Abstract In the present study an attempt has been made to investigate the personality profiles of drug-addicts and non-addicts. The main research objective is “to find out the personality traits of drug addicts and non-addicts of Mizo populations.” For this study,the investigator randomly selected 50 Drug-addicts(male) and 50 non- addicts(male )ranging the age level of 25-45 yrs from the Mizo-population. All the selected samples were administered 16 PF (form E) individually. The results obtained were analyzed with the help of t-test which revealed significant differences between drug-addicts and normal on personality factors except A,F,I,L,M,N. The mean values indicated that drug abusers are capable of concrete thinking, whereas normal are better at abstract thinking. Drug users are found to be affected by feelings but normal in contrast are emotionally stable. Drug abusers are lacking rules, self indulgent. whereas normal are conforming, moralistic, staid and rule bound. Drug abusers usually have inferiority feelings, dislike occupations with personal contacts, and are not given to keeping in contact with all that is going on around them. Drug abusers are apprehensive whereas the normal are self-assured. Drug abusers are experimenting whereas normal are conservative. The mean value of drug abusers are self sufficient whereas the normal are group-oriented. The drug abusers are undisciplined self-conflict whereas normal are following self-image. In conclusion the investigator suggested to do further study on the intervention n prevention strategy level. Keywords Personality Profile Drug Traits Factor
Description: Researchers like Antonio Terracciano, Corinna E Löckenhoff, Rosa M Crum, O Joseph Bienvenu and Paul T Costa Jr(2008), Waheeda Khan and Salma ( 2003) have studied that Personality traits are considered risk factors for drug use, and, in turn, the psychoactive substances impact individuals traits. Emily R. Grekin and others( Dec 2006) have examined that personality traits related to neuroticism and disinhibition have been consistently associated with substance use disorders (SUDs). From the results it reveals that antisociality and certain core personality traits predicted multiple types of substance pathology. In addition, several personality traits were differentially associated with alcohol, drug, and tobacco symptomatology.
Continue:1 Dual addiction is commonly referred to as addiction to two addictive substances. Clinically, however, it also refers to addicts who also have a mental illness. Legal drugs such as nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, acetylcholine or any one of a thousand prescription drugs, easily available through doctors who are unaware of an addicts history, often allow an exponential increase in addictive behavior, denial, and other psychological disorder. Drugs used to treat mental disorders may worsen an addiction. Making treatment even more difficult is the fact that an addict may switch to a kind of psychological addiction which is combined with one of these socially acceptable drugs. Each addictive substance, and dual forms of addiction, must be looked at and treated differently. And each addicts individual situation and history is of primary importance in his treatment plan.
Continue-2 Amphetamines and cocaine have no real physical addiction in the biological sense. They act on the individual like tobacco by increasing our neural activity, endurance and stamina. The effects of cocaine and nicotine last a very short time and become very addictive, psychologically. The brain is well motivated to continue this stimulation, but the uninterrupted use of these drugs tends to lead to serious social and psychological problems which include psychosis and violent behaviors.
Continue-3 The cocaine plant is a perfect source of high non- caloric energy for extended endurance and stamina. Opiates, are a highly addictive set of drugs which include opium, morphine, and heroin. All of these drugs come from the same plant, the opium poppy. In the Orient, opium is usually smoked as a powder or pulp which is derived easily from the poppy seeds. Morphine is a much more potent synthesis of the poppy seed which was developed as a pain medication by the military so that people who had severe injuries might be comforted.
Continue-4 Heroin is the still finer derivative, a drug now used around the world for its euphoric and calming effects. Heroin is highly addictive and has a very painful physical withdrawal syndrome, making it hard to quit. Studying the opiates affect on the brain led to important discoveries in the natural process of pain control and our sense of well being. Hallucinogenics are different in the sense that they seem to produce effects similar to psychotic episodes. They work on areas of the brain related more specifically to perception and symbolic reasoning.
Continue-5 In the biomedical model, Physiological states and personal responses can be judged as sympathetic and parasympathetic arousal and relaxation. Drug abuse is powered by motivational and emotional aspects of our nature. The most important physiological relationship for consideration in psychology, is the mutual relationship of the central nervous and endocrine systems. Neurotransmitters and hormones direct all things motivational and emotional in human conscious and unconscious experience. The specific character of each drug is best seen in the actions of the central nervous system and the endocrine system. The actions of these two systems also well defines human psychological and behavioral processes. The neurotransmitters of the brain and the hormones of the endocrine system control and direct our perceptions, cognitions, and expressions. They regulate our physical and mental processes, and our natural rhythm cycles, such as activity and rest, eating and digestion, exploration and survival - as well as all other human states or moods.
