Navigation without GPS: Fake Location for MobilePhone TrackingWichian Premchaiswadi, Walisa RomsaiyudGraduate School of In...
blocked by tall buildings, mountainous areas or otherobstructions. It also makes it possible for mobile phone users tofull...
A Status A=active or V=Void.1372.1658, N Latitude 13 deg 72.165 N10045.3184, E Longitude 100 deg 45.318 E0.155 Speed over ...
the scanning CellID algorithm for searching the current mobileuser’s location retrieved from the CellID database.User scen...
IV. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTINGThe application of Fake Location typically requires a celltower to identify the current mobi...
As Fig. 7 illustrates, we use the yahoo eagle web service todisplay the current location for the mobile application (forin...
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Navigation without gps fake location for mobile phone tracking

  1. 1. Navigation without GPS: Fake Location for MobilePhone TrackingWichian Premchaiswadi, Walisa RomsaiyudGraduate School of Information Technology in Business,Siam University,Bangkok,, walisa.rom@siam.eduNucharee PremchaiswadiFaculty of Information Technology,Dhurakij Pundit University,Bangkok,— Despite an increasing demand and popularity in theglobal mobile market, there is still a lot of development work tobe done to improve the limitations of mobile devices and networkbandwidth. Currently mobile phones provide many usefulcapabilities such as touch screen, voice dialing, speakerphone,intelligent typing, high capacity camera, Quad-bandGSM/GPRS/EDGE as well as high-end features like GPSNavigation. It is obvious that the more advanced featuresincluded to the mobile phones, their price would be higher. Thispaper attempts to provide a new application named as “FakeLocation” to enable GPS Navigation on mobile phones at anaffordable price for users. Our application enhances both the linklayer and the network layer handovers using Fake Location’sinformation driven from the mobile phone’s Cell Tower.Currently, GPS application development has a large number oflimitations with regard to inefficiency in supporting the indoorpositioning of mobile phones. Fake Location uses text filesobtained from Cell Tower to simulate the functionalities of a GPSreceiver. The motivation behind this research is to fulfill the needfor mobile phone users of any model to utilize the profoundbenefits of applying GPS in order to make an instantidentification of the location of mobile phone users. Moreover,the tracking function is also provided to capture the motion fromone point to another point via Google Map.Keywords- Mobile Location-Based Services; GPS;FakeLocation; National Marine Electronics Association;I. INTRODUCTIONOver the past few years, communication technology hascontinued to grown rapidly and a large number of mobilephone applications are currently developed in order toadaptively and actively serve the users’ needs and demands.One of the most popular applications for mobile phones is GPSNavigation. NAVSTAR [1, 2] is an acronym of NAVigationSatellite Timing and Ranging often referred to the GlobalPositioning System (GPS) or NAVSTAR-GPS. GPS [3, 4] candetermine the location of an object on earth with an accuracyranging from tens of meters down to millimeters, depending onthe receiver and signal processing technology. It is a satellite-based system that is comprised of 24 satellites orbiting theearth. Since GPS signals have a higher frequency than radiosignals, therefore the GPS signals can be transmitted withoutany interference with radio signals. In addition, the GPS canprovide accurate positioning 24 hours a day, anywhere in theworld.Due to the fact that GPS offers the advantage of efficientsingle person mapping with high accuracy, it is currently beingutilized for various applications such as Navigation Systems,Automatic Vehicle Location Systems, Mapping and conductingsurvey research. We all know that GPS Navigation isexclusively available on a majority of expensive andsophisticated mobile phones. For instant, mobile phones withbuilt-in GPS [5] such as Nokia N96, Nokia 6210 Navigator, O2XDA Orbit are gaining more users’ interest than ones withoutthe function such as O2 XDA Atom, HTC Touch2 (T3320) orASUS P526. Therefore, it is obvious that price is the biggestobstacle for users with a limited budget to afford a mobilephone with GPS functionality.After conducting an analysis, we found that there are anumber of factors that can affect GPS accuracy. For example,satellite geometry can affect the quality of GPS signals and theaccuracy of receiver trilateration. In simple terms, satellitegeometry refers to where the satellites are located in relation toeach other (from the perspective of the GPS receiver). If a GPSreceiver is locked onto four satellites and all four of thesesatellites are in the sky to the north and west of the receiver,satellite geometry is rather poor. In fact, the GPS receiver maybe unable to provide a position reading. This is