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Tdd Tdd Document Transcript

  • TDDTDD-201 Unit-37Dr.Parul Bhatnagarimplement thestrategic plans thatare developed by thetopmanagement.Middlelevel focuses ondesigning andcontrolling the
  • productionprocessaccording tothe specificationslaid out in theproducts design; i.e.,the middlemanagersmust make sure theproduct conforms tospecifications.Middlelevelmanagement must
  • also design andimplement aneffectivepreventionandquality appraisalsystem for thevarious stages of theproductionprocess.Finally, theyare also responsible
  • for customer serviceprograms.SupervisoryManagement:Supervisors havethe responsibilityfordirecting andcontrolling theoperations in the
  • productionprocessdesigned bymiddlemanagement. Asthis level is the firstlineof management,supervisors time isspent in managingpersonnel such
  • asmachineoperators, serversand clerical staff.Direct qualitymonitoringandcontrol is done atthis level. As aresult, managers atsupervisorylevelhave the
  • responsibility ofidentifying andseeking solutionsforqualityproblems. Whenproblems areidentified,supervisorymanagement works withmiddle level to
  • correct andimprovetheproductionprocess. In mostcases supervisorymanagementcollects andreportsquality-related datato the qualitymanager or
  • appropriatemiddlemanager.Top Management Initiation ofQualityManagementProgram (i.e. settinggoals/strategicplanning)
  • MiddleManagement Implementation ofthe QualityManagementProgram SupervisoryManagement/Lower Level
  • Monitoring andControlling QualityProductionProcess/OperatorsFig. 1 Role ofManagement inAchieving Quality
  • TOOLS ANDTECHNIQUESOF TQMSome of the mostfrequently usedtechniques foridentifying thecauses of qualityproblems include
  • TDD-201 Unit-38Dr.Parul Bhatnagar
  • •Pareto Analysis:This is based onthe principle - thatmostqualityproblemsresult from a fewcauses. Thismethod identifiesthe causes
  • of quality problemsand corrects themajor causes bydevelopingafrequencydistribution fromthe data collected.Thisfrequencydistribution is referred as
  • Pareto diagram,which is a visualaid forfocusing onmajor qualityproblems.•Flowcharts:A flowchart is apictorialrepresentation of
  • the problem,whichis to be solved. It isa diagram of (hesteps involved in ajob,operation, orprocess. It enablesthe user inidentifying andsolvingqualityproblems by
  • representing themin the form ofsequential steps.• Check Sheets andHistograms:Check sheets arefrequently usedinconjunction withhistograms, as wellas with Pareto
  • diagrams. Acheck sheet is afact-finding toolthat is used tocollect data aboutqualityproblems. Ahistogram is a barchart showing thefrequencyof occurrence of
  • causes of defects.When the checksheet is completed,thetotal tally ofdefects for eachcause can be usedfor creating ahistogramor aPareto chart.•
  • Scatter Diagrams:These diagramsgraphically showtherelationshipbetween two variables in aprocess. Thisrelationship couldbe used toidentify aparticular quality
  • problem associatedwith the variables.• Process Control:Process controlinvolvesmonitoring aproductionprocessusing statisticalquality controlmethods. Control
  • chart includesahorizontal line,through the middleof a chartrepresenting theprocessmean ornorm. It also has aline below thismean linerepresenting
  • thelower controllimit and lineabove it for theupper control limit.Samplesfrom theprocess are thentaken over timeand measuredaccordingtospecific
  • standards. If themeasurement iswithin the controllimits, theprocess issaid to be undercontrol and there isno quality problem.•Cause-and-EffectDiagrams:
  • This is alsoreferred to as "fish-bone" *diagram,and it is a graphicaldescription ofelements of aspecificqualityproblem andthe relationshipbetween those
  • elements. Cause-and-effectdiagramsare usuallydeveloped as partof problem-solvingactivity tohelp ateam of workers,supervisors, andmanagers toidentify causes
  • of qualityproblems. This toolis a normal part ofthe problem-solving
  • TDD-201 Unit-39Dr.Parul Bhatnagaractivity of qualitycircles in Japanese
  • companies. Theseare thetools/techniquesused to improvethe quality inanyorganization forits survival in themarket Qualitypractices;however,would
  • shift the focus frominspection toprevention oferrors,eliminatingtheneed for theexpensive testingof the products asthey roll offtheassembly line.
