Tdd

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Tdd

  1. 1. TDDTDD-201 Unit-37Dr.Parul Bhatnagarimplement thestrategic plans thatare developed by thetopmanagement.Middlelevel focuses ondesigning andcontrolling the
  2. 2. productionprocessaccording tothe specificationslaid out in theproducts design; i.e.,the middlemanagersmust make sure theproduct conforms tospecifications.Middlelevelmanagement must
  3. 3. also design andimplement aneffectivepreventionandquality appraisalsystem for thevarious stages of theproductionprocess.Finally, theyare also responsible
  4. 4. for customer serviceprograms.SupervisoryManagement:Supervisors havethe responsibilityfordirecting andcontrolling theoperations in the
  5. 5. productionprocessdesigned bymiddlemanagement. Asthis level is the firstlineof management,supervisors time isspent in managingpersonnel such
  6. 6. asmachineoperators, serversand clerical staff.Direct qualitymonitoringandcontrol is done atthis level. As aresult, managers atsupervisorylevelhave the
  7. 7. responsibility ofidentifying andseeking solutionsforqualityproblems. Whenproblems areidentified,supervisorymanagement works withmiddle level to
  8. 8. correct andimprovetheproductionprocess. In mostcases supervisorymanagementcollects andreportsquality-related datato the qualitymanager or
  9. 9. appropriatemiddlemanager.Top Management Initiation ofQualityManagementProgram (i.e. settinggoals/strategicplanning)
  10. 10. MiddleManagement Implementation ofthe QualityManagementProgram SupervisoryManagement/Lower Level
  11. 11. Monitoring andControlling QualityProductionProcess/OperatorsFig. 1 Role ofManagement inAchieving Quality
  12. 12. TOOLS ANDTECHNIQUESOF TQMSome of the mostfrequently usedtechniques foridentifying thecauses of qualityproblems include
  13. 13. TDD-201 Unit-38Dr.Parul Bhatnagar
  14. 14. •Pareto Analysis:This is based onthe principle - thatmostqualityproblemsresult from a fewcauses. Thismethod identifiesthe causes
  15. 15. of quality problemsand corrects themajor causes bydevelopingafrequencydistribution fromthe data collected.Thisfrequencydistribution is referred as
  16. 16. Pareto diagram,which is a visualaid forfocusing onmajor qualityproblems.•Flowcharts:A flowchart is apictorialrepresentation of
  17. 17. the problem,whichis to be solved. It isa diagram of (hesteps involved in ajob,operation, orprocess. It enablesthe user inidentifying andsolvingqualityproblems by
  18. 18. representing themin the form ofsequential steps.• Check Sheets andHistograms:Check sheets arefrequently usedinconjunction withhistograms, as wellas with Pareto
  19. 19. diagrams. Acheck sheet is afact-finding toolthat is used tocollect data aboutqualityproblems. Ahistogram is a barchart showing thefrequencyof occurrence of
  20. 20. causes of defects.When the checksheet is completed,thetotal tally ofdefects for eachcause can be usedfor creating ahistogramor aPareto chart.•
  21. 21. Scatter Diagrams:These diagramsgraphically showtherelationshipbetween two variables in aprocess. Thisrelationship couldbe used toidentify aparticular quality
  22. 22. problem associatedwith the variables.• Process Control:Process controlinvolvesmonitoring aproductionprocessusing statisticalquality controlmethods. Control
  23. 23. chart includesahorizontal line,through the middleof a chartrepresenting theprocessmean ornorm. It also has aline below thismean linerepresenting
  24. 24. thelower controllimit and lineabove it for theupper control limit.Samplesfrom theprocess are thentaken over timeand measuredaccordingtospecific
  25. 25. standards. If themeasurement iswithin the controllimits, theprocess issaid to be undercontrol and there isno quality problem.•Cause-and-EffectDiagrams:
  26. 26. This is alsoreferred to as "fish-bone" *diagram,and it is a graphicaldescription ofelements of aspecificqualityproblem andthe relationshipbetween those
  27. 27. elements. Cause-and-effectdiagramsare usuallydeveloped as partof problem-solvingactivity tohelp ateam of workers,supervisors, andmanagers toidentify causes
  28. 28. of qualityproblems. This toolis a normal part ofthe problem-solving
  29. 29. TDD-201 Unit-39Dr.Parul Bhatnagaractivity of qualitycircles in Japanese
  30. 30. companies. Theseare thetools/techniquesused to improvethe quality inanyorganization forits survival in themarket Qualitypractices;however,would
  31. 31. shift the focus frominspection toprevention oferrors,eliminatingtheneed for theexpensive testingof the products asthey roll offtheassembly line.
