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Simulation of earthquakes and tsunami through gsm network
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  • 1. SIMULATION OF EARTHQUAKES ANDTSUNAMI THROUGH GSM NETWORKG.SARADHAB.TECH-IT(FINAL YEAR)MOOKAMBIGAI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,PUDUKKOTTAI-622 502, TAMILNADU, INDIA.saradhagunasekaran@gmail.comABSTRACT: Every year thousands of people diebecause of earthquake occurs in a dangerous place orduring a defenseless sleep. Here’s a GSM-based seismicalert system that could warn before an earthquake strikes.Earthquakes strike without warning. The resulting damagecan be minimized and lives can be saved if people living inthe earthquake-prone area are already prepared to survivethe strike. This requires a warning before strong groundmotion from the earthquake arrival. Such a warning systemis possible because of energy wave released at the epicenterof the earth quake travels slower than light. The warningsignal from the earthquake epicenter can be transmitted todifferent places using satellite communication network,fiber-optics network, pager service, Cell phone services ora combination of these. The satellite-based network is idealwhen an alert system has to cover a large country likeIndia. For earthquake-prone states like Gujarat, a seismicalert system using the global system for mobilecommunication network spread throughout the state isproposed here. This system does not try to find theepicenter or fault line caused by the earthquake. It simplymonitors the earth vibrations and generates alert signalwhen the level of earth vibrations crosses a threshold.Keywords: GSM, Accelerometer, Interface unit,Application server, Network or sms server.I.INTRODUCTION:Earthquakes strike without warning. Every yearthousands of people die because of this. The result ofdamage can be minimized by alerting the peopleabout the occurrence of natural calamities i.e., likeearthquakes, tsunamis etc. For this purpose, we useadvanced technologies like GSM (Global System forMobile communication technology). On 26December 2004 an earthquake of 9.0 on the Richterscale occurred west of Aceh in Sumatra,Indonesia[1]. The epicenter was located at latitude3.1degree north and longitude 95.5 degree east, about680 kilometers northwest of KualaLumpur and 590kilometers west of Penang. This earthquake hasgenerated a massive and disastrous Indian Ocean-wide tsunami that struck the coasts of a number ofcountries in the region with high “tidal” waves. Thisunprecedented tsunami had killed thousands ofpeople in several countries bordering the IndianOcean.II.PRE-EXISTING SYSTEM FOR TSUNAMIWARNING:Regional (or local) warning system centers useseismic data about nearby earthquakes to determine ifthere is a possible local threat of a tsunami [2]. Suchsystems are capable of issuing warning to the generalpublic (via public address systems and sirens) in lessthan 15 minutes. Although the epicenter and momentmagnitude of an underwater quake and the probablePROCEEDINGS OF ICETECT 2011978-1-4244-7926-9/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE 912
  • 2. tsunami arrival time can be quickly calculated. It isalmost always impossible to know whetherunderwater ground shifts have occurred which willresult in tsunami waves. As a result, false alarms canoccur with these systems, but due to the highlylocalized nature of these extremely quick warnings,disruption is small.III.NEED FOR TSUNAMI EARLY WARNINGSYSTEMThe tragedy happened because no country borderingthe Indian Ocean had any experience and capabilityin the issuance of tsunami warning[3]. In the absenceof an effective tsunami warning system, theGovernment will not be in a position to provide anyeffective early warning to the public in the event ofanother tsunami generated in the Indian Ocean.Maintaining real-time continuous monitoring ofearthquake occurrences and tsunami on a 24-hourbasis throughout the year. Issuance of information,advisory, notice, early warning and warning on theoccurrence of earthquake and tsunami that threatenthe security and safety.The system shall be an integral part of the proposedIndian Ocean Tsunami Warning System which isvery concerned with the lack of capability in carryingout tsunami watch and the issuance of early warningfor tsunami in the nation.IV.WORKING:This system simply monitors the earth vibrations andgenerates an alert signal when the level of earthvibrations crosses a threshold. Generally thethreshold will be 5.5 on Richter scale becauseearthquakes of magnitude less than 5.5 can hardlyaffect the buildings.Earth Quake [seismic] waves are of three types;1. Primary waves.2. Secondary waves.3. Surface waves.1. Primary waves(p):These waves are the fastest waves of all the three.These travel at a velocity of 8km/sec. These arecompression in nature like sound waves. Thesecompress and expand the materials in their directionof travel.2.Secondary waves(s):These waves travel at a velocity of 4km/sec. Thesemove the earth up and down perpendicular to thedirection of their motion. These causes a damage tothe low-rise buildings.3.Surface