  • ISO 9000With the wake ofspreading exportconsciousness,quality has takenanew meaning. Thecertificate -become essentialfor some exportstoEurope - means
  • that a unit hassystems in place toensureconsistentquality ofgoods and services.To cater thisdemand forcertificationtherehas been avirtual boom in the
  • number of firmsofferingqualityconsultancy.Due to this,certification hasbecome a lucrativebusiness.The costof certifying a unitranges from 30,000to 2 lakhs
  • dependingupon thesize andcomplexity ofoperations. Theinitial popularity ofISO9000 in thecountry came fromthe fear thatwithout thecertification
  • itwould not bepossible to exportto the EuropeanCommunity after1992.The initialbunch ofcompanies workedhard towardsimprovingtheirquality
  • systems. Theconcept of qualityunderlying ISO9000 is meetingcustomerrequirements. ISO 9000 is astandard for qualityassurance. ISO -theInternationalOrganization for
  • Standardization,which has itsheadquartersatGeneva,Switzerland, has asits members thenationalstandardsorganizations for more than90 countries. The
  • purpose of ISO isto seek to facilitatethe development ofglobal consensusagreementsoninternationalstandards forqualitymanagement. Forpractical purposes,
  • ithas resulted in asystem forcertifying suppliersto make sure thattheymeetinternationallyaccepted standardsfor qualitymanagement. In1979, the ISO
  • memberrepresenting theUnited Kingdom,theBritish StandardInstitute (BSI),recognizing theneed forstandardizationforqualitymanagement and
  • assurance,submitted a formalproposal toISO toform a technicalcommittee todevelopinternationalstandardsforqualityassurance
  • techniques andpractices. As aresultISO/TechnicalCommittee 176, orISO/TC 176referred to as"QualityAssurance"wasformed. Using
  • standards thatalready existed inthe UnitedKingdom and
  • TDD-201 Unit-310Dr.Parul Bhatnagar
  • Canada as a basis,this committee setout to establishgenericqualitystandardsprimarily formanufacturingfirms that could beusedworldwide. Th
  • e ISO 9000 seriesof qualitymanagement andassurancestandards, developed by theISO/TechnicalCommittee 176over a periodofseven years and
  • first published in1987, consists offoursubsections,ISO9001, 9002, 9003and 90TDD-201 Unit-37Dr.Parul Bhatnagarimplement thestrategic plans that
  • are developed by thetopmanagement.Middlelevel focuses ondesigning andcontrolling theproductionprocessaccording tothe specificationslaid out in theproducts design; i.e.,
  • the middlemanagersmust make sure theproduct conforms tospecifications.Middlelevelmanagement mustalso design andimplement aneffectivepreventionandquality appraisal
  • system for thevarious stages of theproductionprocess.Finally, theyare also responsiblefor customer serviceprograms.SupervisoryManagement:
  • Supervisors havethe responsibilityfordirecting andcontrolling theoperations in theproductionprocessdesigned bymiddlemanagement. Asthis level is the first
  • lineof management,supervisors time isspent in managingpersonnel suchasmachineoperators, serversand clerical staff.Direct qualitymonitoringand
  • control is done atthis level. As aresult, managers atsupervisorylevelhave theresponsibility ofidentifying andseeking solutionsforqualityproblems. When
  • problems areidentified,supervisorymanagement works withmiddle level tocorrect andimprovetheproductionprocess. In mostcases supervisory
  • managementcollects andreportsquality-related datato the qualitymanager orappropriatemiddlemanager.Top Management Initiation ofQuality
  • ManagementProgram (i.e. settinggoals/strategicplanning) MiddleManagement Implementation ofthe QualityManagementProgram
  • SupervisoryManagement/Lower Level Monitoring andControlling Quality ProductionProcess/OperatorsFig. 1 Role ofManagement inAchieving Quality
  • TOOLS ANDTECHNIQUESOF TQMSome of the mostfrequently usedtechniques foridentifying thecauses of qualityproblems include
  • TDD-201 Unit-38Dr.Parul Bhatnagar
  • •Pareto Analysis:This is based onthe principle - thatmostqualityproblemsresult from a fewcauses. Thismethod identifiesthe causes
  • of quality problemsand corrects themajor causes bydevelopingafrequencydistribution fromthe data collected.Thisfrequencydistribution is referred as
  • Pareto diagram,which is a visualaid forfocusing onmajor qualityproblems.•Flowcharts:A flowchart is apictorialrepresentation of
  • the problem,whichis to be solved. It isa diagram of (hesteps involved in ajob,operation, orprocess. It enablesthe user inidentifying andsolvingqualityproblems by