  32. 32. ISO 9000With the wake ofspreading exportconsciousness,quality has takenanew meaning. Thecertificate -become essentialfor some exportstoEurope - means
  33. 33. that a unit hassystems in place toensureconsistentquality ofgoods and services.To cater thisdemand forcertificationtherehas been avirtual boom in the
  34. 34. number of firmsofferingqualityconsultancy.Due to this,certification hasbecome a lucrativebusiness.The costof certifying a unitranges from 30,000to 2 lakhs
  35. 35. dependingupon thesize andcomplexity ofoperations. Theinitial popularity ofISO9000 in thecountry came fromthe fear thatwithout thecertification
  36. 36. itwould not bepossible to exportto the EuropeanCommunity after1992.The initialbunch ofcompanies workedhard towardsimprovingtheirquality
  37. 37. systems. Theconcept of qualityunderlying ISO9000 is meetingcustomerrequirements. ISO 9000 is astandard for qualityassurance. ISO -theInternationalOrganization for
  38. 38. Standardization,which has itsheadquartersatGeneva,Switzerland, has asits members thenationalstandardsorganizations for more than90 countries. The
  39. 39. purpose of ISO isto seek to facilitatethe development ofglobal consensusagreementsoninternationalstandards forqualitymanagement. Forpractical purposes,
  40. 40. ithas resulted in asystem forcertifying suppliersto make sure thattheymeetinternationallyaccepted standardsfor qualitymanagement. In1979, the ISO
  41. 41. memberrepresenting theUnited Kingdom,theBritish StandardInstitute (BSI),recognizing theneed forstandardizationforqualitymanagement and
  42. 42. assurance,submitted a formalproposal toISO toform a technicalcommittee todevelopinternationalstandardsforqualityassurance
  43. 43. techniques andpractices. As aresultISO/TechnicalCommittee 176, orISO/TC 176referred to as"QualityAssurance"wasformed. Using
  44. 44. standards thatalready existed inthe UnitedKingdom and
  45. 45. TDD-201 Unit-310Dr.Parul Bhatnagar
  46. 46. Canada as a basis,this committee setout to establishgenericqualitystandardsprimarily formanufacturingfirms that could beusedworldwide. Th
  47. 47. e ISO 9000 seriesof qualitymanagement andassurancestandards, developed by theISO/TechnicalCommittee 176over a periodofseven years and
  48. 48. first published in1987, consists offoursubsections,ISO9001, 9002, 9003and 90TDD-201 Unit-37Dr.Parul Bhatnagarimplement thestrategic plans that
  49. 49. are developed by thetopmanagement.Middlelevel focuses ondesigning andcontrolling theproductionprocessaccording tothe specificationslaid out in theproducts design; i.e.,
  50. 50. the middlemanagersmust make sure theproduct conforms tospecifications.Middlelevelmanagement mustalso design andimplement aneffectivepreventionandquality appraisal
  51. 51. system for thevarious stages of theproductionprocess.Finally, theyare also responsiblefor customer serviceprograms.SupervisoryManagement:
  52. 52. Supervisors havethe responsibilityfordirecting andcontrolling theoperations in theproductionprocessdesigned bymiddlemanagement. Asthis level is the first
  53. 53. lineof management,supervisors time isspent in managingpersonnel suchasmachineoperators, serversand clerical staff.Direct qualitymonitoringand
  54. 54. control is done atthis level. As aresult, managers atsupervisorylevelhave theresponsibility ofidentifying andseeking solutionsforqualityproblems. When
  55. 55. problems areidentified,supervisorymanagement works withmiddle level tocorrect andimprovetheproductionprocess. In mostcases supervisory
  56. 56. managementcollects andreportsquality-related datato the qualitymanager orappropriatemiddlemanager.Top Management Initiation ofQuality
  57. 57. ManagementProgram (i.e. settinggoals/strategicplanning) MiddleManagement Implementation ofthe QualityManagementProgram
  58. 58. SupervisoryManagement/Lower Level Monitoring andControlling Quality ProductionProcess/OperatorsFig. 1 Role ofManagement inAchieving Quality
  59. 59. TOOLS ANDTECHNIQUESOF TQMSome of the mostfrequently usedtechniques foridentifying thecauses of qualityproblems include
  60. 60. TDD-201 Unit-38Dr.Parul Bhatnagar
  61. 61. •Pareto Analysis:This is based onthe principle - thatmostqualityproblemsresult from a fewcauses. Thismethod identifiesthe causes
  62. 62. of quality problemsand corrects themajor causes bydevelopingafrequencydistribution fromthe data collected.Thisfrequencydistribution is referred as
  63. 63. Pareto diagram,which is a visualaid forfocusing onmajor qualityproblems.•Flowcharts:A flowchart is apictorialrepresentation of
  64. 64. the problem,whichis to be solved. It isa diagram of (hesteps involved in ajob,operation, orprocess. It enablesthe user inidentifying andsolvingqualityproblems by
