2004 to 2011 consists of two phases First phase of observation: 2004 to 2006 Second phase of observation: End of 2006 to Dec.2011.
  92. 92. Continue-3 Procedure: Bullying from bi-cluster groups ( from the investigator point of view) Bullying can be taken place in many forms. It is something unwanted things or words or statement delivered by group of person to another person/or a power person wants to suppress someone for in any reasons. How does bullying take place? Bullying can be taken place at workplace, administration, educational settings, corporate sector and so on. Here let’s discuss it in the academic Institution. In an academic institution, you can observe that many people having different educational background, having different teaching experiences, having different composition of age groups etc. are working together under one rules and regulations. It does not mean that dissimilarity does not happen but it happens. Another thing you can observe in such educational setting is, making groups i.e., ingroup and outgroup. Such groups may belong to different composition of ethnic groups, different composition of religious groups, different composition of age groups, sometimes they shared their values, sometimes they shared their subjects and so on.
  93. 93. Continue-4 In each and every institution, there is a post of Head. Sometimes such head was supervised by groups or sometimes by each sections of the academic institution. In such institution, you can observe the role of collective responsibility and uniqueness in nature. So, if you look back how does bullying take place on such workplace or academic institution, you may come up similar point as I mentioned as follow: Unwanted candidate; Failed to the pre-planned act; Group influences; Trying to bring issue in larger context; Removing the unwanted candidate.
  94. 94. Continue-5 Unwanted candidate: Here I (nbd) want to depict about a young person who never knew what is going to the workplace where she got selected. When she entered to the workplace, she might be happy because she got job but for the existing colleague, she became a part of an unwanted candidate. Because colleague wants another person but due to the intervention from the higher authority, she got selected over there. Now she never knew that she was the unwanted candidate. So she started doing her work as given by their senior colleague and senior colleague is observing minutely her due to her unwanted to the place. In such cases, bullying activities come from senior colleague, like she is not coming on time, she never teaches well etc..
  95. 95. Continue-6 Failed to the pre-planned act: Using more and more bullying activities mean that it may involve that their pre-planned act is going to fail. Failed pre-planned act can involve many things like they could not able to remove the unwanted candidate, so, trying to remove such unwanted candidate, the following bullying activities may come up to the unwanted candidate: Students complain that they donot understand what the unwanted candidate is teaching ( based on language sound); She could not able to complete her syllabus on time; She does not have paper publication; She came late and gone early; She never submit the internal assessment in time; She never attend the departmental meeting; She does not know the time-table Informing information differently i.e. inside channel one n outside to the target candidate gives in different way; In one cultural n one ethnic groups use different activities using many types of malingering etc.
  96. 96. Continue-7 Group Influences: Group influences are related to the second point. Those colleagues who could not succeed their plan, started spreading bullying activities to their own group circles regarding the unwanted candidate. So you can imagine what would happen to the unwanted candidate. Trying to keep her in a state of tension and confusion. Trying to bring issue in larger context: This fourth point is related to group influences. Here, the colleagues and group influences never take the opinion of the unwanted candidate. Together they try to suppress the unwanted candidate sothat they can remove her. So they try to bring it in an issue form. This issue is totally revolved around the unwanted candidate and the head of the institution never want any issue. So, the head also started listening to the senior colleague without investigating the matter carefully.
  97. 97. Continue-8 Removing the unwanted candidate due to failure of their pre-planned act: Some senior colleague never stop doing another bullying activities; so they tried to overlap routines with the senior and unwanted candidate. But unwanted candidate have to follow whatever the other senior is saying. So, here, bullying nature is that unwanted candidate does not know the routine..sometimes fixing the classroom simultaneously like that… If you observe in bullying attitude, you will find that all the time senior colleague concerned to the unwanted candidate will do something and show it in another way. As you know that senior colleague have more friends circles and more interaction to the power people. And they know and use persuasive methods to bring the power people in their side.
  98. 98. Continue-9 So, due to failure of their pre-plan act, they used multiple strategies how to remove the unwanted candidate. At last they ( ingroup and outgroup) come up in an stage…i.e..conditional way of planning.. under this conditional way of their plan, unwanted candidate comes up under the vulnerable condition, automatically have to go, otherwise, her future career may be lost. Under such conditional way of planning, involving all the power people, made termination letter for the unwanted candidate to achieve their goal and strategies.