  • representing themin the form ofsequential steps.• Check Sheets andHistograms:Check sheets arefrequently usedinconjunction withhistograms, as wellas with Pareto
  • diagrams. Acheck sheet is afact-finding toolthat is used tocollect data aboutqualityproblems. Ahistogram is a barchart showing thefrequencyof occurrence of
  • causes of defects.When the checksheet is completed,thetotal tally ofdefects for eachcause can be usedfor creating ahistogramor aPareto chart.•
  • Scatter Diagrams:These diagramsgraphically showtherelationshipbetween two variables in aprocess. Thisrelationship couldbe used toidentify aparticular quality
  • problem associatedwith the variables.• Process Control:Process controlinvolvesmonitoring aproductionprocessusing statisticalquality controlmethods. Control
  • chart includesahorizontal line,through the middleof a chartrepresenting theprocessmean ornorm. It also has aline below thismean linerepresenting
  • thelower controllimit and lineabove it for theupper control limit.Samplesfrom theprocess are thentaken over timeand measuredaccordingtospecific
  • standards. If themeasurement iswithin the controllimits, theprocess issaid to be undercontrol and there isno quality problem.•Cause-and-EffectDiagrams:
  • This is alsoreferred to as "fish-bone" *diagram,and it is a graphicaldescription ofelements of aspecificqualityproblem andthe relationshipbetween those
  • elements. Cause-and-effectdiagramsare usuallydeveloped as partof problem-solvingactivity tohelp ateam of workers,supervisors, andmanagers toidentify causes
  • of qualityproblems. This toolis a normal part ofthe problem-solving
  • TDD-201 Unit-39Dr.Parul Bhatnagaractivity of qualitycircles in Japanese
  • companies. Theseare thetools/techniquesused to improvethe quality inanyorganization forits survival in themarket Qualitypractices;however,would
  • shift the focus frominspection toprevention oferrors,eliminatingtheneed for theexpensive testingof the products asthey roll offtheassembly line.
  • ISO 9000With the wake ofspreading exportconsciousness,quality has takenanew meaning. Thecertificate -become essentialfor some exportstoEurope - means
  • that a unit hassystems in place toensureconsistentquality ofgoods and services.To cater thisdemand forcertificationtherehas been avirtual boom in the
  • number of firmsofferingqualityconsultancy.Due to this,certification hasbecome a lucrativebusiness.The costof certifying a unitranges from 30,000to 2 lakhs
  • dependingupon thesize andcomplexity ofoperations. Theinitial popularity ofISO9000 in thecountry came fromthe fear thatwithout thecertification
  • itwould not bepossible to exportto the EuropeanCommunity after1992.The initialbunch ofcompanies workedhard towardsimprovingtheirquality
  • systems. Theconcept of qualityunderlying ISO9000 is meetingcustomerrequirements. ISO 9000 is astandard for qualityassurance. ISO -theInternationalOrganization for
  • Standardization,which has itsheadquartersatGeneva,Switzerland, has asits members thenationalstandardsorganizations for more than90 countries. The
  • purpose of ISO isto seek to facilitatethe development ofglobal consensusagreementsoninternationalstandards forqualitymanagement. Forpractical purposes,
  • ithas resulted in asystem forcertifying suppliersto make sure thattheymeetinternationallyaccepted standardsfor qualitymanagement. In1979, the ISO
  • memberrepresenting theUnited Kingdom,theBritish StandardInstitute (BSI),recognizing theneed forstandardizationforqualitymanagement and
  • assurance,submitted a formalproposal toISO toform a technicalcommittee todevelopinternationalstandardsforqualityassurance
  • techniques andpractices. As aresultISO/TechnicalCommittee 176, orISO/TC 176referred to as"QualityAssurance"wasformed. Using
  • standards thatalready existed inthe UnitedKingdom and
  • TDD-201 Unit-310Dr.Parul BhatnagarCanada as a basis,this committee set
  • out to establishgenericqualitystandardsprimarily formanufacturingfirms that could beusedworldwide. The ISO 9000 seriesof qualitymanagement and
  • assurancestandards, developed by theISO/TechnicalCommittee 176over a periodofseven years andfirst published in1987, consists offoursubsections,ISO
  • 9001, 9002, 9003and 90TDD-201 Unit-37Dr.Parul Bhatnagarimplement thestrategic plans thatare developed by thetopmanagement.Middlelevel focuses on
  • designing andcontrolling theproductionprocessaccording tothe specificationslaid out in theproducts design; i.e.,the middlemanagersmust make sure theproduct conforms tospecifications.