  65. 65. representing themin the form ofsequential steps.• Check Sheets andHistograms:Check sheets arefrequently usedinconjunction withhistograms, as wellas with Pareto
  66. 66. diagrams. Acheck sheet is afact-finding toolthat is used tocollect data aboutqualityproblems. Ahistogram is a barchart showing thefrequencyof occurrence of
  67. 67. causes of defects.When the checksheet is completed,thetotal tally ofdefects for eachcause can be usedfor creating ahistogramor aPareto chart.•
  68. 68. Scatter Diagrams:These diagramsgraphically showtherelationshipbetween two variables in aprocess. Thisrelationship couldbe used toidentify aparticular quality
  69. 69. problem associatedwith the variables.• Process Control:Process controlinvolvesmonitoring aproductionprocessusing statisticalquality controlmethods. Control
  70. 70. chart includesahorizontal line,through the middleof a chartrepresenting theprocessmean ornorm. It also has aline below thismean linerepresenting
  71. 71. thelower controllimit and lineabove it for theupper control limit.Samplesfrom theprocess are thentaken over timeand measuredaccordingtospecific
  72. 72. standards. If themeasurement iswithin the controllimits, theprocess issaid to be undercontrol and there isno quality problem.•Cause-and-EffectDiagrams:
  73. 73. This is alsoreferred to as "fish-bone" *diagram,and it is a graphicaldescription ofelements of aspecificqualityproblem andthe relationshipbetween those
  74. 74. elements. Cause-and-effectdiagramsare usuallydeveloped as partof problem-solvingactivity tohelp ateam of workers,supervisors, andmanagers toidentify causes
  75. 75. of qualityproblems. This toolis a normal part ofthe problem-solving
  76. 76. TDD-201 Unit-39Dr.Parul Bhatnagaractivity of qualitycircles in Japanese
  77. 77. companies. Theseare thetools/techniquesused to improvethe quality inanyorganization forits survival in themarket Qualitypractices;however,would
  78. 78. shift the focus frominspection toprevention oferrors,eliminatingtheneed for theexpensive testingof the products asthey roll offtheassembly line.
  79. 79. ISO 9000With the wake ofspreading exportconsciousness,quality has takenanew meaning. Thecertificate -become essentialfor some exportstoEurope - means
  80. 80. that a unit hassystems in place toensureconsistentquality ofgoods and services.To cater thisdemand forcertificationtherehas been avirtual boom in the
  81. 81. number of firmsofferingqualityconsultancy.Due to this,certification hasbecome a lucrativebusiness.The costof certifying a unitranges from 30,000to 2 lakhs
  82. 82. dependingupon thesize andcomplexity ofoperations. Theinitial popularity ofISO9000 in thecountry came fromthe fear thatwithout thecertification
  83. 83. itwould not bepossible to exportto the EuropeanCommunity after1992.The initialbunch ofcompanies workedhard towardsimprovingtheirquality
  84. 84. systems. Theconcept of qualityunderlying ISO9000 is meetingcustomerrequirements. ISO 9000 is astandard for qualityassurance. ISO -theInternationalOrganization for
  85. 85. Standardization,which has itsheadquartersatGeneva,Switzerland, has asits members thenationalstandardsorganizations for more than90 countries. The
  86. 86. purpose of ISO isto seek to facilitatethe development ofglobal consensusagreementsoninternationalstandards forqualitymanagement. Forpractical purposes,
  87. 87. ithas resulted in asystem forcertifying suppliersto make sure thattheymeetinternationallyaccepted standardsfor qualitymanagement. In1979, the ISO
  88. 88. memberrepresenting theUnited Kingdom,theBritish StandardInstitute (BSI),recognizing theneed forstandardizationforqualitymanagement and
  89. 89. assurance,submitted a formalproposal toISO toform a technicalcommittee todevelopinternationalstandardsforqualityassurance
  90. 90. techniques andpractices. As aresultISO/TechnicalCommittee 176, orISO/TC 176referred to as"QualityAssurance"wasformed. Using
  91. 91. standards thatalready existed inthe UnitedKingdom and
  92. 92. TDD-201 Unit-310Dr.Parul BhatnagarCanada as a basis,this committee set
  93. 93. out to establishgenericqualitystandardsprimarily formanufacturingfirms that could beusedworldwide. The ISO 9000 seriesof qualitymanagement and
  94. 94. assurancestandards, developed by theISO/TechnicalCommittee 176over a periodofseven years andfirst published in1987, consists offoursubsections,ISO
  95. 95. 9001, 9002, 9003and 90TDD-201 Unit-37Dr.Parul Bhatnagarimplement thestrategic plans thatare developed by thetopmanagement.Middlelevel focuses on
  96. 96. designing andcontrolling theproductionprocessaccording tothe specificationslaid out in theproducts design; i.e.,the middlemanagersmust make sure theproduct conforms tospecifications.
