Application of pavlovian conditioningto mizoDocument Transcript
1APPLICATION OF PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING AT MIZO-POPULATION IN DAY TO DAY LIFE:REPLICATION STUDYNaorem Binita Devi Address: Dept. of psychology, Mizoram University,Tanhril,Aizawl-796004,e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com,firstname.lastname@example.org AbstractThis paper is about the application of Pavlovian Conditioning to Mizo-Population. The mainobjective of the present study is the application of Pavlovian classical conditioning to day today life in Mizo-Population. The participants were administered in group setting by theInvestigator with the help of Pavlovian classical conditioning experiment. After listeningcarefully, the participants have to construct their experiences in day to day life at least one .The investigator hypothesized that in day to day setting learned response take place in theneutral stimulus rather than natural stimulus . The investigator collected such applicationconditioning experiences from the subjects based on classical conditioning. “ conditioning isnothing but the establishment of connection between a stimulus and a response which haveno natural connection between them”. Pavlov demonstrated that a dog salivates when foodis put into its mouth. The natural stimulus for salivation, i.e., food, was called by him asunconditioned stimulus (U.S.). the natural response to it i.e., salivation while eating wascalled unconditioned response (U.R.). the experimental stimulus was neutral beforeexperiment, but to which response in conditioned (i.e., connected) during experiment iscalled conditioned stimulus (C.S.).here it is the sound of the bell. The learned response (i.e.,salivation) to the otherwise neutral stimulus (i.e., the sound of the bell) is called conditionedresponse (CR). Results found subjects can apply the conditioning procedure in his/her day today life.Keywords:ConditioningUnconditioned stimulus
2Conditioned StimulusConditioned responseUnconditioned responseSoon after an individual is born he starts acquiring new learning. He learns new ways ofbehaving, of doing things, of thinking, feeling and the like.
3E.R. Hilgard and R.C. Atkinson define learning as “relatively permanent change in behaviourthat occurs as a result of prior experience.” H.S. Klusmeiert writes, “learning is a processwhereby a change in behaviour results from some form of experience, activity, training,observation and the like. Change in some behaviour which results from such forces as bodilyinjury, disease, fatigue or use is not considered learning.” Blair, Jones and Simpsondefine,”any changes of behaviour which is a result of experience and which causes people toface later situations differently, may be called learning.” According to Eason, learning is“changes in behaviour that are determined primarily by the individual’s interaction with theenvironment.” Morgan and King define learning as “any relatively permanent change inbehaviour which occurs as a result of practice or experience.”Thus, learning has three important characteristics: 1. Learning is a change of behaviour; 2. This change occurs as a result of repeated practice or experiences; thus, changes, that occur due to growth, maturity, native response-tendencies, injury or disease are not learning. 3. A change of behaviour to be properly called learning must be relatively permanent. It must last long for a long time. This characteristic excludes changes in behaviour due to motivation, fatigue, adaptation or sensitivity of the organism from the scope of learning.The learning theories can be grouped under two broad categories.Stimulus-Response Theories (S.R. Theories) and the cognitive field theories. The S.R.theories can then be subdivided into S.R. theories with reinforcement and those withoutreinforment.The S-R theories without Reinforcement: 1. Classical conditioning theories by Pavlov; 2. Behaviourist theory of learning by Watson; 3. Theory of continuous conditioning by Guthrie.
4S-R Theories with Reinforcement: 1. The trial and error learning by Thorndike; 2. Operant conditioning theory by BF Skinner.Cognitive field theories: 1. Gestalt theory of learning; 2. The Sign-gestalt theory of learning by Tolman.In my present paper, the investigator used the classical conditioning theory by Ivan P.Pavlov(1844—1936).“conditioning is nothing but the establishment of connection between a stimulus and aresponse which have no natural connection between them.”It is learning at a very simple level, learning which we acquire mostly unconsciously. Thebasic principles of this learning process can be understood from the experiments of classicalconditioning.U.S., U.R., and C.S., C.R. :Pavlov demonstrated that a dog salivates when food is put into its mouth. This reflex ofsalivation is physiological and natural. But the dog can be made to salivate to any otherneutral stimulus, say the sound of the bell, if for a few times the natural stimulus (food) ispresented to the dog with the neutral stimulus (i.e., the sound of a bell). This salivation tothe sound of a bell is unnatural and learned.The natural stimulus for salivation, i.e., food, was called by him as unconditioned stimulus(U.S.). the natural response to it i.e., salivation while eating was called unconditionedresponse (U.R.). the experimental stimulus was neutral before experiment, but to whichresponse in conditioned (i.e., connected) during experiment is called conditioned stimulus(C.S.).here it is the sound of the bell. The learned response (i.e., salivation) to the otherwiseneutral stimulus (i.e., the sound of the bell) is called conditioned response (CR).Pavlov’s experiment:
5In a typical experiment on dogs Pavlov paired food and bell a few times. It was found thatafter a few pairings, the dog salivates even when only bell is sounded and food is notpresented. This salivation is nothing but a conditioned (i.e., learned) response to anotherwise neutral stimulus i.e., bell. Thus we can define classical conditioning “ as a processin which a neutral stimulus by pairing with a neutral stimulus, acquirer all the characteristicsof natural stimulus”.CS (BELL) + US (FOOD)---------------------------------SALIVA (UR);CS (BELL) US (OMITTED)------------------------------CR (SALIVA);CS (BELL) US (OMITTED)………………………………….CR (SALIVA).Objective:The main objective of the present study is the application of Pavlovian classical conditioningto day to day life in Mizo-Population.Hypothesis:To observe the learned response take place in the neutral stimulus rather than naturalstimulus in day to day life.Methodology:Sample:In this replication research study, the investigator randomly selected a group Mizo-Population and demonstrated the Pavlovian classical conditioning with illustration.Instruments:Demonstration of Pavlovian classical conditioning :Pavlov’s experiment:In a typical experiment on dogs Pavlov paired food and bell a few times. It was found thatafter a few pairings, the dog salivates even when only bell is sounded and food is notpresented. This salivation is nothing but a conditioned (i.e., learned) response to an