  • Middlelevelmanagement mustalso design andimplement aneffectivepreventionandquality appraisalsystem for thevarious stages of theproductionprocess.Finally, they
  • are also responsiblefor customer serviceprograms.SupervisoryManagement:Supervisors havethe responsibilityfordirecting andcontrolling the
  • operations in theproductionprocessdesigned bymiddlemanagement. Asthis level is the firstlineof management,supervisors time isspent in managing
  • personnel suchasmachineoperators, serversand clerical staff.Direct qualitymonitoringandcontrol is done atthis level. As aresult, managers atsupervisorylevel
  • have theresponsibility ofidentifying andseeking solutionsforqualityproblems. Whenproblems areidentified,supervisorymanagement works with
  • middle level tocorrect andimprovetheproductionprocess. In mostcases supervisorymanagementcollects andreportsquality-related datato the quality
  • manager orappropriatemiddlemanager.Top Management Initiation ofQualityManagementProgram (i.e. settinggoals/strategicplanning)
  • MiddleManagement Implementation ofthe QualityManagementProgram SupervisoryManagement/Lower Level
  • Monitoring andControlling QualityProductionProcess/OperatorsFig. 1 Role ofManagement inAchieving Quality
  • TOOLS ANDTECHNIQUESOF TQMSome of the mostfrequently usedtechniques foridentifying thecauses of qualityproblems include
  • TDD-201 Unit-38Dr.Parul Bhatnagar
  • •Pareto Analysis:This is based onthe principle - thatmostqualityproblemsresult from a fewcauses. Thismethod identifiesthe causes
  • of quality problemsand corrects themajor causes bydevelopingafrequencydistribution fromthe data collected.Thisfrequencydistribution is referred as
  • Pareto diagram,which is a visualaid forfocusing onmajor qualityproblems.•Flowcharts:A flowchart is apictorialrepresentation of
  • the problem,whichis to be solved. It isa diagram of (hesteps involved in ajob,operation, orprocess. It enablesthe user inidentifying andsolvingqualityproblems by
  • representing themin the form ofsequential steps.• Check Sheets andHistograms:Check sheets arefrequently usedinconjunction withhistograms, as wellas with Pareto
  • diagrams. Acheck sheet is afact-finding toolthat is used tocollect data aboutqualityproblems. Ahistogram is a barchart showing thefrequencyof occurrence of
  • causes of defects.When the checksheet is completed,thetotal tally ofdefects for eachcause can be usedfor creating ahistogramor aPareto chart.•
  • Scatter Diagrams:These diagramsgraphically showtherelationshipbetween two variables in aprocess. Thisrelationship couldbe used toidentify aparticular quality
  • problem associatedwith the variables.• Process Control:Process controlinvolvesmonitoring aproductionprocessusing statisticalquality controlmethods. Control
  • chart includesahorizontal line,through the middleof a chartrepresenting theprocessmean ornorm. It also has aline below thismean linerepresenting
  • thelower controllimit and lineabove it for theupper control limit.Samplesfrom theprocess are thentaken over timeand measuredaccordingtospecific
  • standards. If themeasurement iswithin the controllimits, theprocess issaid to be undercontrol and there isno quality problem.•Cause-and-EffectDiagrams:
  • This is alsoreferred to as "fish-bone" *diagram,and it is a graphicaldescription ofelements of aspecificqualityproblem andthe relationshipbetween those
  • elements. Cause-and-effectdiagramsare usuallydeveloped as partof problem-solvingactivity tohelp ateam of workers,supervisors, andmanagers toidentify causes
  • of qualityproblems. This toolis a normal part ofthe problem-solving
  • TDD-201 Unit-39Dr.Parul Bhatnagaractivity of qualitycircles in Japanese
  • companies. Theseare thetools/techniquesused to improvethe quality inanyorganization forits survival in themarket Qualitypractices;however,would
  • shift the focus frominspection toprevention oferrors,eliminatingtheneed for theexpensive testingof the products asthey roll offtheassembly line.
