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  • The cave is deepended and widened eventually braeaks through the healand to form an arch
  • Stage 1:The sea attacks the foot of the cliff and erodes cracks and areas of weakness. It does this by different processes (hydraulic action)Stage 2: Caves are formed as the cracks enlarge and the cliff are undercutStage 3: The cave is deepened and widened eventually breaks through the headland to form an archStage 4: Stacks form when the top of the arch collapses under its own weight. Formation of a stump which are remains of a collapsed stack
  • Erosion of cracks, cracks turn into caves, caves turn into arches, arches widen and collapse into stacks, which finally wear into stumps

Erosion Powerpoint Erosion Powerpoint Presentation Transcript

  • Erosion
    Tina, Gabriel, and Naomi
  • Bays and Headlands
    occurs at areas with alternating hard (more resistant) and soft (less resistant) rocks
    beginning:
    Softer rocks eroded and forms bays
    Harder rocks outcrop to form headlands
    later (Bay Beach Model):
    Bays receive low energy waves that deposit sand
    Headlands receive the highest-energy waves that erode
  • Arches
    Formed when a cave is widened and deepened by erosion which eventually breaks through the headland
    End: roof collapses and forms a stack
  • Erosion Occurring
  • Stacks
    An isolated portion of the cliff
    Formed when arches widen and roof collapses which results in an isolated portion
    End: stack is worn away creating a stump
    Video: http://blip.tv/file/1324806/
  • Stump
    Erosion Occurring
  • Process: Subaerial
    Cliffs can be eroded by
    rain fall
    throughflow
    extreme conditions of surface runoff
    weathering with wind and frost which can cause slumping or landslides
  • Process: Wave Pounding
    High energy waves = erosion present
    Break when they hit sea walls of the foot of a cliff and energy is released upon impact
    May generate shock-waves of up to 30 tonnes per m²
  • Caves
  • Process: Hydraulic Pressure
    As a wave approaches the cliff, air is trapped between the rocks. This forms cracks, as more waves come in, more air is trapped.
    This damages or corrodes the cliff over time.
    The force of the water as the turbulent current hits river banks pushes water into cracks is increased.
    Cavitation
    The resultant shock waves hit and slowly weaken the banks.
  • Process: Abrasional/Corrasion
    The most effective method of erosion.
    Load is carried as waves are hurled at the cliff face.
  • Process: Human Influences
    The removal of beach material on the cliffs.
    The persistent development on the tops of cliffs contributes to rapid soil erosion.
    Effects of erosion can be reduced by the construction of sea defenses.
    Without human influences and interference many of these defenses is unnecessary.
  • Factors affecting the rate of Erosion
    Breaking point of wave
    Wave steepness
    Depth of sea, lengthand direction of fetch, configuration of coastline
    Supply of beach material
    Beach Width
    Rock resistance, structure and dip