  97. 97. Middlelevelmanagement mustalso design andimplement aneffectivepreventionandquality appraisalsystem for thevarious stages of theproductionprocess.Finally, they
  98. 98. are also responsiblefor customer serviceprograms.SupervisoryManagement:Supervisors havethe responsibilityfordirecting andcontrolling the
  99. 99. operations in theproductionprocessdesigned bymiddlemanagement. Asthis level is the firstlineof management,supervisors time isspent in managing
  100. 100. personnel suchasmachineoperators, serversand clerical staff.Direct qualitymonitoringandcontrol is done atthis level. As aresult, managers atsupervisorylevel
  101. 101. have theresponsibility ofidentifying andseeking solutionsforqualityproblems. Whenproblems areidentified,supervisorymanagement works with
  102. 102. middle level tocorrect andimprovetheproductionprocess. In mostcases supervisorymanagementcollects andreportsquality-related datato the quality
  103. 103. manager orappropriatemiddlemanager.Top Management Initiation ofQualityManagementProgram (i.e. settinggoals/strategicplanning)
  104. 104. MiddleManagement Implementation ofthe QualityManagementProgram SupervisoryManagement/Lower Level
  105. 105. Monitoring andControlling QualityProductionProcess/OperatorsFig. 1 Role ofManagement inAchieving Quality
  106. 106. TOOLS ANDTECHNIQUESOF TQMSome of the mostfrequently usedtechniques foridentifying thecauses of qualityproblems include
  107. 107. TDD-201 Unit-38Dr.Parul Bhatnagar
  108. 108. •Pareto Analysis:This is based onthe principle - thatmostqualityproblemsresult from a fewcauses. Thismethod identifiesthe causes
  109. 109. of quality problemsand corrects themajor causes bydevelopingafrequencydistribution fromthe data collected.Thisfrequencydistribution is referred as
  110. 110. Pareto diagram,which is a visualaid forfocusing onmajor qualityproblems.•Flowcharts:A flowchart is apictorialrepresentation of
  111. 111. the problem,whichis to be solved. It isa diagram of (hesteps involved in ajob,operation, orprocess. It enablesthe user inidentifying andsolvingqualityproblems by
  112. 112. representing themin the form ofsequential steps.• Check Sheets andHistograms:Check sheets arefrequently usedinconjunction withhistograms, as wellas with Pareto
  113. 113. diagrams. Acheck sheet is afact-finding toolthat is used tocollect data aboutqualityproblems. Ahistogram is a barchart showing thefrequencyof occurrence of
  114. 114. causes of defects.When the checksheet is completed,thetotal tally ofdefects for eachcause can be usedfor creating ahistogramor aPareto chart.•
  115. 115. Scatter Diagrams:These diagramsgraphically showtherelationshipbetween two variables in aprocess. Thisrelationship couldbe used toidentify aparticular quality
  116. 116. problem associatedwith the variables.• Process Control:Process controlinvolvesmonitoring aproductionprocessusing statisticalquality controlmethods. Control
  117. 117. chart includesahorizontal line,through the middleof a chartrepresenting theprocessmean ornorm. It also has aline below thismean linerepresenting
  118. 118. thelower controllimit and lineabove it for theupper control limit.Samplesfrom theprocess are thentaken over timeand measuredaccordingtospecific
  119. 119. standards. If themeasurement iswithin the controllimits, theprocess issaid to be undercontrol and there isno quality problem.•Cause-and-EffectDiagrams:
  120. 120. This is alsoreferred to as "fish-bone" *diagram,and it is a graphicaldescription ofelements of aspecificqualityproblem andthe relationshipbetween those
  121. 121. elements. Cause-and-effectdiagramsare usuallydeveloped as partof problem-solvingactivity tohelp ateam of workers,supervisors, andmanagers toidentify causes
  122. 122. of qualityproblems. This toolis a normal part ofthe problem-solving
  123. 123. TDD-201 Unit-39Dr.Parul Bhatnagaractivity of qualitycircles in Japanese
  124. 124. companies. Theseare thetools/techniquesused to improvethe quality inanyorganization forits survival in themarket Qualitypractices;however,would
  125. 125. shift the focus frominspection toprevention oferrors,eliminatingtheneed for theexpensive testingof the products asthey roll offtheassembly line.
