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Wireless vehicular accident detection & reporting system
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Wireless vehicular accident detection & reporting system



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Wireless vehicular accident detection & reporting system Wireless vehicular accident detection & reporting system Document Transcript

  • 201O International Conference on Mechanical and Electrical Technology (ICMET 2010)Wireless Vehicular Accident Detection and Reporting SystemRajesh Kannan Megalingam, Ramesh Nammily Nair, Sai Manoj PrakhyaAmrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri, ClappanaP.O, Kollam-690525,Kerala, Indiarajeshm@am.amrita.edurameshnair@ieee.orgsaimanoj18@ieee.orgAbstract: In this paper, we suggest a method to intelligentlydetect an accident at any place and any time and report thesame to the nearby service provider. The service providerarranges for the necessary help. Accident Detection andReporting System (ADRS) which can be placed in anyvehicle uses a sensor to detect the accident. The sensor outputis monitored and processed by the PIC16F877Amicrocontroller. The microcontroller takes decision on thetraffic accident based on the input from the sensors. The RFtransmitter module which is interfaced with themicrocontroller will transmit the accident information to thenearby Emergency Service Provider (ESP). This information isreceived by the RF receiver module at the service providercontrol room in the locality. The RF transceiver module usedhas a range up to 100 meters under ideal conditions. Theservice provider can use this information to arrange forambulance and also inform police and hospital. We used lowcost RF modules, a microcontroller by Microchip, LCDmodule and an accelerometer. This system can be installed ataccident prone areas to detect and report the same. MPLABIDE and Proteus software are used to simulate part of thesystem. ADRS also implements an intelligent AccidentDetection and Reporting Algorithm (ADRA) for the purpose.Keywords-microcontroller, RF transmitter, RF receiver,service providerI. INTRODUCTIONIn todays world, everything has become very fast andspeed has become the other name for life. To add to this theauto manufacturers are coming up with faster cars and bikesevery day. Nowadays as the number of vehicles increased,the roads have become crowded and the frequency of roadaccidents has increased manifolds. As a result the number ofdeaths increased because of not providing emergencyServices at the right time. So as to provide emergencyservices at the site of accident we propose an AccidentDetection and Reporting System (ADRS) which can reportto the nearby Emergency Service Provider (ESP) about thesite of accident. This is achieved through a wirelessinterface. ADRS which we have proposed is economicaland can be a one-time installment in the vehicle. The ADRSprovides the ESP with the information regarding thelocation of accident. The ESP arranges for emergencyservices from the nearby hospital or police and thusimmediate attention is given to the people met with accident.This way the number of deaths can be reduced. The rest of978-1-4244-8102-6/10/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE 636the paper is organized as follows - Motivation, Problemdefinition, Related Work, Hardware implementation,Working, Experimental Results, Future work, Conclusion,Acknowledgement and Reference. Related Work comparesour system with the existing ones.Hardware Implementation describes about the projecthardware design and setup. Future Work includes thevarious scopes in which the system can be improved.II. MOTIVATIONAlthough different governmental and non-governmentalorganizations all round the world carry out workshops andother training programs to make people aware of carelessdriving, yet this whole process has not been very successfultill date. For example some threatening statistics of roadaccidents that took place in India as per [9] show that theemergency services are not being provided at the propertime. The statistics included that the road accidents last yearcaused death of more than 130,000 and it clearly indicatesthat it is set to jump to 150,000 by 2015. India has just 1%of the worlds vehicles, but accounts for 10% of worldstotal accidents. Mortality rate per 10,000 vehicles is 14(less than two for developed countries). [10] Shows that thesituations in other countries are also similar. [4] Also showsthe various ways of accident fatalities. Having known aboutsuch threatening statistics, we aimed at implementing asystem which could give immediate information to a serviceprovider about the accident occurrence, by which theservice provider can arrange for immediate safety measures.This helps the humanity by a great deal as human life isvery crucial.III. PROBLEM DEFINITIONAn emergency service by hospitals or police is notprovided at the place of accident at required time. Thiscauses death to those people whose life could have beensaved if proper help were provided at the right time. This isbecause these emergency services are not being informedabout the accident at the proper time. The ADRS proposedcan intelligently inform the service provider the site ofaccident through a Wireless interface. Thus immediatemedical care and help is reached out to the people withoutany delay. Thus the accident mortality rates shown abovecan be reduced and above all it protects the life of peoplewhich is the most important factor.