due to all thedistance measurements coming from the same generaldirection, which means triangulation is poor and the commonarea where these distance measurements intersect is fairly large(i.e., the area where the GPS receiver thinks our position coversa large space, so pinpointing a position is not possible). In thisscenario, even if the GPS receiver does report a position,accuracy will not be very good (maybe off as much as 300-500feet). Satellite geometry also becomes an issue in Telematics.When using a GPS receiver in a vehicle, near tall buildings, orin mountainous or canyon areas, the GPS signals can beblocked from several satellites. The relative position of theremaining satellites will determine how accurate the GPSposition will be (and the number of remaining satellites willdetermine if a position can even be determined). As buildingsor terrain obstructs more and more of the sky, it becomesincreasingly difficult to determine a position.This research proposed software application has beendeveloped to provide navigation and positioning functions onmobile phones even in the areas where the GPS signals are2011 11th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications978-1-61284-671-2/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE 195
  2. 2. blocked by tall buildings, mountainous areas or otherobstructions. It also makes it possible for mobile phone users tofully utilize the GPS function at an affordable cost. Theproposed application was designed to support mobile phonesrunning the Windows Mobile operating system version 5.0 orlater that have no built-in GPS. By installing our proposedapplication, the mobile phones can provide accurate data onnavigation, positioning, and timing as well as the built-in GPSreceivers in the new model mobile phones.Therefore, the present research seeks to bridge the gapbetween the high-end mobile phone users (with built-in GPSnavigation capabilities) and other users who have a limitedbudget and cannot afford mobile phones with built-in GPSfunctions. Consequently, low price-oriented users also canbenefit from a “FakeLocation” utility in order to get theirlocation data from the mobile devices.The rest of this paper is organized as following. In Section2, we review and describe related technology. Section 3addresses the system architecture. Section 4 describes thedesign and implementation. And the final section provides aconclusion and describes the future work.II. LITERATURE REVIEWIn this section, we present a literature review for severaltopics that are related to Fake GPS as follows:A. Fake GPSAs more mobile devices add location-based services, moreways of determining users locations are being introduced."Fake GPS" simulates the power of the satellite-based globalpositioning system by other means. Fake GPS [6 - 8] is ageneral term describing the use of signals from cell phonetowers or Wi-Fi hotspots to triangulate and display the positionof a user of a mobile electronic device. The main disadvantageof Fake GPS is that it does not work outside of cellular towerrange, or if Wi-Fi signals are used, out of Wi-Fi range. Also, inorder to derive this benefit from Wi-Fi hotspots as well as thefixed location points, they must be accurately identified andtheir coordinates accurately recorded in a database, and not allWi-Fi hotspots are in a database. Users will still receive themost accurate (within 3 meters with the Wide AreaAugmentation System: WAAS) and reliable location data fromtrue GPS, but fake GPS is a viable option and a good backup,especially in major metro areas.Kukshya et al. [9] described the exceptional situation whenGPS services are unavailable, such as construction blocking, noGPS or faulty GPS devices, GPS service outages or under GPSattack. J. S. Warner et al. [10] showed that civilian GPSdevices can be jammed and spoofed by GPS satellite simulatorswhich transmit stronger radio signals, so fake GPS signals canflood the real GPS signal.B. National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA)The National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) [11,12] has developed a specification that defines the interfacebetween various pieces of marine electronic equipment. Thestandard permits marine electronics to send information tocomputers and to other marine equipments. GPS receivercommunication is defined within this specification. Mostcomputer programs that provide real time position informationunderstand and expect data to be in NMEA format. This dataincludes the complete PVT (position, velocity, time) solutioncomputed by the GPS receiver. The idea of NMEA is to send aline of data called a sentence that is totally self contained andindependent from other sentences. Each sentence begins with a$ and ends with a carriage return/line feed sequence and canbe no longer than 80 characters of visible text (plus the lineterminators). The data is contained within this single line withdata items separated by commas. The data itself is just ASCIItext