  126. 126. ISO 9000With the wake ofspreading exportconsciousness,quality has takenanew meaning. Thecertificate -become essentialfor some exportstoEurope - means
  127. 127. that a unit hassystems in place toensureconsistentquality ofgoods and services.To cater thisdemand forcertificationtherehas been avirtual boom in the
  128. 128. number of firmsofferingqualityconsultancy.Due to this,certification hasbecome a lucrativebusiness.The costof certifying a unitranges from 30,000to 2 lakhs
  129. 129. dependingupon thesize andcomplexity ofoperations. Theinitial popularity ofISO9000 in thecountry came fromthe fear thatwithout thecertification
  130. 130. itwould not bepossible to exportto the EuropeanCommunity after1992.The initialbunch ofcompanies workedhard towardsimprovingtheirquality
  131. 131. systems. Theconcept of qualityunderlying ISO9000 is meetingcustomerrequirements. ISO 9000 is astandard for qualityassurance. ISO -theInternationalOrganization for
  132. 132. Standardization,which has itsheadquartersatGeneva,Switzerland, has asits members thenationalstandardsorganizations for more than90 countries. The
  133. 133. purpose of ISO isto seek to facilitatethe development ofglobal consensusagreementsoninternationalstandards forqualitymanagement. Forpractical purposes,
  134. 134. ithas resulted in asystem forcertifying suppliersto make sure thattheymeetinternationallyaccepted standardsfor qualitymanagement. In1979, the ISO
  135. 135. memberrepresenting theUnited Kingdom,theBritish StandardInstitute (BSI),recognizing theneed forstandardizationforqualitymanagement and
  136. 136. assurance,submitted a formalproposal toISO toform a technicalcommittee todevelopinternationalstandardsforqualityassurance
  137. 137. techniques andpractices. As aresultISO/TechnicalCommittee 176, orISO/TC 176referred to as"QualityAssurance"wasformed. Using
  138. 138. standards thatalready existed inthe UnitedKingdom and
  139. 139. TDD-201 Unit-310Dr.Parul BhatnagarCanada as a basis,this committee set
  140. 140. out to establishgenericqualitystandardsprimarily formanufacturingfirms that could beusedworldwide. The ISO 9000 seriesof qualitymanagement and
  141. 141. assurancestandards, developed by theISO/TechnicalCommittee 176over a periodofseven years andfirst published in1987, consists offoursubsections,ISO
  142. 142. 9001, 9002, 9003and 90-201 Unit-37Dr. ParulBhatnagarimplement thestrategic plans thatare developed by thetopmanagement.Middlelevel focuses ondesigning and
  143. 143. controlling theproductionprocessaccording tothe specificationslaid out in theproducts design; i.e.,the middlemanagersmust make sure theproduct conforms tospecifications.Middlelevel
  144. 144. management mustalso design andimplement aneffectivepreventionandquality appraisalsystem for thevarious stages of theproductionprocess.Finally, theyare also responsible
  145. 145. for customer serviceprograms.SupervisoryManagement:Supervisors havethe responsibilityfordirecting andcontrolling theoperations in the
  146. 146. productionprocessdesigned bymiddlemanagement. Asthis level is the firstlineof management,supervisors time isspent in managingpersonnel such
  147. 147. asmachineoperators, serversand clerical staff.Direct qualitymonitoringandcontrol is done atthis level. As aresult, managers atsupervisorylevelhave the
  148. 148. responsibility ofidentifying andseeking solutionsforqualityproblems. Whenproblems areidentified,supervisorymanagement works withmiddle level to