  • 2010 International Conference on Mechanical and Electrical Technology (ICMET 2010)IV. RELATED WORKConventional vehicular sensor systems for accidentdetection, such as OnStar and system discussed in [5] notifyemergency responders immediately by utilizing in-vehiclesensors, such as accelerometers and airbag deploymentmonitors to detect car accidents .Our system too makes useof the inbuilt vehicle sensors to detect an accident. But theinterfacing part with the service provider is done in a simpleand cost effective manner. [1] Describes about a smart phonebased accident detection system. Its complexity increases asthe vehicle has to possess a smart phone whereas our systemjust employs a transmitter in addition to inbuilt features ofthe car. Also the availability of proper range (networkconnection) for the smart phone is again a serious issue. Aninter link is described in [1] that can be made by their systemto the emergency responders for locating the position ofaccident. But Google map does not give proper details ofwhere exactly the accident has taken place especially in ruralareas. A method to detect accidents and report the sameusing acoustics method is described in [2]. It c0!1pa�es theacoustic received during accident and compares It With theacoustic database. But in [2], although similar acoustics ofprevious accidents take place, there is no guarantee.that anaccident has taken place. It might intimate the ESP with falseinformation. [3] Shows an accident reporting system whichcan be implemented only at intersections. The limitation ofour ADRS is that the installment of repeated receivers on theroad at a very short interval.V. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATIONFig.l ADRS System Block DiagramA. Sensor ModuleIf an accident happens, the impact sensor producessignals by which a flag bit in the microcontr�lIer is set andthe microcontroller comes to know that an aCCident has takenplace. The sensors used to detect the impact are theaccelerometer sensors ADXL 335 from Analog Devices. It isa small, thin, low power, complete 3 axis 3g accelerometersas shown in [7]. It can measure the static acceleration ofgravity in tilt sensing applications, as well as dynamic637acceleration resulting from motion, shock or vibration. Wecan select the bandwidth of the accelerometer using the Cx,Cy, Cz capacitors at the Xout, Yout, Zout pins. Bandwidthranges from 0.5Hz to 1600Hz for the X and Y axes and arange of 0.5 to 550Hz for the Z axes.B. Wireless ModuleThe transmitter module used is TWS 434A RFtransmitter transmits serial data modulated at 433.92 MHz.[8] shows that it is a 4-pin module and can operate on in�utvoltage ranging from 2-12 volts DC power supply. The senaldata it is intended to transmit is fed as input to PIN-2. Itmodulates the serial data to a specific frequency andtransmits the serial data through the PIN-4. There will be aspecific RF receiver to receive the serial data. The ran�e ofRF transceivers being used was 100 meters under Idealconditions. [8] Shows that receivers can receive serial datamodulated to 433.92 MHz. It is an 8-pin module and canoperate on input voltage ranging from 4.5 to 5.5 volts DCpower supply. An antenna at PIN-8 receives the serial dataand demodulates it and gives the output from PIN-3. Theencoder and decoder ICs which we have used are HT-12Eand HT-12D manufactured by Holtek semiconductors. TheseICs use Manchester encoding routine to encode the parallelinput data from the microcontroller to the serial data whichcan be fed as input to the RF transmitter. This ManchesterEncoding routine can be implemented in the �ICmicrocontroller if we wish to reduce the power consumptIOnby not using the encoder IC itsel£ Thus the � trans�ittertransmits the encoded data at 433.92 MHz ThiS data will bereceived by the RF receiver and fed as input to the decoderIC which decodes the serial data into parallel data and fedsas input to the microcontroller. Else the RF receivers outputcan be directly given to the PIC to reduce the powerconsumption. From the PIC it can be interfaced to thecomputer.C. Data transfer ModuleAll encoders use a common word format. They all packthe bits of information in the same number and position inthe transmission sequence. Many advanced encoders provideManchester encoding for RF modulation and transmission.Manchester encoding is shown in Fig. 2 and the format ofone cord word being used for transmission is shown in Fig. 3.The flowcharts of the functioning of HT-12E encoder IC andHT-12D decoder IC is shown in FigA and Fig.5 respectively.o 1Fig.2 Manchester Encoding
  • 2010 International Conference on Mechanical and Electrical Technology (ICMET 2010)1 CODE-WORD• . " " " " " Preamble IHeader I Enaypt I Rxed I Guard Preamble IFig.3 Format of one Code Word• HTl2E4 data wordstransmittedcontinuouslyFigA Flowchart of HT l2E638Address bitsmatched ?YesNoNoFig.S Flowchart of HT 12 DVI. WORKINGA. Accident Detection and Reporting Algorithm (ADRA)The flow chart of the ADRA is shown in Fig 6. Theoutput of the accelerometers is fed as input to an amplifiercircuit. This amplifier circuit gives a digital output whichsets some flag bits of the microcontroller as soon as a crashis detected. The analog to digital conversion module of themicrocontroller is used here as the output from theaccelerometer is analog in nature and is to be converted todigital form for the transmitter network to function. Themicrocontroller will be in sleep mode generally to savepower. The microcontroller is programmed in such a waythat as soon as the flag bits are set it comes out of the sleepmode and the RF transmitter will be switched on. Thisensures that less power is being consumed. Themicrocontroller and the RF transmitter can be interfaced byusing a specific encoder and decoder Ies.The first RF receiver on the road appends its own addressto the data received. Thus a data with two parts is beingreceived by the master receiver. The first part is the View slide
