Calligraphy presentation

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جمال الخط العربي وأنواعه
Arabic scribes

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Calligraphy presentation

  1. 1. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy The A rt of A rabic C alligraphy Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  2. 2. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy • Islamic Art and Arabic Calligraphy • General Features of Arabic Calligraphy • Development of Arabic Script & Calligraphy • Primary Styles, Samples & Features • Calligraphy & Architecture • Calligraphy & Fine Art • New Techniques & Applications Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  3. 3. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Elements of Islamic Art:  Arabic Script & Calligraphy  Geometric Patterns  Floral & Vegetal Motifs (Arabesque) Jamal Badran, 1980’s Decorations on Glass Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  4. 4. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Al-Hambra Palace Candlestick Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  5. 5. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy The Art of Arabic Calligraphy: • The Art of the Pen • The Art of Writing • Geometry of the Spirit • Geometry of the line How Writing Became an Art Form: • The Revelation of the Qur’an as an inspiration • To glorify the words of God – visually as in recitation • The discouragement of representing human figures Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  6. 6. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Development of Arabic Script: • The Arabic Script was developed from the Nabataean script, which was itself derived from the Aramaic script. • As a writing system, Arabic appeared in early 5th Century. • The revelation of Islam had a major impact on the development of Arabic language & Script. Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  7. 7. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Islam & Arabic Calligraphy: • First Revelation of the Qur’an & Other verses • Teaching Arabic writing in the first mosque • The 40 scribes that recorded the Qur’an • The release of Prisoners of war for teaching others • The collection and copying of the Qur’an. Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  8. 8. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Calligraphy Applications: • To Glorify & Beautify God’s words • As a form of worship • As a spiritual activity • Artistic • Decoration • Identity Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  9. 9. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Geometric Principles: Three elements are the basis of proportion in Arabic Calligraphy: • The height of the alif, which is a straight and vertical stroke (3-12) dots. • The width of the alif, (the dot) which is the square impression formed by pressing the tip of the calligraphers reed pen to paper • An imaginary circle with alif as its diameter, within which all Arabic letters could fit and be written. System of Ibn-Muqla, 9th Century Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  10. 10. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Primary Styles  Over 100 Styles  6 Primary Styles  Additional Artistic forms Named based on:  width of the pen - Thuluth  usage - Nasakh  curvature of style - Yabis  place of development– Kufi  the name of creator - Yaquti Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  11. 11. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Kufi or Kufic: is noted for its proportional measurements, angularity, and squareness. Kufic is one of the earliest styles to be used to record the word of God in the Qur’an. One of the early kufic inscriptions can be seen inside the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  12. 12. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Variations of Kufic Style: Fayeq Oweis, 2005 Arab American National Museum Source: www.sakkal.com Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  13. 13. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Thuluth means “one third,” referring to the proportion of the pen in relation to a previous style called Tumaar. It was first formulated in the 7th century A.D., and fully developed in the 9th century. It is noted for its cursive letters and its use as an ornamental script. Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  14. 14. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Nasakh means “copy” in Arabic, is one of the earliest scripts, redesigned by Ibn Muqlah in the 10th century A.D., using a comprehensive system of proportion. It is noted for its clarity to read and write, and was used to copy the Qur’an. Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  15. 15. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Ta’liq means “hanging,” referring to the shape of the letters, is a cursive script developed by the Persians in the early part of the 9th century A.D., and it is also called Farsi (Persians). Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  16. 16. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Diwani was developed by the Ottomans from the Ta’liq style. This style became a favorite script for writing in the Ottoman chancellery, and its name was derived from the word “Diwan,” which means the “Royal Court.” Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  17. 17. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Riq’a is a style that has evolved from Nasakh and Thuluth. It is noted for its simplicity and its short horizontal stems. The word Riq’a means “a small sheet,” which could be an indication of the media on which it was originally created. Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  18. 18. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Tughra’ was used by the Ottoman sultans as their signature. It was supposed to be impossible to imitate. Signature of an Ottoman Sultan Basmallah in Tughra’ style Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  19. 19. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Pictorial Calligraphy: words are manipulated and structured into the shape of a human figure, a bird, an animal or an object. Prayer in a form of a Lion Prayer in a form of a human figure “Ali bin abi Talib, the victorious lion of God, “I testify that there is no god, but God may God be pleased with him" and Muhammad is a messenger of God" Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  20. 20. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Qur’anic verse in the shape of a mosque Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  21. 21. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Love & Peace by Fayeq Oweis, 2003 Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  22. 22. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Love & P e ace , 6’x3’ – Acrylic S an F rancis co S tate U nive rs ity – O ffice of P rofe s s or D ina Ib rah im , M arch 2003 Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  23. 23. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Awda (Return) by Fayeq Oweis, 2006 Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  24. 24. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Tarab (Joy/delight). Fayeq Oweis, 2006 Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  25. 25. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Calligraphy & Architecture A major application of Arabic Calligraphy is in Architecture where inscriptions provided: • Place Identity and Function (mosque, school, etc.) • Historical Information (dates, artists, ruler, etc.) • Spiritual (Qur’anic verses and prayers) • Artistic/ Decoration Original Kufic inscriptions in the Dome of the Rock Jerusalem, 692 AD Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  26. 26. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Arabic Calligraphy in Mosques The Dome of the Rock Minbar & Mihrab - Mosque of University of Jordan Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  27. 27. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Calligraphy & Diversity of Materials Glass Mosaics Wood Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  28. 28. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Calligraphy & Diversity of Materials Ceramic Plaster Leather Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  29. 29. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Contemporary Development For over a century, there has been no major development in Arabic Calligraphy, except: • Development of new type styles – for printing • The use of Digital Media • Incorporating Calligraphy in Fine Arts Crown Letters- Egypt 1925 Computer Fonts Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  30. 30. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Computers & Calligraphy Computer type using DecoType Thuluth Style for Windows OS : Functional with no aesthetic Computer Manipulation: Applying Calligraphy Rules Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  31. 31. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Calligraphy and Fine Art Steps and Shadows God is Beautiful and Loves Beauty by Mamoun Sakkal by Mamoun Sakkal Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  32. 32. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Arab Am e rican N ational M u s e u m - F ront E ntrance , 25’x1 6’ – M os aics D e arb orn, M ich igan, May 2005. Im p le m e nte d b y M os aics H ou s e - Morocco Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  33. 33. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Arab Am e rican N ational M u s e u m C alligrap h y of th e D om e , 30’ D iam e te r- Acrylic D e arb orn, Mich igan. M ay 2005. Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  34. 34. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Calligraphy and Fine Art Fayeq Oweis, 2001. Allah “series” Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  35. 35. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Calligraphy and Fine Art Allah Jameel “God is Beautiful and Allah Noor “God is the light of loves beauty” heavens and earth” Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  36. 36. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Adaala (Justice) Arab ic C alligrap h y & D igital P rints from Two s e rie s “Vis u al Inte rp re tation of Arab ic Word s & Le tte rs ” to b e p re s e nte d at th e Arab Am e rican N ational M u s e u m , Ap ril 2006 Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
  37. 37. The Art of Arabic Calligraphy Internet resources: Islamic Art & Architecture Organization www.islamicart.com Los Angeles County Museum www.lacma.org Mamoun Sakkal Design www.sakkal.com Fayeq Oweis www.oweis.com Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.

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