  149. 149. correct andimprovetheproductionprocess. In mostcases supervisorymanagementcollects andreportsquality-related datato the qualitymanager or
  150. 150. appropriatemiddlemanager.Top Management Initiation ofQualityManagementProgram (i.e. settinggoals/strategicplanning)
  151. 151. MiddleManagement Implementation ofthe QualityManagementProgram SupervisoryManagement/Lower Level
  152. 152. Monitoring andControlling QualityProductionProcess/OperatorsFig. 1 Role ofManagement inAchieving Quality
  153. 153. TOOLS ANDTECHNIQUESOF TQMSome of the mostfrequently usedtechniques foridentifying thecauses of qualityproblems include
  154. 154. TDD-201 Unit-38Dr.Parul Bhatnagar
  155. 155. •Pareto Analysis:This is based onthe principle - thatmostqualityproblemsresult from a fewcauses. Thismethod identifiesthe causes
  156. 156. of quality problemsand corrects themajor causes bydevelopingafrequencydistribution fromthe data collected.Thisfrequencydistribution is referred as
  157. 157. Pareto diagram,which is a visualaid forfocusing onmajor qualityproblems.•Flowcharts:A flowchart is apictorialrepresentation of
  158. 158. the problem,whichis to be solved. It isa diagram of (hesteps involved in ajob,operation, orprocess. It enablesthe user inidentifying andsolvingqualityproblems by
  159. 159. representing themin the form ofsequential steps.• Check Sheets andHistograms:Check sheets arefrequently usedinconjunction withhistograms, as wellas with Pareto
  160. 160. diagrams. Acheck sheet is afact-finding toolthat is used tocollect data aboutqualityproblems. Ahistogram is a barchart showing thefrequencyof occurrence of
  161. 161. causes of defects.When the checksheet is completed,thetotal tally ofdefects for eachcause can be usedfor creating ahistogramor aPareto chart.•
  162. 162. Scatter Diagrams:These diagramsgraphically showtherelationshipbetween two variables in aprocess. Thisrelationship couldbe used toidentify aparticular quality
  163. 163. problem associatedwith the variables.• Process Control:Process controlinvolvesmonitoring aproductionprocessusing statisticalquality controlmethods. Control
  164. 164. chart includesahorizontal line,through the middleof a chartrepresenting theprocessmean ornorm. It also has aline below thismean linerepresenting
  165. 165. thelower controllimit and lineabove it for theupper control limit.Samplesfrom theprocess are thentaken over timeand measuredaccordingtospecific
  166. 166. standards. If themeasurement iswithin the controllimits, theprocess issaid to be undercontrol and there isno quality problem.•Cause-and-EffectDiagrams:
  167. 167. This is alsoreferred to as "fish-bone" *diagram,and it is a graphicaldescription ofelements of aspecificqualityproblem andthe relationshipbetween those
  168. 168. elements. Cause-and-effectdiagramsare usuallydeveloped as partof problem-solvingactivity tohelp ateam of workers,supervisors, andmanagers toidentify causes
  169. 169. of qualityproblems. This toolis a normal part ofthe problem-solving
  170. 170. TDD-201 Unit-39Dr.Parul Bhatnagaractivity of qualitycircles in Japanese
  171. 171. companies. Theseare thetools/techniquesused to improvethe quality inanyorganization forits survival in themarket Qualitypractices;however,would
  172. 172. shift the focus frominspection toprevention oferrors,eliminatingtheneed for theexpensive testingof the products asthey roll offtheassembly line.