  • ISO 9000With the wake ofspreading exportconsciousness,quality has takenanew meaning. Thecertificate -become essentialfor some exportstoEurope - means
  • that a unit hassystems in place toensureconsistentquality ofgoods and services.To cater thisdemand forcertificationtherehas been avirtual boom in the
  • number of firmsofferingqualityconsultancy.Due to this,certification hasbecome a lucrativebusiness.The costof certifying a unitranges from 30,000to 2 lakhs
  • dependingupon thesize andcomplexity ofoperations. Theinitial popularity ofISO9000 in thecountry came fromthe fear thatwithout thecertification
  • itwould not bepossible to exportto the EuropeanCommunity after1992.The initialbunch ofcompanies workedhard towardsimprovingtheirquality
  • systems. Theconcept of qualityunderlying ISO9000 is meetingcustomerrequirements. ISO 9000 is astandard for qualityassurance. ISO -theInternationalOrganization for
  • Standardization,which has itsheadquartersatGeneva,Switzerland, has asits members thenationalstandardsorganizations for more than90 countries. The
  • purpose of ISO isto seek to facilitatethe development ofglobal consensusagreementsoninternationalstandards forqualitymanagement. Forpractical purposes,
  • ithas resulted in asystem forcertifying suppliersto make sure thattheymeetinternationallyaccepted standardsfor qualitymanagement. In1979, the ISO
  • memberrepresenting theUnited Kingdom,theBritish StandardInstitute (BSI),recognizing theneed forstandardizationforqualitymanagement and
  • assurance,submitted a formalproposal toISO toform a technicalcommittee todevelopinternationalstandardsforqualityassurance
  • techniques andpractices. As aresultISO/TechnicalCommittee 176, orISO/TC 176referred to as"QualityAssurance"wasformed. Using
  • standards thatalready existed inthe UnitedKingdom and
  • TDD-201 Unit-310Dr.Parul BhatnagarCanada as a basis,this committee set
  • out to establishgenericqualitystandardsprimarily formanufacturingfirms that could beusedworldwide. The ISO 9000 seriesof qualitymanagement and
  • assurancestandards, developed by theISO/TechnicalCommittee 176over a periodofseven years andfirst published in1987, consists offoursubsections,ISO
  • 9001, 9002, 9003and 90-201 Unit-37Dr. ParulBhatnagarimplement thestrategic plans thatare developed by thetopmanagement.Middlelevel focuses ondesigning and
  • controlling theproductionprocessaccording tothe specificationslaid out in theproducts design; i.e.,the middlemanagersmust make sure theproduct conforms tospecifications.Middlelevel
  • management mustalso design andimplement aneffectivepreventionandquality appraisalsystem for thevarious stages of theproductionprocess.Finally, theyare also responsible
  • for customer serviceprograms.SupervisoryManagement:Supervisors havethe responsibilityfordirecting andcontrolling theoperations in the
  • productionprocessdesigned bymiddlemanagement. Asthis level is the firstlineof management,supervisors time isspent in managingpersonnel such
  • asmachineoperators, serversand clerical staff.Direct qualitymonitoringandcontrol is done atthis level. As aresult, managers atsupervisorylevelhave the
  • responsibility ofidentifying andseeking solutionsforqualityproblems. Whenproblems areidentified,supervisorymanagement works withmiddle level to
