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CHILD REARING PRACTICES IN THE INDIAN CONTEXTAuthor’s Name:Naorem Binita Devi,Assistant Professor;Department of psychology;MZU.As we all know that a child is the future of one’s Nation. A child’s mind is just like a mud. He /she canbe shaped in any way whatever the parents/caretakers want like a potter makes a pot in differentshape using mud. As John Locke suggested that the child’s mind is like an empty slate/white sheet ofpaper that can be filled up by the parents/caretakers/adults advice. So, the main focus for the goodmindset and good thinking process lies in the hands of the child rearing practices who are takingsuch main role for the development of one’s mind at the early stages.If you observe the child rearing practices in the Indian scenario, you can find many differencesamong north-eastern part, northern part, western part n southern part. Inside one part also youfind differences in terms of the ethnic level, cultural level etc. inside the ethnic level you finddifferences from one family to another family. such differences from each family come up in themainstream in the National and International level.Child rearing practices are related to the child’s upbringing but if you looked back child rearingpractices you find very surprising scenario how the child had been treated. According to Aries(1962), children were initially considered miniature adults in medieval society but in later eras,children were regarded as beings that were distinguished from adults. while the end of theRenaissance began with brutal oppression of children, the 1970s celebrated and cultivated thenatural child.If we look into the child rearing practices in the Indian context, you may encounter n observe manythings like how the child is exploited for their daily two square meals in very poor family especiallymale n parents use girls for nurturing their younger one. Had you observed such things? On theother hand, you can observe very good child rearing practices of those good parents. As DianaBaumrind (1967,1971) gave 3 styles of child rearing practices ( i.e., Authoritarian, permissive nAuthoritative) based on fourth dimension ( i.e., expressions of warmth, strategies for discipline,communication and expectations of maturity).But when the author observed the scenario in the Indian context, the child-rearing practices is basedon the Varna system, religion factors, ethnic factors, economic factors, environmental factors etc.Varna System :As you, all know that Indian social structure consists of 4 varna system (i.e. Bramhan, kshatriyas,Vaishya, n shudras), which is quite visible in every parts of the Indian states but less visible in north-
eastern part. When a child is given rearing practices under such guidance, and come into themainstream to all the other people, what may be happened? On the other hand, children whobrought up without giving such mindset of hierarchy may do better in the mainstream. Sometimesthe author wants to emphasize the level of thinking in each child.Religion factor:Here the author wants to emphasize the religion factor that are dominated while rearing practicestake place. See if you observe, a child is totally endowed with one religion factors due to childrearing practices, the child may lack thinking of another religion factor existing in one’s Nation. Onthe other hand a child who is given values of existing many religion in one’s society, may able tothink better than another one as the author mentioned. What do you think on this matter?Ethnic factors:You, all know that our society consists of diverse aspects of religion, ethnic, language etc. In oneparticular place you,may find only one ethnic people are inhibited. Just imagine one moment for thechild who are brought up under one ethnic groups n those who are brought up many ethnic groupsin a particular place. yes, it depends on the child rearing practices of the parents/caretakers also. Doyou think which one will be better in coping with multi-cultural issues existing in one’s society? Whowill have more tolerant attitude n more social skills?Economic factors:This factor is the most important in nourishing a child’s mind giving good diet, proteinous food etcwith the help of parents/caretakers. Here just compare rich n poor family and their style of childrearing practices with good values injected to them through their caretaker/parents. But oneexception is that it does not mean that only good family produce good child rearing style. What doyou think on this matter?Environmental factors:Here the author wants to emphasize good environment n impoverished environment. Goodenvironment with good child rearing practices may boost up the child in many ways what he/shewants. On the other hand, Impoverished environment with good/bad child rearing practicesmay/may not bring good results to the child in dealing with peoples.Conclusion:The child rearing practices existing in the Indian context is based on varna system (but change maycome up), ethnic factor, religion factor, economic factors n environmental factors. Accordingobservers can treat in different way to each child. Sometimes one can find a child’s attitude is verymuch approaching type/non-approachingtype;/expressing/nonexpressing;/value preservation/non-value preservation;/affected by feelings/non-affected byfeeling;/complaining/noncomplaining;/defensing more/non-defensing;/high moral vaules/low-moralvalues etc. All such things are totally depends on one’s way of child-rearing practices of the parents/caretakers. Sometimes you may encounter in your neighbour how the parents are doing for the