Continue-6 Our motivational drives and emotional responses are really analogous to the interactive relationship that exists between the central nervous system and the endocrine system. Amphetamines, Cocaine, and nicotine are the three common drugs which actually increase the natural neurotransmitter Dopamine in the brain. These drugs are considered stimulants. Opiates have neurotransmitter like substances which fit very well into certain neuroreceptor sites. These receptor sites were discovered through the action of opiates, even before discovery of the natural substance meant for these receptors. Finally, endorphins, such as encephalin, were identified as a primary natural substance which helps us cope with pain and critical stress. Actually, the endorphins our bodies produce are very much like opiates. They can create euphoric like states and are now being identified as the "natural opiates". Endorphins can be produced within our body by those behaviors closely related to the flight or fight syndrome. At the first sign of danger our body will start producing endorphins.
Continue-7 All forms of sickness, disease, and mental disorder can be defined in some way by an imbalance or dysfunction within this homeostatic relationship. Drugs affect the cycle of this relationship by causing an increase or decrease in neural and hormonal action or suppression. Substances in foods and drugs may block, increase, or mimic the actions of one or more natural neurotransmitters in the brain and may be able to change the homeostatic relationships within us. This affects our moods, and emotions and motivations, as well as our basic perceptive, cognitive, and expressive processes. Each drug, or combination of drugs will cause a different kind of affect on these systems. Food, danger, and bee stings also bring about a change in homeostatic balance affecting our hormonal and neural activity. So do yoga, exercise, and processed sugar, as well as sex, fighting, and heights. Any of these substances produce their own unique potential for physical or psychological addiction or habituation.
Continue-8 If there is a social-environmental element to the basis of addictive personality, or a predisposition for addictive behavior, it is best explained not by teen peers, or socioeconomic factors, not by race or education, but by our personal orientation to life. This aspect of our character is well established long before we complete our early childhood development. It is now accepted that we have minds of our own well before we are born. Our basic character and life orientation is established between 24 weeks and 24 months of age. The health behaviors of the mother, her motivation and interest, and competence at parenting, combine with genetic and hormonal factors in the prenatal development of the fetus.
Continue-9 Problem of choice: Keeping on the present scenario of the drug which is earlier treated only from the medical model, the researcher want to explore the personality traits of the drug addicts. The researcher want to see psycholopathological variables along with the personality traits in latter research work. First the researcher want to pick up only personality traits on the drug addicts and normal people.
Continue:10 Research Objectives: The main research objective is “to find out the personality traits of drug addicts and non-addicts of Mizo population” Methodology: In this research proposal the researcher randomly selected 50 Drug-addicts(male) and 50 non-addicts(male )ranging the age level of 25-45 yrs from the Mizo-population. All the selected samples were administered 16 PF (form E) individually. The investigator manipulates drug addicts and non- addicts as an experimental conditions. Reliability for the present study is .87 (alpha)
Continue-11 RESULT: Table 1 Mean, SD and t-values of Mizo drug users and normal on Sixteen personality factors Personality Drug abusers Normal t-values Factors M SD M SD A Cool/Warm 4.43 1.65 4.51 1.59 -.22 B Concrete/abstract 4.82 1.84 6.30 1.77 -3.9** C Affected by feelings/emotionally stable 3.65 1.55 4.18 1.28 -1.8** E Submissive/Dominant 3.84 1.46 3.08 1.56 2.4** F Sober/Enthusiastic 4.56 1.18 4.49 1.45 .27 G Expedient/Conscientious 3.63 1.53 4.63 1.13 -3.6** H Shy/Bold 3.15 1.39 4.16 1.58 -3.2** I Tough minded/Tender 4.54 1.31 4.53 1.67 .04 L Trusting/Suspicious 4.34 1.33 4.30 2.01 .11 M Practical/Imaginative 3.85 1.15 4.00 1.64 -.51 N Forthright/Shrewd 3.93 1.48 3.83 1.47 .32 O Self-assured/Apprehensive 5.06 1.42 3.77 1.77 3.9 ** Q1 Conservative/Experimenting 4.24 1.53 3.36 1.30 2.98** Q2 Group oriented/Self-sufficient 4.26 1.16 3.18 1.62 3.68** Q3 Undisciplined/Controlled 3.06 1.78 5.04 1.24 -6.3** Q4 Relaxed/Tense 4.47 1.68 3.55 1.56 2.77** Note: N=95,df=93, P<.05
Continue:12 Discussion: In the present study an attempt has been made to investigate the personality profiles of drug-addicts and non-addicts. Number of studies were carried out on drug addicts indicating that differences exist between the personality profiles of drug-abusers and non-abusers but research evidence is rather inconclusive. The 16PF form ‘E’ used in the present study is one of the latest forms and has been found to be useful with rehabilitation clients because of the simplicity of its language. Studies have demonstrated that some common personality traits are also prevalent among drug abusers, they tend to score low on wellbeing and self-satisfaction; are inclined to be more non- conforming, more alone and isolated at home, less optimistic about vocational future and more disorganized under stress (Craig,1979;Stein et al.,1983; Gautam et al.,1991). The results obtained were analyzed with the help of t-test which revealed significant differences between drug-addicts and normal on personality factors except A,F,I,L,M,N.