waves:These are the least velocity waves up all the three.These cause a great damage to the buildings,especially to the high-rise buildings.Example: Ahmadabad, which is 370km away fromBhuj, was attacked after 80sec on January 26,2001.V.COMMUNICATING THE DANGER:Figure.1.Sensor NetworkIn Figure.1, the sensor network consists of twoaccelerometers, an interface unit and a mobile handset. The signal has to be generated as quickly aspossible. This may result in the possibility ofgenerating false alarm. Each sensing location shouldhave 2 accelerometers placed 2 or 3 meters awayfrom each other. The purpose of installing 2accelerometers at each place is to detect andeliminate the local vibration noise, which can givefalse signals to the accelerometer. An interface unitwhich has to be developed will monitor both theaccelerometers. It will act only when both theaccelerometers give the same signals. In this way wecan eliminate the generation of false signal.The discrete magnitude levels will be detected andany magnitude above the preset threshold level willACCELEROMETERACCELEROMETERINTERFACEUNIT913
  • 3. be transferred to the mobile receiver handset via SMS(short message service). The handset in turn, willsend it to the Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) if it is10 to 17 km distant, else it may require a repeater fortransforming data to the handset.VI.OVERVIEW OF TSUNAMI EARLYWARNING SYSTEM:The tsunami warning system will have severalcomponents comprising of various sub-systemswhich provide real-time monitoring, alert of seismicand tsunami activities as well as timely disseminationof earthquake/tsunami warning, advisory andinformation.This Component Comprises the following Sub-Systems:a. The seismic network sub-system which monitorsand determines the location and magnitude of theearthquakes.b. A deep ocean buoy network sub-system formonitoring distant tsunamis.c. Tide gauge network sub-system is to measure andmonitor wave activities reaching the shores.d. Coastal camera network sub-system wherebystrategically located cameras monitor and relay real-time pictures of sea state to the National TsunamiWarning Center.e. Linkage to IOTWS and other tsunami warningcenters.A Processing Component which comprises thefollowing subsystems:An Integration/Analysis sub-system that willintegrate all the necessary input information togetherand analyze these information as input to theintelligent Decision Making Subsystem.An intelligent Decision Making sub-system as auseful aid to the meteorologist in making quickdecisions in the issuance of seismic information andtsunami warning.A Tsunami Prediction Sub-system with appropriatehistorical database with possible inundation areasunder different scenarios of tsunami occurrences. Itwill quickly generate the necessary tsunami alerts toexpedite the determination of possible occurrence ornonoccurrence of tsunami. Television and studio sub-system for direct broadcast by the broadcast media.This system will be used for all other weather-relateddisasters that can be directly broadband to radio andtelevision.A big screen display sub-system for easy monitoringand also facilities for television broadcast. Thissystem is linked with the weather forecast systemcan also be used to display and broadcast the weatherinformation when required.A Dissemination Component is designed todisseminate advisory/warning and other informationto all relevant personnel and agencies within 15minutes after the occurrence of an earthquake.The modes of dissemination include the following:-a. Dispatching short messages to mobile phones.b. Sending electronic/tele fax to relevant disastermanagement agencies.c. Transmitting relevant information to mass mediaand mass media broadcasting systems consisting ofradio, television and print media to broadcastwarning messages.d. Alerting the targeted public through publicannouncement systems using sirens and alarmsincluding facilities available at mosques.914
  • 4. e. Alerting public through phones and SMS based onarea discrimination.f. Automated updating of earthquake and tsunamiweb-pages.Data acquisition and linkages to internationalearthquake/tsunami warning centers:To enable the system is to determine the earthquakelocation more accurately, monitoring data fromoverseas earthquake centers and need to be acquiredon a real-time basis. These data must be arrived andintegrated into the seismic monitoring system. Datafrom the Comprehensive Nuclear Test BanTreaty(CTBT) network must also be acquired on areal-time basis to enhance the availability of data[5].The system shall also acquire in the most effectiveand efficient way on real-time earthquake andtsunami information released by international centerssuch as PTWC, JMA, the proposed Indian OceanTsunami Warning System which should becoordinated by the Intergovernmental OceanicCommission of UNESCO and sub-regional/nationalcenters in the ASEAN and Indian Ocean regions thatforms part of the multi-nodal system proposed for theIndian Ocean Tsunami.VII.SEISMIC NETWORK SUB-SYSTEM:The national seismological network will also form anintegral part of the