  • correct andimprovetheproductionprocess. In mostcases supervisorymanagementcollects andreportsquality-related datato the qualitymanager or
  • appropriatemiddlemanager.Top Management Initiation ofQualityManagementProgram (i.e. settinggoals/strategicplanning)
  • MiddleManagement Implementation ofthe QualityManagementProgram SupervisoryManagement/Lower Level
  • Monitoring andControlling QualityProductionProcess/OperatorsFig. 1 Role ofManagement inAchieving Quality
  • TOOLS ANDTECHNIQUESOF TQMSome of the mostfrequently usedtechniques foridentifying thecauses of qualityproblems include
  • TDD-201 Unit-38Dr.Parul Bhatnagar
  • •Pareto Analysis:This is based onthe principle - thatmostqualityproblemsresult from a fewcauses. Thismethod identifiesthe causes
  • of quality problemsand corrects themajor causes bydevelopingafrequencydistribution fromthe data collected.Thisfrequencydistribution is referred as
  • Pareto diagram,which is a visualaid forfocusing onmajor qualityproblems.•Flowcharts:A flowchart is apictorialrepresentation of
  • the problem,whichis to be solved. It isa diagram of (hesteps involved in ajob,operation, orprocess. It enablesthe user inidentifying andsolvingqualityproblems by
  • representing themin the form ofsequential steps.• Check Sheets andHistograms:Check sheets arefrequently usedinconjunction withhistograms, as wellas with Pareto
  • diagrams. Acheck sheet is afact-finding toolthat is used tocollect data aboutqualityproblems. Ahistogram is a barchart showing thefrequencyof occurrence of
  • causes of defects.When the checksheet is completed,thetotal tally ofdefects for eachcause can be usedfor creating ahistogramor aPareto chart.•
  • Scatter Diagrams:These diagramsgraphically showtherelationshipbetween two variables in aprocess. Thisrelationship couldbe used toidentify aparticular quality
  • problem associatedwith the variables.• Process Control:Process controlinvolvesmonitoring aproductionprocessusing statisticalquality controlmethods. Control
  • chart includesahorizontal line,through the middleof a chartrepresenting theprocessmean ornorm. It also has aline below thismean linerepresenting
  • thelower controllimit and lineabove it for theupper control limit.Samplesfrom theprocess are thentaken over timeand measuredaccordingtospecific
  • standards. If themeasurement iswithin the controllimits, theprocess issaid to be undercontrol and there isno quality problem.•Cause-and-EffectDiagrams:
  • This is alsoreferred to as "fish-bone" *diagram,and it is a graphicaldescription ofelements of aspecificqualityproblem andthe relationshipbetween those
  • elements. Cause-and-effectdiagramsare usuallydeveloped as partof problem-solvingactivity tohelp ateam of workers,supervisors, andmanagers toidentify causes
  • of qualityproblems. This toolis a normal part ofthe problem-solving
  • TDD-201 Unit-39Dr.Parul Bhatnagaractivity of qualitycircles in Japanese
  • companies. Theseare thetools/techniquesused to improvethe quality inanyorganization forits survival in themarket Qualitypractices;however,would
  • shift the focus frominspection toprevention oferrors,eliminatingtheneed for theexpensive testingof the products asthey roll offtheassembly line.