  99. 99. Continue-10 So, in short, the nature of bullying activities are as follows in academic institution to remove the unwanted candidate. She is not coming on time; She never finish the syllabus on time; She had gone back early; She could not give lecture well; Her language is difficult to understand…means tone are different; She never submit the internal assessment marks on time; She never respect to the seniors; not saying good morning coming towards them (seniors). She wrongly enter the class of seniors; She does not know where to take the class of the students; She never listen what the seniors are talking; Seniors make committee n juniors are not part of it and juniors have to take signature from each members of the committee before submitting the report to the office…while making such committee they give disturb to the unwanted candidate…but allow very easily for another junior… then they try to make some game behind such signature;
  100. 100. Continue-11 Such bullying attitude are very frequently used by seniors to keep the unwanted person in tension, confusion and such things are spread to the whole institution and the members of the whole institution start watching to the unwanted person. One thing the investigator wants to mention is that such things is more prominent to the person Who have no support system from the institution as well as the outside the institution; Who lack interaction to the members of the whole institution; Who came from different ethnic groups; Who have been targeted in their pre-planned act; Besides this, the head of the institution is totally influenced by their pre-planned act that could not able to fight for the unwanted candidate.
  101. 101. Continue-12 Bi-cluster groups different way of instrumental behaviour to the case narrative person as mentioned above but when such things are going on the case narrative person is totally unaware in the initial stage she remains tense and it makes dream to the case narrative person like warning dream to her but she neglected all the time. Here bi-cluster groups pre-plan work to remove the case narrative person or trying to keep in another place but both the situation case narrative was unaware in the initial stage but latter can able to associate with when she was out and she can recalling her dream at that period of time and associate to workplace conflictual situation. Here workplace conflictual situation means the two groups have their own goal but due to lack of space one group got the goal but another does not get the goal. But due the hailing of the another person (here case narrative person) another group does not get the goal. Then a tension or conflict situation arises on the basis of removing case narrative person or another group’s fulfil goal has to be targeted. While doing such things many things are visible. In such factors brought an interpersonal conflictual workplace situation.
  102. 102. CHAPTER—IV : RESULT Case profile: The subject who narrated her case was 31 year old at that time n working in one Institution. She observed systematically ( procedures using event sampling)whatever occurring in the Institution. CASE STUDY REPORT FROM THE SUBJECT: In reality situation, the subject joined as an adhoc-lecturer at one Institution on 8th January 2004. When she joined the post, she has no warning type of dream. The time when she joined the post lies the 3rd term. It is an experience of the subject which she encountered her first teaching experience at an academic institution designated as “Z.” she joined as a lecturer (adhoc-basis) at Z on 8th January 2004. She told that she is very lucky because her colleagues are very experienced and knowledgeable person. Besides this they are very much above her age. she felt that she shall learn many things from them and she learnt very fortunate things and unfortunate things from them.
  103. 103. Continue-1 As she narrated to the investigator about the dream and spirit the investigator started enquiring about the situation at that time. The spirit she saw in her dream is very much of her relatives. She started seeing the spirit of three person; grandfather; brother and nephew. When I tried to associate her dream to the circumstances which she encountered in her real life is surprising. She never had such dream in her life. When I asked to share her feelings in real life she started to narrate the following circumstances
  104. 104. Continue-2 “ the person narrated that she joined one academic institution on the 8th January 2004. She started dreaming about spirit from march 2004. In her dream she saw one day the spirit of brother and nephew. They told to the dreamer’s parents “ Just call back her, please do not join there.” Then suddenly she opened the eyes. After waking up if she saw such thing she called first to the home and narrated what the dream says in her dream and then taking bathe she prayed GOD. As usual she gone for her duty. Again twice a week such dream started coming up to the dreamer. One day also she saw the spirit of brother and nephew driving and the dreamer shouted if you drived that side we all die, the place is very slope. But in the dream the dreamer changed the direction not to fall to the slope. Then she opened the eyes. When she shared such things to the home and the parents especially mother suggested before taking meal keep away something separately to the outside for them. The dreamer is very religious. She used sing GAYATRI MANTRA and listen such devotional songs in the tape recorder.
