Models of psychotherapy NAOREM BINITA DEVI, KAKCHING,MANIPUR
Content:Psychodynamic model (first force)Cognitive-Behavioral Model( 2nd force)Existential-Humanistic Model ( third force)Multicultural Model ( fourth force)Techniques
Psychodynamic model (first force):• Psychoanalytic therapy ( Sigmund Freud) Theory base : psychoanalysis• Individual psychology ( theory base, Adlerian therapy, Alfred Adler);• Jungian Therapy ( Analytical, Carl Jung);• Object relations ( psychoanalysis, James Framo, Ronald Fairbairn, Gerald Zuk)• Family systems theory based on analytical ( Murray Brown)
Cognitive-Behavioral Model( 2nd force)• Behavioral psychotherapy ( behaviorism, B.F. Skinner, J. Wolpe)• Cognitive-Behavioral ( cognitive Behaviorism, A. Beck, D.Meichenbaum)• Transactional Analysis ( Eric Berne)• Rational Behavior Therapy (RET, theory base behaviorism cognition, Albert Ellis)• Reality Therapy ( William Glasser)• Structural Family Therapy ( theory based on ecological systems, S. Minuchin, J.Haley)• Strategic Family therapy ( based on ecological systems, M. Selvini- Palazzzoli, Jay Haley, Don Jackson)
Existential-Humanistic Model ( third force)• Person centered Therapy ( Carl Rogers)• Gestalt Therapy ( based on Gestalt, Psychoanalytic, behavioral, (Frederic Fritz Perls)• Logotherapy ( theory based on existentialism, psychoanalytic, Victor Frankl)• Existential Psychotherapy ( based on existentialism, Rollo May)
Multicultural Model ( fourth force)Multicultural Counseling and therapy (MCT) ( theory based on Behaviorism by A.E.Ivey, phenomenology by H.E. Cheatham, Anthropology by D.W. Sue, Liberation by P.B. Pederson, Pedagogy by J.G. Ponterotto, C.E. Vontress, Feminist theory by P. Arredondo, F.A. Ibraham)
Techniques:Freudian Psychoanalysis: Basic Techniques: Free association Analysis of Dream Analysis of Resistance Analysis of Transference
Continue:1• Behavior Therapy:• Key techniques of Behavior therapy• Guided exposure• Systematic desensitization• In Vivo exposure• Aversion Therapy• Modeling• Systematic use of Reinforcement• Response Shaping• Token economies• Behavioral contracting• Biofeedback treatment
Continue:2• Cognitive and cognitive Behavioral therapy:• 3 approaches to cognitive and cognitive behavioral therapy• The rational Emotive Behavior therapy by Albert Ellis;• The stress Inoculation training of Donald Meichenbaum, and• The cognitive therapies of Aaron Beck.• • Techniques of rational behavior therapy:• Ellis feels that the techniques other therapists use to accomplish this are relatively indirect and inefficient. Techniques such as abreaction, catharsis, dream analysis, free association, interpretation of resistance, and transference analysis are often successful, at least in bringing clients to recognize their illogical thinking. However, Ellis feels that even when most successful, these “emotional” methods are wasteful.
Continue:3• The relationship itself and expressive-emotive, supportive, and insight-interpretive methods, although used in rational-emotive therapy, are preliminary techniques to establish rapport, to enable the client to express himself or herself, and show the client that he or she is respected. “if, because the patient is exceptionally upset when he comes to therapy, he must first approached in a cautious, supportive, permissive, and warm manner, and must sometimes be allowed to ventilate his feeling in free association, abreaction, role playing, and other expressive techniques, that may be a necessary part of effective therapy.