and may extend over multiple sentences in certainspecialized instances but is normally fully contained in onevariable length sentence. The data may vary in the amount ofprecision contained in the message. For example [13 – 15],time might be indicated to decimal parts of a second or locationmight show with 3 or even 4 digits after the decimal point.Programs that read the data should only use the commas todetermine the field boundaries and not depend on columnpositions. There is a provision for a checksum at the end ofeach sentence which may or may not be checked by the unitthat reads the data. The checksum field consists of a * and twohex digits representing an 8 bit exclusive OR of all charactersbetween, but not including, the $ and *. A checksum isrequired for some sentences.There are many sentences in the NMEA standard for allkinds of devices that may be used in a Marine environment (allmessage start with GP.) such as RMC: RecommendedMinimum data for GPS, GGA: Fix information, GLL: Lat/Londata or GSA: Overall Satellite data that we describe in Fig 1.$GPRMC,115258,A,1372.1658,N,10045.3184,E,0.155,223.32,081210$GPVTG,223.32,T,,M,0.155,N,0.288,K,A*3C$GPGGA,115258,1372.1658,N,10045.3184,E,1,08,1.68,185.0,M,-27.1....$GPGSA,A,3,26,24,15,12,05,29,10,30,,,,,2.29,1.68,1.56*0F$GPGSV,3,1,12,26,60,037,19,24,49,356,18,15,80,028,22,02,29,105,*7F$GPGSV,3,2,12,12,08,193,22,05,08,205,33,18,20,278,17,29,59,280,22*7C$GPGSV,3,3,12,10,22,041,13,21,15,320,19,30,09,228,21,09,21,169,20*75$GPGLL,1372.1658,N,10045.3184,E,115258,A,A*63Figure 1. The Example location data at Siam University, Bangkok, Thailandon NMEA format[14].As Fig. 1 illustrates some syntax from a NMEA format asfollowing:$GPRMC,115258, A,1372.1658,N,10045.3184,E,0.155,223.32,081210Where:RMC Recommended Minimum sentence GPS115258 Fix taken at 11:52:58 UTC196
  3. 3. A Status A=active or V=Void.1372.1658, N Latitude 13 deg 72.165 N10045.3184, E Longitude 100 deg 45.318 E0.155 Speed over the ground in knots223.3 Track angle in degrees True081210 Date - 08thof December 2010$GPVTG,223.32,T,,M,0.155,N,0.288,K,A*3CWhere:VTG Track made good and ground speed223.32,T True track made good (degree)M Magnetic track made good0.155,N Ground speed, knots0.288,K Ground speed, Kilometers per hourA*3C ChecksumAfter decoding the navigation sentences, our system getsthe information from current Cell Tower and writes into textfile in the standard format of NMEA. If mobile device is out ofcoverage area, our system will switch to Cell Tower to get themobile device location’s information.C. Radio Interface LayerThe Radio Interface Layer (RIL) [16, 17] is divided intotwo separate components, a RIL Driver and a RIL Proxy. TheRIL Driver processes radio commands and events. The RILProxy performs arbitration between multiple clients for accessto the single RIL driver.Figure 2. RIL Architecture [16].As Fig. 2 illustrates, when a module first registers with theRIL, it passes in two callback functions. One is used forunsolicited notifications, and the other is used for responses tofunction calls. For example, when the phone receives a newincoming call, the RIL uses the unsolicited notificationcallback to notify each module about the incoming call. Weneed to crack open the Windows Mobile Radio Interface Layerto get cell tower data.D. Cell TowerThe Cell Tower has a unique number for a GSM cell for agiven operator. The mobile phone is always connected to a Celland by knowing this number, people know the Cell, and byknowing the position of the cell, they know where people are.There can be an accuracy issue, as the cell can cover fromseveral hundreds of meters to several kilometers, but this couldbe a very good starting point to determine a location.The information received from cell towers consists of 4components as:• CellID: Cell Tower Code (identification);• LAC: Local Area Code;• MNC: Mobile Network Code;• MCC: Mobile Country Code.Lat: 19.896937Lon: 99.846399Mcc: 520Mnc: 18Lac: 40014CellID: 40582Range: 0Nbsamples: 1Created at: Mon May 09 07:34:06 +0200 2011Updated at: Mon May 09 07:34:06 +0200 2011Needscomputation: trueFigure 3. The DTAC operator in Thailand.Fig. 3 illustrates an example of the telecommunicationoperator in Thailand, DTAC operator. The MCC 520represents country as Thailand, MNC 18 as DTAC1and CellIDas 40582.III. ARCHITECTURAL OVERVIEWIn this section, we present the mobile phones’ Fake GPSLocation application as a general term describing the use ofsignals from cell phone towers or Wi-Fi hotspots to triangulateand display the position of a user of a mobile electronic device.Fake GPS may be the only means of determining position thatis built into a device, or it may be a secondary or backup sourceof position data used only when a true GPS satellite signal isunable to reach the users position due to tall buildings, thickindoor walls, or other obstructions. Applying this application,we can track the movements from the start position to thedestination position. The Windows Mobile 6.5.3 DTK has autility called FakeGPS that uses a text file that contains GPSlocation data obtained from the Cell Sites to simulate thefunctionality of a GPS receiver. Our application collects theinformation of CellID positioning system from nearby Cell Site(i.e., longitude, latitude, MCC, MNC, etc). In order toimplement the tracking feature, SMS and Google Map, we used1MNC : Mobile Network Code is used in combination with a Mobile CountryCode(MCC) such as MCC/MNC:520/00 as CAT CDMA, MCC/MNC:520/01as AIS GSM and MCC/MNC:520/99 as True Move197