  105. 105. Continue-3 When the dreamer saw such thing, then something happened in her duty also. but when she analyze the situation she is under the mystery. How come such association happen in the dreamer side. One day also in her dream the spirit of brother and the spirit of nephew catching the dreamer’s hand not to go to that place. The dreamer said that she shall go that place and freed herself from the spirit. In reality also the colleagues of the dreamer wanted to remove her and she insisted that she has the qualification and she got the post again. Then the colleagues started using malpractice strategies to remove the dreamer. During this period the dreamer started listening the devotional songs too much so that she never see such dreams in her life. Sometimes the dreamer woke up along with Gayatri Mantra in her lips. Sometimes the situation in the reality is tense the she started seeing the grandfather also along with brother and nephew.
  106. 106. Continue-4 Earlier such dreams gives her very much anxious feeling to her but latter when she saturated such feeling to the reality she realized that she had been advised by the spirit not to go that place because the dreamer is no more on that job. Before she got the termination letter she saw nightmares. The nightmares tried to kill the dreamer holding in the neck part. The dreamer in the dream fought to the nightmares and challenged herself how can you kill me. She tried to take out the hands of the nightmares from the neck and suddenly the dreamer chanted the Gaytri Mantra and as soon as the dreamer heard the chants the nightmares could hold the dreamer neck and gone from the dreamer’s life. Then the dreamer opened the eyes with surprise and fear. Sometimes she appreciated to the God for remembering the Gaytri Mantra.
  107. 107. Continue-5 Another dream during this period is that the two senior colleagues, she saw in her dream. One is trying to catch her another is trying to send her very far. In reality it is during the time of interview. During this period many professors saw in her dream. Sometimes when she observes she wants to give her opinion regarding the dreams. Dreams says something for your present situation and this present situation gives you latter prediction for your future. Now she is working in some other place. She never seen such dream now a days. Here also situation is something similar just extended from the earlier one.
  108. 108. Continue-6 Latter the investigator shall narrate such dreams. Interpretation associating to the earlier job: If she understands earlier such meaning it would be better not to join the job. Instead if she does higher study it would be better for her as I assumed. Now it is o.k. but the place where she is working is only one culture. The place is a small town. Earlier is the metropolitan. Really surprising such dream. Whenever someone is planning something she used to see those plan in the dream. Is it a miracle? Sometimes the questions remains from the dream “ why the spirit said to the dreamer not to go there”? “why the brother said to the dreamer’s parents, Call back her from the place”? “Why the spirit laugh very mockery type to the dreamer?”
  109. 109. Continue-7 Second longitudinal case narratives: From the end of 2006 to sept 2011, Second the case narrative person was appointed as a permanent . here the case narrative works along with one distinct cultural groups. In the second institution assigned as “M”, she worked as an external because she comes from another place. Her colleagues belong to one cultural groups. She works as a neutral viewpoint. As compared to the earlier institution (Z), M is also have some bi- cluster type but for common goal, they become one. One difference point between Z and M is that the latter is permanent point but the case narrative does not know what logic is going on from the Z’s side. Latter case narrative asks question like why they did appoint her in M but not Z. Latter it seems to her that there is some linkage but still not clear. Dream used to come here but not such warning dream but some colleagues figures come out. In the M Institution things are more observable how the bi-cluster are going on. One distinct cultural groups can suppress anyone if she could not interact to another group. When one group dominated, another group started reacting to the case narrative person n kept each and every situation in an opaque condition. With the help of observation, case narrative started approaching to another group, then started changing scenario. But when bi-cluster groups do such things if they do something wrong from their side, to cover up their failed plan, they took the name of case narrative person in front of the third person. But such tactics is still going on but now does not bring warning type dream. Those dreams the case narrative can control it to the workplace situation.
  110. 110. Continue-8 The way of their bullying behaviour are more or less same. But under one same cultural groups, some more be added as the mentioned above at methodology part. In the second quite clear that such things will happen because colleagues may be influenced from either of the bi-cluster groups of the earlier one institution. In the second institution dreams come but not warning…sometimes saw the death brother n son (October 2011) but does not say anything but looking very angrily. Here framing the case narrative in a circle way. But it does not affect now because the case narrative person believes, it will d again and again such bullying nature. The investigator uses the free association n searching for repeated themes as an analysis for the content of the dream. The following the methods used for analyzing the dream content.