Continue:13 The mean values indicated that drug abusers are capable of concrete thinking, whereas normal are better at abstract thinking. Concrete thinking implies low mental capacities, tends to be slow to learn and grasp, dull, poor judgement capacity. Normal on the other hand are quick to grasp ideas, a fast learner, intellectually adaptable and show better judgement capacity. In this context Spotts and Shontz (1992) concluded that differences were not found among drug user groups, but non- users differed significantly from all the drug user groups in respect of personality. Drug users are found to be affected by feelings but normal in contrast are emotionally stable. This implies that the former gets emotional when frustrated, easily annoyed, changeable and plastic, active in dissatisfaction, and having neurotic symptoms. Whereas the latter group is emotionally stable, mature, faces reality, calm, adjust to facts, unruffled, possessing ego strength, better able to maintain solid group morale. Drug abusers are lacking rules, self indulgent. whereas normal are conforming, moralistic, staid and rule bound.
Continue:14 Drug abusers are often casual and lacking in effort for group undertakings and cultural demands. Sometimes they lead to antisocial acts. Whereas normal are usually conscientious and moralistic, prefer hard working people to witty companions. Drug abusers are shy, withdrawing whereas normal are bold, sociable, and ready to try new things, spontaneous, and abundant in emotional response. Drug abusers usually have inferiority feelings, dislike occupations with personal contacts, and are not given to keeping in contact with all that is going on around them. Drug abusers are apprehensive whereas the normal are self-assured. This implies that the former tend to worry and feel anxious and guilt-stricken over difficulties. The latter have a mature, unanxious confidence in themselves and their capacity to deal with things.
Continue:15 Drug abusers are experimenting whereas normal are conservative. This implies that the former are skeptical, less inclined to moralize. The latter are cautious and compromising in regard to new ideas. The mean value of drug abusers are self sufficient whereas the normal are group-oriented. This implies that the former discount public opinion, but are not necessarily dominant in their relations with others. The latter prefer to work and make decisions with other people and like and depend on social approval and admiration. The drug abusers are undisciplined self-conflict whereas normal are following self-image. This implies that the former are impetuous, painstaking, may feel maladjusted, and many maladjustments. The latter have strong control of their emotions and general behaviour, are inclined to be socially aware and careful, self respect and high regard for social reputation. The mean value of the drug abusers show that they are tense, frustrated, overwrought, has high drive whereas the normal are relaxed, tranquil, composed, has low drive, and unfrustrated. In conclusion the investigator suggested to do further study on the intervention n prevention strategy level.
Continue:16 Acknowledgement: Thanks to LIANSANGPUII for helping in data collection. Reference: Antonio Terracciano, Corinna E Löckenhoff, Rosa M Crum, O Joseph Bienvenu and Paul T Costa Jr(2008). Five-Factor Model personality profiles of drug users, BMC Psychiatry, 8:22doi:10.1186/1471-244X-8-22 Emily R. Grekin ; Kenneth J. Sher ; and Phillip K. Wood ( December 2006). Personality and substance dependence symptoms : Modeling Substance-specific traits. Psychology of addictive behaviors. Vol. 20(4) 415-424. Waheeda Khan and Salma(2003). Personality profile of drug addicts and normal. Journal of personality and clinical studies. Vol 19(1), 23-34. Manual of the 16PF (1991 edition). Internet Material regarding smoking and drug addicts www.google.co.in