6otherwise neutral stimulus i.e., bell. Thus we can define classical conditioning “ as a processin which a neutral stimulus by pairing with a neutral stimulus, acquirer all the characteristicsof natural stimulus”.CS (BELL) + US (FOOD)---------------------------------SALIVA (UR);CS (BELL) US (OMITTED)------------------------------CR (SALIVA);CS (BELL) US (OMITTED)………………………………….CR (SALIVA).Procedure:The participants were administered in group setting by the Investigator with the help ofPavlovian classical conditioning experiment. After listening carefully, the participants haveto construct their experiences in day to day life at least one .Result:Subject:1Before I started coming to MZU, I usually would eat and sleep whenever I felt like it. Butonce I started coming to MZU, many things in my daily life has been changed. In the 1 st fewdays of our classes 12:00 p.m. it never really meant to me. But as days, weeks, and monthspassed, I started associating 12:00 p.m. as a time to eat. So now everyday when the clockstrikes 12:00 p.m., without realising it I can feel a sense of hunger. Sometimes my stomachgrowls when the clock stricks 12:00p.m. even on holiday. This association between12.00p.m and my stomach is because I was classically conditioned by having any luncheveryday of the week at 12:00p.m.Subject:2I remember when I was at L.R. higher secondary school. I was settled at hostel around 4months. Every morning there was a BELL. Just before we were having dinner. Here a BELLcan be considered as Conditioned Stimulus (CS). After few days it was conditioned in mymind when a bell was rung, always thought that it is true for us having dinner. So we oftenwent to the kitchen eventhough that bell does not means dinner. When a bell was coming Ioften thought about the kitchen and the food. In this example of pavlovian conditioning,
7Subject:3In my family, there are five children. They are always playing with one another in the field,or near by my house. In every evening at 4:00 p.m., I call them to have dinner and whenthey hear the sound of my voice, they know that it is the time to go home and should havedinner. Before having dinner, one of the children is always eagerly waiting to have a dinnerbecause she is in a very hungry situation. So she is in shaking her body independently, orautomatically, and I gave food immediately and stop the shaking.Subject no.: 4Whenever you watch a scary show, you always have a big bowl of popcorn. Now you findthat just having a bowl of popcorn makes you feel creepy.Subject:5The overhead in Tom’s lab has a short circuit and given him a shock everytime he touches it.After a while TOM hesitates everytime he is about to touch the overhead.Subject: 6The subject under this experiment were KG 1 in a boarding school, so they did not have pastlearning on this type of conditioning. The aim of this experiment is the response of thechildren (i.e., go to kitchen) in the presence of bell. At first when the bell was rung they didnot know that it was the time of breakfast or dinner. But everytime after the bell food wasintroduced in the kitchen.So, after several trials the child learn to go to the kitchen when the bell was rung.Discussion:The present focus of the study to apply the Pavlovian Classical conditioning to Mizo-Population in day to day life. Here the investigator tries to observe how the subject can takelearned response from the neutral stimulus rather than the natural stimulus. Pavlov foundthat the dog is not only salivating while taking food, it is also salivating at distinctly neutralstimulus like sight of food, sound of the care-takers, approaching feet etc. conditioningrepresents learning at a very lower level.
8The investigator observed from the subjects and found that such conditioning experimenttake place in day to day life in world wide i.e., across the culture.Another Russian Physiologist, Vladimir Bechterev also conducted classical conditioningexperiments with the so-called “ protective reflex.” In his experiment, the subject has towithdraw some part of body (e.g., paw of the dog, hand or finger of man), in response topainful stimulation such as an electric shock. In this experimental situation shock is receivedinspite of the subject’s reaction. The sequence of stimuli like bell and electric shock remainsregardless of what the subject does. Gradually the subject learns to withdraw his paw, handor finger, even when only the erstwhile neutral stimulus (bell) is given. Thus bell becomesthe conditioned stimulus and withdrawal in response to it the conditioned response.In this way Pavlov brought a revolution in the field of study of learning process. His distinctcontribution to psychology is that he showed how a part of the environment can control asubject’s response, though normally it should have no connection with it. He experimentallyproved in hypothesis/objective way how the learning can be acquired. He considered theprocess of conditioning as sufficient to explain all forms of learning. As he puts it, “differentkinds of habits based on training, education, and discipline of any sort are nothing but longchain of conditioned reflexes.”Conclusion:The objective/hypothesis based on the classical conditioning and its application in day today life ia acquired. Thus, psychologists belonging to behavioural school used this concept ofconditioning to explain all forms of learning. His emphasis on the objective behaviour of thesubject rather than on its mental process were later followed by behaviourists like Watsonto develop their theories of behaviourism and learning.References:Arno F.Wittig (2004). Introduction to Psychology (second Edition). Tata McGraw Hill,ISBN 0-07-058947-X.Robert A.Baron (2003).Psychology (fifth edition). Pearson Education (Singapore)pt.Ltd. ISBN81-7808-623-9.
9SP Chaube and Akhilesh Chaube (2011). Essential of General Psychology (first edition).Neelkamal publications pvt.ltd. ISBN 987-81-8316-285-2.