  111. 111. Continue-9 METHODS FOE ANALYZING DREAM CONTENT: The four general methods for analyzing dream content include: Collecting free associations; Finding metaphoric meaning; Searching for repeated themes; and Quantitative analyses using either rating systems or nominal ( discrete) categories. The investigator’s picked up the thematic analysis. It is a third method of dream analysis, the thematic method, shades off from metaphoric analysis. It involves repeatedly reading through a dream series to see if one or more themes emerge. Sometimes the search is made easier by the presence of one or more “spotlight” dreams that seem to contain the theme or themes in an obvious fashion. Along with this thematic analysis the investigator picked up relevant case behind the dream. She did careful listening, observing the situation mentioned by the subjects. This dream analysis is the combined methods of free association and thematic analysis.
  112. 112. Continue-10 Now the investigator analyzed the case study the following way: When the subject got the interview letter from the Z, she also got from another place. she just dropped the latter interview because at that time she stayed near to the Z. And she got the news that she was selected on adhoc-basis but in her mind she thinks that it must be permanent because she submitted on 2001 in S.C. category. she belonged to S.C. category. But she got the interview on 2004. she joined Z on 8th January 2004. she got her termination letter on 31st march 2006. During this period she learnt a lot and she learnt how to rectify the wrong things. Sometimes mistakes happened from every body but the pre-planned act she did not want if it disturbed the target person. Because such act goes beyond limit with the help of wrong strategies but the target person cannot do on that matter because those who involved in the pre-planned acts are very powerful person and they have a lot of known person in every direction. If the target person starts acting suddenly no truth scenario will come. The best way is to tolerate and observe and many rubbish things will come in your side. When she joined, she had no idea about the department, what is going on that department, why they kept her there? What is the reason behind that? Etc.
  113. 113. Continue-11 When she analyzed her experience, she is really happy because she got her first teaching experience from them as well as she understands how to tolerate in the midst of politics. she just wants to share such feelings how she tolerates. To frame a person ( very young colleague) it is very easy for senior people if they have any pre-planned action. she never knows earlier such pre-planned will target her. Here dreams are associated with those beautiful plan and sometimes warning dreams come up that she is giving on the latter part.But latter their target is to her and latter in the midst of politics she got her termination letter. Sometimes I asked myself why they use junior lecturer ( adhoc) as an object. Why did they think about framing to the younger person? She/he is also someone who wanted to enhance his/her career in his/her life.
  114. 114. Continue-11 The way they try to frame her is very surprising to her. The post which she joined in S.C. post is occupied by one female as she got the news from the place and designated as N. When she joined she did not understand anything about the department. Some of the colleagues want to bring back N in her post. Such things she can observe on 16th july 2004 meeting. Their common goal was to remove her after the third term. But they cannot do to her. She mentioned that if they want to remove her, they have to put s.c. category itself. You know, if you observe in any department , you shall find that it is very easy to provoke things about the younger colleague who did not part of their group. Another thing is that they had 20-30 years of teaching experiences. It means that other members of the department also have trust when they provoke any things about the younger one.
  115. 115. Continue-12 Their plan no. to remove her after the 3rd term. Giving reasons like not coming in time, not teaching well, not submitting the internal assessment, etc. to remove someone is very difficult once it is appointed. So first try to bring in any type of issues such issues will come to the staff room ; such issues are based on the provoking about the junior colleague; whatever they said has been assumed by other colleagues of the staff members are true. As she mentioned they are 20-30 years of teaching experience. They used their Doctorate pulling their own members in the department without thinking the career of another colleague. Such things are exactly happened to her. In her case they want to remove her sothat they can bring back N. They cannot do.
  116. 116. Continue-13 why they want to remove her is that in 2005 one general category is going to be vacant. Keeping N on the s.c. post till the general category is empty, is their second plan. If you observe one person can become permanent if members of the colleagues supported her . Exactly it happens to some other candidate. Latter they did deep plan. They think to remove totally to remove her from the post. Because they think N in the permanent post (2005 vacant post), thinking another adhoc named G for the post of K. when the vacant comes up, her s.c. post is for another s.c. designated S. if they want they can fix her in another institution, then their plan are quite successful.