national earthquake and tsunamiearly warning system at the National Centre as wellas the Regional Centre as it provides the first levelalert on the possible occurrence of tsunami. Toensure that an effective system can be implementedin the region, the primary goal of this sub-system isto provide the Tsunami Early Warning Centre withmore broadband, high dynamic range of seismicwaveform data in order that the location andmagnitude of earthquake could be computed morerapidly and with better accuracy. After the issuanceof initial tsunami warning, additional data from theseismic network is also used either to support thedecision to continue or cancel the warning. Thisprocess is disruptive and has large economic impactson the country.VIII.LOCATION OF EXISTING SEISMICSTATIONS:The current real-time digital seismic network is ableto detect earthquakes and Accelerometers distributedat nationwide remote stations. Each remoteseismological station is installed with a threecomponent weak motion seismometer and a 3component strong motion accelerometer. Thenetwork consists of one field station using digitalleased line for real-time data transmission and theremaining 11 field stations with VSAT telemetry and128kbps digital leased-line communication from theservice provider’s satellite gateway to the centralprocessing center for processing, analysis anddissemination[6].IX.SEISMIC MONITORING SYSTEM:The central processing centre runs BRTT’s Antelope4.6 data acquisition and processing software on (2)SUN Blade 150 workstations for real-time processingand post processing. The Antelope Real-TimeSystem(ARTS) is also providing automatic eventdetection, arrival picking, event location andmagnitude calculation. It provides graphical displayand reporting within near-real-time after a local orregional event occurred.X.DECISION SYSTEM:When an SMS is sent from a mobile handset, it firstgoes to the SMS server, then to the destinationreceiver handset. All the source handsets should beregistered at the application server(AS), As soon asthe AS receives an alert message from a particularsource handset or transmitter, it first checks whetherit is a P or S wave. An epicenter will first send Pwave, the S wave after a few seconds. The SMSserver has the capability of sending 40 messages persecond, so it takes maximum of a second to alert thepre defined destinations.XI.ALERT DISSEMINATION NETWORK:To disseminate the alert message to the public, thealert receivers could be attached to the civil defensesirens and broadcast systems. The server gives it tothe top priority and transmits it to the destinationimmediately. The speed of earthquakes varies withthe soil condition at different locations[7].915
  • 5. The SMS server will transfer the message at the rateof 40 messages per second.XII. MAIN BENEFICIARIES:1. Audio alarms can be installed to alertpeople.2. Trains could be stopped.3. Fire stations and hospital operation roomscan be alerted.4. Emergency generators can be started.XIII. LIMITATIONS:The interface units for accelerometers and handsetsare not available in the market. So these have to bedeveloped indigenously. Seismology divisions ofvarious government organizations are working on asimilar type of system for the measurement of theearth vibration using accelerometers or seismographs.Eg: Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Indianmeteorological department Institute of Astrophysics.XIV.CONCLUSION:This earthquake alert systems senses earthquakewaves, transmits these discrete magnitude values to acentral place via.. GSM cell phone network, and usescomputer-based decision making to deliver alertsignals to the identified receivers placed at differenttowns and cities for both public and governmentconsumption. The system is simple and could beconfigured with available resources in the country.Detailed simulation, feasibility study andexperimentation are required to optimize the systemand reduce the possibilities of false alarm.XV. RESULT:Thus the people who live in the coastal areas inearthquake prone zones can be benefited from thissystem. Early safety precautions and measures can betaken by using this system. The results produced bythe system are faster and accurate.XVI. REFERENCES:[1].http://ioc3.unesco.org/itic/files/itsu20_doc711.pdf[2].http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunami_warning_system.[3].http://ioc3.unesco.org/itic/files/itsu20_doc711.pdf[4]. way2students.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/TSUNAM.doc.[5]. http://www.nti.org/e_research/e3_9a.html.[6].http://www.iris.edu/news/newsletter/vol7no2/page5.htm.[7].http://books.google.co.in/books?id=X8hEt3l1SPQC&pg=PA612&lpg=PA612&dq=The+speed+of+earthquakes+varies+with+the+soil+condition+at+different+locations&source=bl&ots=4GfgU9rBzi&sig=3PJJqRo0RYg7Y_rI0lsvMB99_tk&hl=en&ei=M4w5TZuYBourrAelpvjHCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false.[8]. V. Plessi and F. Bastianini and S. Sedigh-Ali:“An autonomous and adaptable wireless device forflood monitoring”.[9]. “Earthquakes: Simulations, Sources andTsunamis” - Kristy F. Tiampo, Stuart A. Weinstein,Dion K. Weatherley.916