  4. 4. the scanning CellID algorithm for searching the current mobileuser’s location retrieved from the CellID database.User scenario example: a mobile user starts our applicationto get the information of the current location by using SMS totrack the movements of the mobile device. For example, Nancyis a student who goes to a primary school every day. Herschool is so far from home and her Dad, John, uses ourapplication to track his daughter school. Nancy uses a mobileSIM card from DTAC operator in Thailand. Therefore, whenshe is under the coverage of DTAC Cell Tower and when sheis moving from home to school, our application collects theinformation of the current position from the nearby DTAC CellTower every 5 seconds. This information (latitude, longitude,date and time) is appended into text files and stored in thestorage memory of Nancy’s mobile phone. In addition, ourapplication generates SMS and E-mail (based on the requestscope) to report John the current position of Nancy every 5minutes. Our application converts the latitude/longitudecoordinates into the real street addresses (for example, Latitudeof 13.721658 and Longitude of 100.453184 are shown as SiamUniversity, Bangkok, Thailand). Moreover, John can track themovements of Nancy on “Google Maps” application on hismobile phone. Our application can be applied either throughweb or mobile as following: 1) We deployed the webapplication to track the route through “Google Maps” and thenreceive the location positioning via email. 2) We developed theapplication for mobile holders as mentioned earlier in Nancy’sscenario.The advantages of our proposed approach are as follows: 1)Navigating the mobile’s current position without GPS. 2)Availability of a low-cost mobile device with no built-in GPSand 3) Supporting the application in the areas that are toodifficult to detect the GPS signal such as indoors.As Fig. 4 illustrates, our method is based on the followingmajor steps: (1) Mobile’s user gets the current locationinformation from the nearest ‘cell tower’ in that vicinity. (2)The mobile application creates the text file for collecting thecurrent location. (3) The ‘cell tower’ broadcasts the signalcarrying the information of location area code, mobile countrycode, mobile network code, Latitude, Longitude, date and time.(4) While moving from the starting position to the destination,the different coverages from different cell towers may beapplied to the mobile user (depends on the location). (5) Thecell tower of each mobile phone operator gets the currentlocation and mapping with geolocation. At present, Thailandhas eight main mobile network operators [17]; CAT CDMA,AIS, DTAC, WCS, ACT Mobile, AcES Thailand, DigitalPhone CO and True Move (6) Retrieve the geolocation anddraw the route (This function supports navigation function tofind the way from starting position). (7) Display the route onthe Google Map. (8) Moreover, the application generates theSMS or Email that is captured from each ‘cell tower’ and sendsit back to another mobile phone or email address as shown inFigure 4 in which describes the overview of our proposedapplication.Figure 4. The architectural overview of our proposed application.198
  5. 5. IV. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTINGThe application of Fake Location typically requires a celltower to identify the current mobile’s user location without anyGPS signal or GPS receiver. We proposed 3 main modules asCall Tracker, SMS dispatch and Google Maps. 1) Call Tracker:We get the cell tower information in each area from eachmobile phone operator. The procedure starts when the mobilephone user starts service for getting the current location(latitude, longitude from cell tower). Once the location isfound, the application uses the Radio Interface Layer (RIL) ofthe Windows Mobile in order to compare the Geolocation inthe database. When the mobile user is moving, every 5,000milliseconds (5 seconds), then the application generates newlatitude and longitude that lets us know about such movementswithout any need for GPS. 2) SMS dispatch: The system sendsSMS to another mobile phone or email and finally, 3) GoogleMap: displays the movement from the starting position to theend position that will be shown on a Google Map. The steps inthe procedure are illustrated in the following pseudo code 1.Pseudocode 1:1. Create Text File2. Get GeoLocation for Current Location3. Get the current location(Latitude, Longitude) from