Continue:4• The essential technique of rational-emotive therapy is active, directive teaching. After the initial stage the counselor assumes an active teaching role to reeducate the client. The therapist demonstrates the illogical origin of the client’s disturbance and the persistence of illogical self-verbalizations that continue the disturbance. Clients are shown “ that their internalized sentences are quite illogical and unrealistic in certain aspects….. the effective therapist should continually keep unmasking his patient’s past, and, especially, his present illogical thinking or self-defeating verbalizations by (a) bringing them forcefully to his attention or consciousness; (b) showing him how they are causing and maintaining his disturbance and unhappiness; (c) demonstrating exactly what the illogical links in his internalized sentences are; and ( d) teaching him how to re-think, challenge, contradict, and reverbalize these ( and other similar) sentences so that his internalized thoughts become more logical and efficient.•
Continue:5• Rational-emotive psychotherapy makes a concerted attack on the disturbed person’s illogical positions in two main ways:• the therapist serves as a frank counter-propagandist and superstitions which the patient has originally learned and which he is now self- instilling.• The therapist encourages, persuades, cajoles, and occasionally even insists that the patient engage in some activity ( such as doing something he is afraid of doing) which itself will serve as a forceful counterpropaganda agency against the nonsense he believes.•• The rational-emotive therapist thus uses logic and reason, teaching, suggestion, persuasion, confrontation, deindoctrination, indoctrination, and prescription of behavior to show the client what his or her irrational philosophies are, to demonstrate how these lead to emotionally disturbed behavior, and to change the client’s thinking— and thus emotions—by replacing these irrational philosophies with rational, logical ones.
Continue:6• Rational-emotive therapy is an insight producing form of therapy. There are three kinds of insight.• The first consists of the client recognizing that his or her present dysfunctional behavior has antecedent causes, which include past experiences.• More important is the second: an understanding that the original causes continue to be distributing because of the irrational beliefs about these experiences that the client continues to harbor and recall.•• The third insight is the acknowledgement that “ there is no other way for him to overcome his emotional disturbance but y his continually observing, questioning, and challenging his own belief systems, and his working and practicing to change his own irrational philosophic assumptions by verbal and by motor counterpropagandizing activity. The first two insights are of little value without the third.
Continue:7• Therapy essentially consists of attacking irrational beliefs( ibs) by disputing them (D). the result is a cognitive effect ( cE, and usually a behavioral effect (bE). In effect, the client’s irrational beliefs (iBs) become rational beliefs (rBs) and the irrational consequences (iCs) become rational consequences (rCs).• Rational-emotive therapy may be either short-term or long-term. Individual and group therapy are often combined. The usual range is from 1 to 20 individual sessions with 20 to 80 group sessions.• “ ideally, however, clients are to be seen for a total period of about two years, during which they will have about twenty individual and about seventy-five group sessions.•
Continue:8• Ellis’s Core Irrational Beliefs:• one should be loved by everyone for everything one does;• certain acts are awful or wicked, and people who perform them should be• severely punished;• It is horrible when things are not the way we would like them to be;• if something may be dangerous or fearsome, one should be terribly upset• about it;• it is better to avoid life problems, if possible, than to face them;• one needs something stronger or more powerful than oneself to rely on;• one should be thoroughly competent, intelligent, and achieving in all• aspects;• Because something once affected one’s life, it will indefinitely affect it;• one must have perfect and certain self-control;• happiness can be achieved by inertia and inaction;• we have virtually no control over our emotions and cannot help having• certain feelings.
Continue:9• • Humanistic-Experiential therapies:• client centered (person-centered) therapy of Carl Rogers ( 1902-1987)• Existential therapy ( Rollo May)• Gestalt therapy ( Frederick( fritz) Perls , 1967,1969)• Logotherapy ( Victor Frankl) • Client-centered therapy of Carl Rogers:• Techniques: The vital techniques in the person-centered therapist’s repertoire are really attitudes toward people: congruence ( genuineness), unconditional positive regard (respect), and empathy.
Continue:10• In general, the person-centered therapist refrains from giving advice or solutions, moralizing, and making judgments.• Person-centered therapist will use the methods of ( 1) active and passive listening; (2) reflection of thoughts and feelings, (3) clarification, (4) summarization, (5) confrontation of contradictions, and (6) general or open leads that help client self-exploration ( Poppen and Thompson, 1974, p.43).• •