  • ISO 9000With the wake ofspreading exportconsciousness,quality has takenanew meaning. Thecertificate -become essentialfor some exportstoEurope - means
  • that a unit hassystems in place toensureconsistentquality ofgoods and services.To cater thisdemand forcertificationtherehas been avirtual boom in the
  • number of firmsofferingqualityconsultancy.Due to this,certification hasbecome a lucrativebusiness.The costof certifying a unitranges from 30,000to 2 lakhs
  • dependingupon thesize andcomplexity ofoperations. Theinitial popularity ofISO9000 in thecountry came fromthe fear thatwithout thecertification
  • itwould not bepossible to exportto the EuropeanCommunity after1992.The initialbunch ofcompanies workedhard towardsimprovingtheirquality
  • systems. Theconcept of qualityunderlying ISO9000 is meetingcustomerrequirements. ISO 9000 is astandard for qualityassurance. ISO -theInternationalOrganization for
  • Standardization,which has itsheadquartersatGeneva,Switzerland, has asits members thenationalstandardsorganizations for more than90 countries. The
  • purpose of ISO isto seek to facilitatethe development ofglobal consensusagreementsoninternationalstandards forqualitymanagement. Forpractical purposes,
  • ithas resulted in asystem forcertifying suppliersto make sure thattheymeetinternationallyaccepted standardsfor qualitymanagement. In1979, the ISO
  • memberrepresenting theUnited Kingdom,theBritish StandardInstitute (BSI),recognizing theneed forstandardizationforqualitymanagement and
  • assurance,submitted a formalproposal toISO toform a technicalcommittee todevelopinternationalstandardsforqualityassurance
  • techniques andpractices. As aresultISO/TechnicalCommittee 176, orISO/TC 176referred to as"QualityAssurance"wasformed. Using
  • standards thatalready existed inthe UnitedKingdom and
  • TDD-201 Unit-310Dr.Parul BhatnagarCanada as a basis,this committee set
  • out to establishgenericqualitystandardsprimarily formanufacturingfirms that could beusedworldwide. The ISO 9000 seriesof qualitymanagement and
  • assurancestandards, developed by theISO/TechnicalCommittee 176over a periodofseven years andfirst published in1987, consists offoursubsections,ISO
  • 9001, 9002, 9003and 90TDD-201 Unit-37Dr.Parul Bhatnagarimplement thestrategic plans thatare developed by thetopmanagement.Middlelevel focuses ondesigning and
  • controlling theproductionprocessaccording tothe specificationslaid out in theproducts design; i.e.,the middlemanagersmust make sure theproduct conforms tospecifications.Middlelevel
  • management mustalso design andimplement aneffectivepreventionandquality appraisalsystem for thevarious stages of theproductionprocess.Finally, theyare also responsible
  • for customer serviceprograms.SupervisoryManagement:Supervisors havethe responsibilityfordirecting andcontrolling theoperations in the
  • productionprocessdesigned bymiddlemanagement. Asthis level is the firstlineof management,supervisors time isspent in managingpersonnel such
  • asmachineoperators, serversand clerical staff.Direct qualitymonitoringandcontrol is done atthis level. As aresult, managers atsupervisorylevelhave the
  • responsibility ofidentifying andseeking solutionsforqualityproblems. Whenproblems areidentified,supervisorymanagement works withmiddle level to
  • correct andimprovetheproductionprocess. In mostcases supervisorymanagementcollects andreportsquality-related datato the qualitymanager or
  • appropriatemiddlemanager.Top Management Initiation ofQualityManagementProgram (i.e. settinggoals/strategicplanning)
  • MiddleManagement Implementation ofthe QualityManagementProgram SupervisoryManagement/Lower Level
  • Monitoring andControlling QualityProductionProcess/OperatorsFig. 1 Role ofManagement inAchieving Quality
  • TOOLS ANDTECHNIQUESOF TQMSome of the mostfrequently usedtechniques foridentifying thecauses of qualityproblems include
  • TDD-201 Unit-38Dr.Parul Bhatnagar
  • •Pareto Analysis:This is based onthe principle - thatmostqualityproblemsresult from a fewcauses. Thismethod identifiesthe causes
  • of quality problemsand corrects themajor causes bydevelopingafrequencydistribution fromthe data collected.Thisfrequencydistribution is referred as
  • Pareto diagram,which is a visualaid forfocusing onmajor qualityproblems.•Flowcharts:A flowchart is apictorialrepresentation of