  117. 117. Continue-14 Now the s.c. post is enjoyed by the s.t. person as she got the news and she enquired about it and it is true also. Do not you feel shame? Taking out the s.c. person from the post and keeping s.t. is very disgusting. Here also she thinks some logic is there. Whenever she entered the college, issues started coming up because they did not want, they want S (s.c.).if they want s, why did not they keep earlier in the post where she occupied? What is the reason behind that? Whenever she observes any institution she can observe bi-polar politics. she never knew earlier but latter she can observe.
  118. 118. Continue-15 In her understanding level this bi-polar politics have some agreements of keeping their own people. One side want S in her (subject’s) post. Now general category is empty; earlier they select G instead of N for the general adhoc basis. Another part wanted for N but they cannot succeed. That is why in the 27th March Interview 2006 N came for the post under full plan to remove the subject,, here their plan is that N becomes permanent on the general category(vacancy since 2005), S on the S.C. post and G on the temporary post ( advertise before one month before interview). Then they never think for the subject who worked since 2004. she had been teaching since 8th January 2004 to march 27th 2006 in Zakir Husain College. If they want to remove her, they must restore her earlier in any institution. Very beautiful experience whatever they did.
  119. 119. Continue-16 As the subject narrated, she met HOD, designated as A in the 1st week of January 2006 and narrated about the reality of the Z but she is also under the politics. Any HOD have to listen story from the Junior colleague also. because in the midst of politics anything can happen. Those who are playing politics also think that if they play politics no one can harm us because each one think that they did not want to bring their department on the public. one day the subject calls up to HOD’s office ( earlier HOD designated as D) to talk to the previous HOD but she was absent. she talked to another colleague named CH and narrated him whatever going there and she told the post belonged to s.c. and instead of helping he put his research scholar designated as W in s.c. post ( he belong to s.t. post). Very funny, mockery of the educational institutions, Z.
  120. 120. Continue-17 Before interview she met deputy registrar, designated as B, dealing with such Z institutions on the place, twice and narrated about the reality of the Z. No feedback. Interesting. Lastly she had gone to meet the highest body of such institution of the nation, but the full power person is out of station and the P.A. informed her to meet another sir,who is dealing with the college level. she met him and told him to cancel the interview on 28th March 2006. but he informed her that “ you shall become permanent for the S.C. post.” Now she understands that if you did not anyone your feedback it is very difficult to become permanent. Another thing those who involved such pre-planned action think that they will succeed whatever they did. But in front of her such things are not happened. That is why they try to see her negative points so that they can substantiate her.
  121. 121. Continue-18 When she observes such situation she thinks that instead of doing research she wants to present scenario and want to rectify those wrong things on that part. Now along with such scenario she was associated the following dreams also. It is about the dream of a person who usually saw the spirit in her life during Jan 2004 to March 31st 2006. As she narrated to me about the dream and spirit I started enquiring about the situation at that time. The spirit she saw in her dream is very much of her relatives. She started seeing the spirit of three person; grandfather; brother and nephew. When she tried to associate her dream to the circumstances which she encountered in her real life is surprising.
  122. 122. Continue-19 Now a days groupism in the higher levels also visible. You know if anyone commits the crime from their group members they try to save him/her. Here her suggestion is that now the time has come to reevaluate and keep him/her isolate from the groupism. If we do such thing we can rectify wrong doings and systems also can able to maintain. Whenever she observe any educational institutions there exists bi-polar type of politics. Such politics mainly used for their power gain as well so that it is easy for their career advancement. But she did not want to involve on such bi-polar politics. She wanst to give those who are sincerely working. In the appointment of lectureship or any type of appointment backup is now the most essential qualification besides their qualification. If you have backup from the powerful person you are not be one of the targeted person or framed person. Such things she can observe in during her teaching experiences. She thinks now a days one sided information is very harmful to the younger person because she/he is not given the chance to speak up. Another thing people do not want to bring the ugly face of the institutions. That is why the institutions members want to save the guilty person on this grounds. Here my suggested is that there is no need of worry. Instead it is good for the institution to rectify the wrong doers. I feel so. If such rules are kept inside the institutions it will improve a lot and politics is also reduced.