  173. 173. ISO 9000With the wake ofspreading exportconsciousness,quality has takenanew meaning. Thecertificate -become essentialfor some exportstoEurope - means
  174. 174. that a unit hassystems in place toensureconsistentquality ofgoods and services.To cater thisdemand forcertificationtherehas been avirtual boom in the
  175. 175. number of firmsofferingqualityconsultancy.Due to this,certification hasbecome a lucrativebusiness.The costof certifying a unitranges from 30,000to 2 lakhs
  176. 176. dependingupon thesize andcomplexity ofoperations. Theinitial popularity ofISO9000 in thecountry came fromthe fear thatwithout thecertification
  177. 177. itwould not bepossible to exportto the EuropeanCommunity after1992.The initialbunch ofcompanies workedhard towardsimprovingtheirquality
  178. 178. systems. Theconcept of qualityunderlying ISO9000 is meetingcustomerrequirements. ISO 9000 is astandard for qualityassurance. ISO -theInternationalOrganization for
  179. 179. Standardization,which has itsheadquartersatGeneva,Switzerland, has asits members thenationalstandardsorganizations for more than90 countries. The
  180. 180. purpose of ISO isto seek to facilitatethe development ofglobal consensusagreementsoninternationalstandards forqualitymanagement. Forpractical purposes,
  181. 181. ithas resulted in asystem forcertifying suppliersto make sure thattheymeetinternationallyaccepted standardsfor qualitymanagement. In1979, the ISO
  182. 182. memberrepresenting theUnited Kingdom,theBritish StandardInstitute (BSI),recognizing theneed forstandardizationforqualitymanagement and
  183. 183. assurance,submitted a formalproposal toISO toform a technicalcommittee todevelopinternationalstandardsforqualityassurance
  184. 184. techniques andpractices. As aresultISO/TechnicalCommittee 176, orISO/TC 176referred to as"QualityAssurance"wasformed. Using
  185. 185. standards thatalready existed inthe UnitedKingdom and
  186. 186. TDD-201 Unit-310Dr.Parul BhatnagarCanada as a basis,this committee set
  187. 187. out to establishgenericqualitystandardsprimarily formanufacturingfirms that could beusedworldwide. The ISO 9000 seriesof qualitymanagement and
  188. 188. assurancestandards, developed by theISO/TechnicalCommittee 176over a periodofseven years andfirst published in1987, consists offoursubsections,ISO
  189. 189. 9001, 9002, 9003and 90TDD-201 Unit-37Dr.Parul Bhatnagarimplement thestrategic plans thatare developed by thetopmanagement.Middlelevel focuses ondesigning and
  190. 190. controlling theproductionprocessaccording tothe specificationslaid out in theproducts design; i.e.,the middlemanagersmust make sure theproduct conforms tospecifications.Middlelevel
  191. 191. management mustalso design andimplement aneffectivepreventionandquality appraisalsystem for thevarious stages of theproductionprocess.Finally, theyare also responsible
  192. 192. for customer serviceprograms.SupervisoryManagement:Supervisors havethe responsibilityfordirecting andcontrolling theoperations in the
  193. 193. productionprocessdesigned bymiddlemanagement. Asthis level is the firstlineof management,supervisors time isspent in managingpersonnel such
  194. 194. asmachineoperators, serversand clerical staff.Direct qualitymonitoringandcontrol is done atthis level. As aresult, managers atsupervisorylevelhave the
  195. 195. responsibility ofidentifying andseeking solutionsforqualityproblems. Whenproblems areidentified,supervisorymanagement works withmiddle level to
  196. 196. correct andimprovetheproductionprocess. In mostcases supervisorymanagementcollects andreportsquality-related datato the qualitymanager or
  197. 197. appropriatemiddlemanager.Top Management Initiation ofQualityManagementProgram (i.e. settinggoals/strategicplanning)
  198. 198. MiddleManagement Implementation ofthe QualityManagementProgram SupervisoryManagement/Lower Level
  199. 199. Monitoring andControlling QualityProductionProcess/OperatorsFig. 1 Role ofManagement inAchieving Quality
  200. 200. TOOLS ANDTECHNIQUESOF TQMSome of the mostfrequently usedtechniques foridentifying thecauses of qualityproblems include
  201. 201. TDD-201 Unit-38Dr.Parul Bhatnagar
  202. 202. •Pareto Analysis:This is based onthe principle - thatmostqualityproblemsresult from a fewcauses. Thismethod identifiesthe causes
  203. 203. of quality problemsand corrects themajor causes bydevelopingafrequencydistribution fromthe data collected.Thisfrequencydistribution is referred as
  204. 204. Pareto diagram,which is a visualaid forfocusing onmajor qualityproblems.•Flowcharts:A flowchart is apictorialrepresentation of