CellSite4. Represent latitude and longitude locations5. Compare GeoLocation instances for equality6. Location provider to get cell tower details from theWindows Mobile Radio Interface layer7. GeoLocation = currentCellTower8. location = GoogleMaps (Database)9. check timer interval = 5000 ms. (5 seconds)10. Wait for cell tower info to be returned sinceRIL_GetCellTowerInfo invokes the callback methodasynchronously.11. Convert the raw tower data structure data into aCellTower object12. return new CellTower()13. {a. TowerId = Convert.ToInt32(_towerDetails.dwCellID),b. LocationAreaCode =Convert.ToInt32(_towerDetails.dwLocationAreaCode),c. MobileCountryCode =Convert.ToInt32(_towerDetails.dwMobileCountryCode),d. MobileNetworkCode =Convert.ToInt32(_towerDetails.dwMobileNetworkCode)}14. Write to Text file15. Send the SMS that contain Latitude and Longitude inevery 5 seconds.16. Drawing the route17. Mapping route in Google Map18. Convert latitude and longitude of currentLocation tolocation name.Figure 5. Mobile Routing.As Fig. 5 illustrates, when a mobile user begins the service,the application receives a current location from a cell tower inthe nearest vicinity. The application can show the route thatmoves from the starting position to the destination position.The tracker module is useful for tracking the path or predictingthe direction of mobile user. Finally, this application has manyhelpful functions, from guiding the way for tracking kids byparents or even security for car when it is stolen or broken.Figure 6. Mobile Phone Tracking.As Fig. 6 illustrates, while a mobile user is moving, theSMS dispatch module will generate the current locationinformation (as latitude and longitude) to another mobile phoneor web application for getting the direction. However, we usethe Google Map API for displaying the map on the mobilephone to increase the performance and provide moreunderstandable details of the current location.199
  6. 6. As Fig. 7 illustrates, we use the yahoo eagle web service todisplay the current location for the mobile application (forinstance, current latitude = 13.72163333 and longitude =100.45320000 Siam University, Prasri Charoen, Bangkok,Thailand). The mobile application is coupled with the ability tozoom-in/ zoom-out on Google Map.V. CONCLUSIONSThis paper proposes the design and implementation of aFake Location system that enables positioning to identify thelocation of users without using a real GPS receiver. Ourapplication stores Latitude and Longitude data into a text filefor tracking and locating the position of the mobile phoneusers. The experimental results show that the application candetermine the location of users and display the travel routefrom a start point to all other locations via Google Map andsending back SMS messages. The limitation of using thisapplication is that the mobile phone user needs to be within thecoverage areas provided by ‘mobile cell towers’. In addition,our application can be used for a variety of different purposessuch as a child tracking system to help parents to keep track oftheir children (by which the parents receive informationshowing their childs location via SMS or a Google Map). It isalso an ideal solution for tracking elderly patients. Also, it canbe used as a security system to track and find stolen vehicles ordevices (i.e. cars, trucks or mobile phones). However, thisapplication needs the latitude and longitude information of thelocation (collected in the text file in the early phase) to workproperly without a GPS receiver and mobile phone users haveto be in Cellular tower range. In the future work, we willdevelop an application to get the current indoor location byusing Wi-Fi access points (for example, finding the doctors inwhich room or students attend in class-room).REFERENCES[1][2][3] Guochang Xu, “GPS:theory, algorithms, and applications”, Springer,2007.[4] Ahmed El-Rabbany, “Introduction to GPS: the Global PositioningSystem”, Artech House, 2002.[5][6][7][8] Azzedine Boukerche, “Algorithms and protocols for wireless and mobilead hoc networks”, John Wiley and Sons, 2009.[9] Kukshya, V.; Krishnan, H.; Kellum, “ Design of a system solution forrelative positioning of vehicles using vehicle-to-vehicle radiocommunications during gps outages”. Vehicular Technology Conference2005, 2:1313–1317, October 2005.[10] J. S. Warner and R. G. Johnston, “Think GPS cargo tracking highsecurity? Think again”, Technical report, Los Alamos NationalLaboratory,2003.[11] Varshney U., “Issues, requirements and support for location intensivemobile commerce applications”, Int J Mob Commun, 1(3) pp. 247–263,2003.[12] Edwin R. Sherman, “Advanced marine electrics and electronicstroubleshooting: a manual for boatowners and marine technicians”,McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007.[13] John C. Payne, “The motorboat Electrical and Electronics Manual”,Sheridan House, Inc., 2002.[14][15][16][17][18] Microsoft Corporationm, “Radio Interface Layer (RIL) White paper”,June 2004.[19]