  123. 123. Continue-20 Another observation is that please give the rules and regulations of the HOD of any department and please give one copy to the faculty members. As she observes sometimes the news of any department gave after the expiry and keep the expiry one in the notice board to focus that it is already in the notice board. When in any department giving notice to the faculty members the office people have to take the signature along with date for the record whether the notice is getting timely or not. In the second case longitudinal profile, the investigator reported that due to earlier exposure of such bullying attitude, the case narrative can able to control n she was caught less warning dream. In the second case profile, one different is visible i.e., nature of the job, is permanent. Earlier, nature of the job is not permanent.
  124. 124. Continue-21 So insecurity may be high while bullying attitude was happened and such bullying is spreading to the broader context sothat a negative image can be formed for the case narrative person. When many senior people started focusing negative image of the someone’s career, it is difficult to enter in new setting because such previous work is highly emphasized. People never looked back the circumstances for becoming someone’s negative image in front of the others because person who ever using such bullying attitude also belong to the power people. And power people never want to lose prestige they got for a long period of time. That is why they started using their group factors, ethnic factors, religion factors n easily such groups can be easily influenced by the power people.
  125. 125. CHAPTER—V : DISCUSSION As she narrated to the investigator about the dream and spirit the investigator started enquiring about the situation at that time. The spirit she saw in her dream is very much of her relatives. She started seeing the spirit of three person; grandfather; brother and nephew. When the investigator tried to associate her dream to the circumstances which she encountered in her real life is surprising. She never had such dream in her life.
  126. 126. Continue-1 Dreams says something for your present situation and this present situation gives you latter prediction for your future. Now she is working in some other place. She never seen such dream now a days. Here also situation is something similar just extended from the earlier one. Interpretation associating to the earlier job: If she understands earlier such meaning it would be better not to join the job. Instead if she does higher study it would be better for her as I assumed. Now it is o.k. but the place where she is working is only one culture. The place is a small town. Earlier is the metropolitan. Really surprising such dream. Whenever someone is planning something she used to see those plan in the dream. Is it a miracle? Sometimes the questions remains from the dream “ why the spirit said to the dreamer not to go there”? “why the brother said to the dreamer’s parents, Call back her from the place”? “Why the spirit laugh very mockery type to the dreamer?”
  127. 127. Continue-2 Dreams are unique. No other individual can have your background, your emotions, or your experiences. Every dream is connected with your own “reality”. Thus, in interpreting someone’s dream, it is important to draw from your personal life and experiences. A dream unifies the body, mind, and spirit. It provides you with insight ourselves and a means for self- exploration. In understanding your dreams, you will have a better understanding and discovery of your true self. In the Greek and Roman eras, dreams were seen in a religious context and were really direct messages from the Gods or from the dead. The people of that time look to their dreams for solutions, on what to do or what course of action to take. They believed dreams forewarned and predicted the future. Special shrines were even built where people can go there to sleep and hope that a message could be passed to them through their dreams. Their belief in dreams was so strong that it even dictated the actions of political and military leaders. In fact, dream interpreters even accompanied military leaders into battle to help with war strategy.
  128. 128. Continue-3 During the Hellenistic period, the main focus of dreams was centered around its ability to heal. Temples, called Asclepieions, were built around the healing power of dreams. It was believed that sick people who slept in these temples would be sent cures through their dreams. It was believed that dreams offered a vital clue for healers to finding what was wrong with the dreamer. In Egypt, priests also acted as dream interpreters. The Egyptians recorded their dreams in Hieroglyphics. People with particular vivid and significant dreams were believed to be blessed and were considered special. People who had the power to interpret dreams were looked up to and seen as divinely gifted.