  • the problem,whichis to be solved. It isa diagram of (hesteps involved in ajob,operation, orprocess. It enablesthe user inidentifying andsolvingqualityproblems by
  • representing themin the form ofsequential steps.• Check Sheets andHistograms:Check sheets arefrequently usedinconjunction withhistograms, as wellas with Pareto
  • diagrams. Acheck sheet is afact-finding toolthat is used tocollect data aboutqualityproblems. Ahistogram is a barchart showing thefrequencyof occurrence of
  • causes of defects.When the checksheet is completed,thetotal tally ofdefects for eachcause can be usedfor creating ahistogramor aPareto chart.•
  • Scatter Diagrams:These diagramsgraphically showtherelationshipbetween two variables in aprocess. Thisrelationship couldbe used toidentify aparticular quality
  • problem associatedwith the variables.• Process Control:Process controlinvolvesmonitoring aproductionprocessusing statisticalquality controlmethods. Control
  • chart includesahorizontal line,through the middleof a chartrepresenting theprocessmean ornorm. It also has aline below thismean linerepresenting
  • thelower controllimit and lineabove it for theupper control limit.Samplesfrom theprocess are thentaken over timeand measuredaccordingtospecific
  • standards. If themeasurement iswithin the controllimits, theprocess issaid to be undercontrol and there isno quality problem.•Cause-and-EffectDiagrams:
  • This is alsoreferred to as "fish-bone" *diagram,and it is a graphicaldescription ofelements of aspecificqualityproblem andthe relationshipbetween those
  • elements. Cause-and-effectdiagramsare usuallydeveloped as partof problem-solvingactivity tohelp ateam of workers,supervisors, andmanagers toidentify causes
  • of qualityproblems. This toolis a normal part ofthe problem-solving
  • TDD-201 Unit-39Dr.Parul Bhatnagaractivity of qualitycircles in Japanese
  • companies. Theseare thetools/techniquesused to improvethe quality inanyorganization forits survival in themarket Qualitypractices;however,would
  • shift the focus frominspection toprevention oferrors,eliminatingtheneed for theexpensive testingof the products asthey roll offtheassembly line.
  • ISO 9000With the wake ofspreading exportconsciousness,quality has takenanew meaning. Thecertificate -become essentialfor some exportstoEurope - means
  • that a unit hassystems in place toensureconsistentquality ofgoods and services.To cater thisdemand forcertificationtherehas been avirtual boom in the
  • number of firmsofferingqualityconsultancy.Due to this,certification hasbecome a lucrativebusiness.The costof certifying a unitranges from 30,000to 2 lakhs
  • dependingupon thesize andcomplexity ofoperations. Theinitial popularity ofISO9000 in thecountry came fromthe fear thatwithout thecertification
  • itwould not bepossible to exportto the EuropeanCommunity after1992.The initialbunch ofcompanies workedhard towardsimprovingtheirquality
  • systems. Theconcept of qualityunderlying ISO9000 is meetingcustomerrequirements. ISO 9000 is astandard for qualityassurance. ISO -theInternationalOrganization for
  • Standardization,which has itsheadquartersatGeneva,Switzerland, has asits members thenationalstandardsorganizations for more than90 countries. The
  • purpose of ISO isto seek to facilitatethe development ofglobal consensusagreementsoninternationalstandards forqualitymanagement. Forpractical purposes,
  • ithas resulted in asystem forcertifying suppliersto make sure thattheymeetinternationallyaccepted standardsfor qualitymanagement. In1979, the ISO
  • memberrepresenting theUnited Kingdom,theBritish StandardInstitute (BSI),recognizing theneed forstandardizationforqualitymanagement and
  • assurance,submitted a formalproposal toISO toform a technicalcommittee todevelopinternationalstandardsforqualityassurance
  • techniques andpractices. As aresultISO/TechnicalCommittee 176, orISO/TC 176referred to as"QualityAssurance"wasformed. Using
  • standards thatalready existed inthe UnitedKingdom and
  • TDD-201 Unit-310Dr.Parul BhatnagarCanada as a basis,this committee set
  • out to establishgenericqualitystandardsprimarily formanufacturingfirms that could beusedworldwide. The ISO 9000 seriesof qualitymanagement and
  • assurancestandards, developed by theISO/TechnicalCommittee 176over a periodofseven years andfirst published in1987, consists offoursubsections,ISO
  • 9001, 9002, 9003and 90