child. Sometimes some parents,shouted instead of convincing, sometimes conditional way of childrearing practices to the child,like, “ if you did well in the exam., i shall buy whatever you like.” Doyou think this is good? Sometimes, you may find allowing the child to do whatever he/she likesbecause the caretaker/ parents wants to free etc. such things are quite visible. In the last point theauthor wants to emphasize to all the parents/ caretakers to give good moral values, good diverseaspects existing in one’s society, to respect one’s cultural aspects, give the value of morality, give thevalue of education in one’s life n its implication to solve Nation or International problem.NAME OF THE AUTHOR:NAOREM BINITA DEVIE-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.comLIVING RELATIONSHIPS: RIGHT OR WRONGAuthor’s Name: Naorem Binita Devi,Affiliation : Mizoram UniversityPosition: Assistant Professor;E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.orgLiving relationships whether it is right or wrong gave me to think of the urban life style, rural lifestyle, village life style. It may quite appropriate to the urban life style rather than the otherremaining two lifestyles. But in urban life style also, i want to keep my viewpoint about the nature ofthe family and the person’s way of thinking regarding on this matter. Sometimes the person comingfrom the village also adopt such living relationship without thinking the boundaries of thevillage/rural life styles. I am not saying it does not happen in rural and village life style. But such wayof relationship is quite visible in the urban life styles based on their way of thinking, economicindependence, reason behind the relationship, convincing power to their parents etc. once theeconomic independence comes to the person, people want to adopt such way of relationship fortheir emotional support to each other but sometimes they are bound by their parents. When youobserve, those boyfriend and girlfriend live together and they studied together n once they got job,then they took the permission from the parents n got married. In positive viewpoint i think it is goodbut need to marry otherwise many negative consequences may arise from this relationships becauseall people are not same thinking. I am not saying they are bad, and i heard many people live togetherwithout marriage also. In my thinking it is better to marriage. But some people may not want suchproposal also because they understand their soulmate and their opinion may be “no need tomarry”. Regarding on this matter it is totally a matter of ‘strong bondage relationship’ between the
two person. My thinking here is that, if you have governed by such ‘strong bondage relationship’ it ismore easier to get marry. I am not opposing regarding the living relationship between the twoperson. I said right but you have to economic independence or some other else. Another thing isthat it does not mean that living relationships is bad. But such things never want from some sectionsof the society whether it is Urban, rural or village. So my emphasise on this matter is that it is totallydepend on the person concerned. The person have also keep in mind before adopting suchrelationship because it does not mean that all living relationship have positive point; it has negativepoint. When something happened in such relationship, you could not claim regarding on thisrelationship because such relationship are happened in you and your soulmate, you donot registeryour relationship in the court/according to your religion traditions. We have to keep such things inmind. Regarding on this matter living relationships have to turned into marriage ceremony eventhough they have strong bondage relationship otherwise another psychological n social issues maycome up. Those who are living together in strong bondage relationship also realised such thingsgiving due respect to the societal rules and regulations. Yes, they have no problems for them butthose who imitate such relationship but have no strong bondage relationship may get severeconsequences from such living relationship. That is why, i want to emphasize that living relationshipis right but it compulsorily have to lead to marriage ceremony to the court/according to your religiontraditions.Thus, living relationship is right in one sense if the two person have a ‘strong bondage relationship’ n‘strong commitment’ for their relationship but i want to keep my viewpoint on this matter, better totransform such relationships to marriage form under the societal norms.Each and every living relationships never bring right approach, sometimes it brought wrong due todifferences come out n such living relationships remain temporary. May be some feedback comesout, “it is better to know each other”. If she/he can control such temporary living relationship, yes, ican proudly accept such things but mostly people come under the psychological and social issuesunder such wrong living relationship.In concluding part i want to emphasize that living relationship is right in one sense if they havestrong bondage relationship, strong commitment, economic independence, moral support ,able toface the challenges coming towards them together etc but want to marry for them also under thesocietal norms.In another sense living relationship is wrong when their living relationship is bound by temporaryrelationship. But they may think that it is good for them to know each other if there is nopsychological n social issues come out. In case if such consequences come out i think it is a badeffect to the person n it may bring a health issue to the person. What is your opinion? So preparingmind is very much needed before adopting such living relationship as i think sothat you can prepareyourself when such negative fault comes out from this living relationship.