  129. 129. Continue-4 In the early 19th century, dreams were dismissed as stemming from anxiety, a household noise or even indigestion. Hence there was really no meaning to it. Later on in the 19th century, Sigmund Freud revived the importance of dreams and its significance and need for interpretation. He revolutionized the study of dreams. Freud’s theory was that although dreams may be prompted by external stimuli, wish-fulfillment was the root behind most of our dreams. According to Freud, dreams always have a manifest and Latent content. The manifest content is what the dreams seems to be saying. It is often bizarre and nonsensical. The latent content is what the dream is really trying to say. Dreams gives us a look into our unconscious. Utilizing the technique of “free Association”, Freud believed that we can chip through the dream’s manifest content to reveal the underlying significance of our dreams and its latent content. In this technique, you start with one dream symbol and then follow what comes to your mind next and see where it leads.
  130. 130. Continue-5 The investigator never accept sex was the root cause of what was happening in your dreams. According to the investigator, the root cause of the dream may be different depending upon the circumstances. But the investigator believes the existence of unconscious. Alfred Adler (1870-1937) believed that dreams were an important vehicle to mastering control over our waking lives. They were problem solving devices. Dreams need to be brought to conscious light and interpreted so that we can better understand and solve our problems. It is important to learn from our dreams and incorporate them into our waking life. Because of Adler’s belief that dreams were correlated with the problems in our daily life, he further went on to say that the more dreams we have, then the more problems we are likely to have. And thus the less dreams we have, then the less problems we have and more psychologically healthy we are. Unlike, Freud, Adler believed that control, power, and motivation were the driving force behind behaviour, not sexual impulses. Furthermore, he didnot think that our actions and behaviour or rules by our unconscious, but rather the strive for perfection and need for control is what cause us to do the things we do. In fact, Adler did not believe that the conscious and unconscious functioned against each other. We acted the same way whether we are awake or sleeping.
  131. 131. Continue-6 Adler saw dreams as a way of overcompensating for the shortcomings in our waking life. For example, if a person is unable to stand up to their boss, then he or she may feel more comfortable ( and safely) to lash out their anger at the boss in a dream. Dreams offer some sort of satisfaction that may be more socially acceptable. Like Freud, Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1960) believed in the existence of the unconscious. However, he didn’t see the unconscious as animalistic, instinctual, or sexual; he saw it as more spiritual. Dreams were a way of communicating and acquainting ourselves with the unconscious. Dreams were not attempts to conceal out true feelings from the waking mind, but rather they were a window to our unconscious. They served to guide the waking self to achieve wholeness. Dreams offered a solution to a problem we are facing in our waking life. Jung believed that archetypes such as the animus, the anima, the shadow, and others manifested themselves in dreams, as dream symbols or figures. Such figures could take the form of an old man, a young maiden or a giant spider as the case may be. Each represents an unconscious attitude that is largely hidden to the conscious mind. Although an integral part of the dreamers psyche, these manifestations were largely autonomous and were perceived by the dreamer to be external personages. Acquaintance with the archetypes as manifested by these symbols serve to increase one’s awareness of unconscious attitudes, integrating seemingly disparate parts of the psyche and contributing to the process of holistic self understanding he considered paramount.
  132. 132. Continue-7 Since dreams were a way of communicating with the unconscious, Jung felt that the imageries in dreams were a way of revealing something about ourselves, our relationships with others, and situations in our waking life. Dreams guided our personal growth and helped to self achieve our potential. He also believed that the dream’s manifest content is just as significant and revealing as the latent content. Often discussing what is currently going on in your life, helps to interpret and unlock the cryptic and bizarre images of your dreams. The meaning of your dreams is a personal judgement and is up to you on how to interpret them. whatever interpretation felt right to you is most significant and more important than what someone else thinks or believes.
  133. 133. Continue-8 Perls believed that it is important to retell your dream in the present tense and act it out. It is important to verbalize how each and every component in your dream feels, even inanimate objects. Re-enact the dream and take on the role of the different characters and objects. Start a dialogue with the dream object and express how you feel toward each other. By taking on a different role within your dream and re-enact it, you may then be able to acknowledge and realize feelings that you may have overlooked or buried. In 1954, Calvin S. Hall developed a theory of dreams in which dreaming is considered to be a cognitive process. Hall argued that a dream was simply a thought or sequence of thoughts that occurred during sleep, and that dream images are visual representations of personal conceptions. For example, if one dreams of being attacked by friends, this may be a manifestation of fear of friendship.

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