  205. 205. the problem,whichis to be solved. It isa diagram of (hesteps involved in ajob,operation, orprocess. It enablesthe user inidentifying andsolvingqualityproblems by
  206. 206. representing themin the form ofsequential steps.• Check Sheets andHistograms:Check sheets arefrequently usedinconjunction withhistograms, as wellas with Pareto
  207. 207. diagrams. Acheck sheet is afact-finding toolthat is used tocollect data aboutqualityproblems. Ahistogram is a barchart showing thefrequencyof occurrence of
  208. 208. causes of defects.When the checksheet is completed,thetotal tally ofdefects for eachcause can be usedfor creating ahistogramor aPareto chart.•
  209. 209. Scatter Diagrams:These diagramsgraphically showtherelationshipbetween two variables in aprocess. Thisrelationship couldbe used toidentify aparticular quality
  210. 210. problem associatedwith the variables.• Process Control:Process controlinvolvesmonitoring aproductionprocessusing statisticalquality controlmethods. Control
  211. 211. chart includesahorizontal line,through the middleof a chartrepresenting theprocessmean ornorm. It also has aline below thismean linerepresenting
  212. 212. thelower controllimit and lineabove it for theupper control limit.Samplesfrom theprocess are thentaken over timeand measuredaccordingtospecific
  213. 213. standards. If themeasurement iswithin the controllimits, theprocess issaid to be undercontrol and there isno quality problem.•Cause-and-EffectDiagrams:
  214. 214. This is alsoreferred to as "fish-bone" *diagram,and it is a graphicaldescription ofelements of aspecificqualityproblem andthe relationshipbetween those
  215. 215. elements. Cause-and-effectdiagramsare usuallydeveloped as partof problem-solvingactivity tohelp ateam of workers,supervisors, andmanagers toidentify causes
  216. 216. of qualityproblems. This toolis a normal part ofthe problem-solving
  217. 217. TDD-201 Unit-39Dr.Parul Bhatnagaractivity of qualitycircles in Japanese
  218. 218. companies. Theseare thetools/techniquesused to improvethe quality inanyorganization forits survival in themarket Qualitypractices;however,would
  219. 219. shift the focus frominspection toprevention oferrors,eliminatingtheneed for theexpensive testingof the products asthey roll offtheassembly line.
  220. 220. ISO 9000With the wake ofspreading exportconsciousness,quality has takenanew meaning. Thecertificate -become essentialfor some exportstoEurope - means
  221. 221. that a unit hassystems in place toensureconsistentquality ofgoods and services.To cater thisdemand forcertificationtherehas been avirtual boom in the
  222. 222. number of firmsofferingqualityconsultancy.Due to this,certification hasbecome a lucrativebusiness.The costof certifying a unitranges from 30,000to 2 lakhs
  223. 223. dependingupon thesize andcomplexity ofoperations. Theinitial popularity ofISO9000 in thecountry came fromthe fear thatwithout thecertification
  224. 224. itwould not bepossible to exportto the EuropeanCommunity after1992.The initialbunch ofcompanies workedhard towardsimprovingtheirquality
  225. 225. systems. Theconcept of qualityunderlying ISO9000 is meetingcustomerrequirements. ISO 9000 is astandard for qualityassurance. ISO -theInternationalOrganization for
  226. 226. Standardization,which has itsheadquartersatGeneva,Switzerland, has asits members thenationalstandardsorganizations for more than90 countries. The
  227. 227. purpose of ISO isto seek to facilitatethe development ofglobal consensusagreementsoninternationalstandards forqualitymanagement. Forpractical purposes,
  228. 228. ithas resulted in asystem forcertifying suppliersto make sure thattheymeetinternationallyaccepted standardsfor qualitymanagement. In1979, the ISO
  229. 229. memberrepresenting theUnited Kingdom,theBritish StandardInstitute (BSI),recognizing theneed forstandardizationforqualitymanagement and
  230. 230. assurance,submitted a formalproposal toISO toform a technicalcommittee todevelopinternationalstandardsforqualityassurance
  231. 231. techniques andpractices. As aresultISO/TechnicalCommittee 176, orISO/TC 176referred to as"QualityAssurance"wasformed. Using
  232. 232. standards thatalready existed inthe UnitedKingdom and
  233. 233. TDD-201 Unit-310Dr.Parul BhatnagarCanada as a basis,this committee set
  234. 234. out to establishgenericqualitystandardsprimarily formanufacturingfirms that could beusedworldwide. The ISO 9000 seriesof qualitymanagement and
  235. 235. assurancestandards, developed by theISO/TechnicalCommittee 176over a periodofseven years andfirst published in1987, consists offoursubsections,ISO
  236. 236. 9001, 9002, 9003and 90

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