  • 2010 International Conference on Mechanical and Electrical Technology (ICMET 2010)emergency signal and the second part gives the location ofthe car i.e. the place of accident. Thus the position ofaccident is known to the ESP.l VEHICLEJWHEN AIR8AG� EXPLODES EMERGENCYSIGNALS ARE PRODUCEDRF MODULEH TRANSFER BETWEEN RF MOOUlESIRF MOOUL� INTERFACING PARTMASTER RECIEVER -RF MODUlE;>-SERVICE PROVIDERCOMBINATION OF ADDRESS BITS OF DIFFERENT RFMODUlES DETECTS THE POSITION OF CARFig.6 ProcedureB. System SetupThe lab work conducted as part of the project includesthe setting up of the RF transmitter receiver on thebreadboard as shown in Fig.7, interfacing themicrocontroller with the LCD display to ensure that the datais received properly and testing with accelerometers for thedetection of accidents.���--�-------Fig.7 Setup of the ADRS at labVII. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTSThe transmitter voltage has a range of 2 to 12 volts. Thetransmitter voltage was varied and the different ranges ofreception obtained were plotted. TABLE 1 shows thedifferent set of voltages used and the corresponding rangesof reception obtained. It was observed that the maximumrange was obtained when the transmitter voltage was kept at63912 V. Fig.8 shows the simulation diagram done in Proteusof the interfacing part done using PIC 16F877A and the16* 2 character generator LCD .Fig.8 PIC-LCD interface in ProteusTransmitter Voltage Reception Range inin Volts (V)120100802.54681012TABLE 160 +--�=-"""----40 +--�----20 +---------o +-������2.5 4 6 8 10 12meters (m)2437526879103_Voltagevs RangeFig.9 Transmission Voltage vs Reception RangeVIII. FUTURE WORKThis system can be implemented using Zigbee with ahigher wireless range which is based on IEEE 802.15.4specification for Wireless Personal area networks(WPAN).[6] shows that Zigbee is a recently developedwireless technology used in many commercial and researchapplications. It has become a very attractive wirelessconnectivity solution due to its open standard, low cost andlow power characteristics in comparison with other wirelesstechnologies such as Bluetooth and Wifi. As the wirelessrange is increased, the number of RF modules being usednow can be reduced. In the experimental studies conductedfor the system, we interfaced the receiver part to a LCDdisplay. As an expansion for this we can interface it to acomputers database which has got the car information. This View slide
  • 2010 International Conference on Mechanical and Electrical Technology (ICMET 2010)makes use of the USART module in the PIC 16F877Amicrocontroller.IX. CONCLUSIONThe ADRS can be set up in accident prone areas whichinclude many busy roads such as national highways and canbe used to inform the service provider about the site ofaccident. This setup intelligently transmits signals when anaccident occurs and according to the received signal theplace of accident can be known. This system can be maderealistic by making some tie up with car companies andduring the manufacture the transmitter module can be set upwithin it. Even the old cars can be given an option of settingit. It is preferable to have this setup in the vehicles as humanlife can be saved as immediate reporting is done as accidentis detected.ACKNOWLEDGMENTWe gratefully acknowledge the Almighty GOD whogave us strength and health to successfully complete thisventure. The authors wish to thank Amrita University, inparticular the VLSI lab and Electronics lab, for access forcompleting the project.REFERENCES[I] Chris Thompson, Jules White, Brian Dougherty, Adam Albright,and Douglas C.Schmidt, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN USA,"Using Smart phones to Detect Car Accidents and Provide SituationalAwareness to Emergency Responders".[2] David A. Whitney and Joseph J Pisano TASC, Inc., Reading,Massachusetts, "Auto Alert: Automated Acoustic Detection ofIncidents", IDEA project.[3] Yong-Kul Ki, Dong-Young Lee, "A traffic accident recording andreporting model at intersections", ITS[4] William M Evanco, "The Impact of Rapid Incident Detection onFreeway Accident Fatalities", MS-IVHS[5] Li Chuan-zhi, Hu Ru-fu, Hong-wu Ye, "Method of freeway incidentdetection using wireless positioning", ICAL08[6] S. D. Dissanayake, P. P. C. R. Karunasekara, D. D.Lakmanaarachchi,A. J D. Rathnayaka, and A. T. L. K. Samarasinghe,Zigbee Wireless Vehicular Identification and AuthenticationSystem, ICIAF08[7] Datasheets of HT-12D, HT-12E, PIC 16F877A, ADXL 335, 16*2LCD[8] RF Transmitters and Receivers, Available: www.electronicsforu.com[9] Statistics of Accidents in India, Available:http://nitawriter.wordpress.coml2008[10] Car Accident Statistics from around the world, Available:www.articlesbase.com640