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Proceeding of the 2011 IEEE Students Technology Symposium 14-16 January, 2011, lIT KharagpurNavatascaramam Dasatah" sutra is used for the multiplicationpurpose, with less number of partial products generation, incomparison with array based multiplication. When comparedwith existing methods such as the direct method or thestrength reduction technique, our approach resulted not only insimplified arithmetic operations, but also in a regular arraylike structure. The multiplier is fully parameterized, so anyconfiguration of input and output word-lengths could beelaborated. Transistor level implementation for perfonnanceparameters such as propagation delay, dynamic leakage powerand dynamic switching power consumption calculation of theproposed method was calculated by spice spectre using 90 nmstandard CMOS technology and compared with the otherdesign like distributed arithmetic[3], parallel adder basedimplementation [1] and algebraic transfonnation[2] basedimplementation. The calculated results revealed (16,16)x(16,16) complex multiplier have propagation delay only 4ns with 6.5 mW dynamic switching power. In this paper we report on a novel high speed complexmultiplier design using ancient Indian Vedic mathematics. Thepaper is organized as follows; Mathematical fonnulation ofthe Vedic sutras and its application towards multiplier isdescribed in section II; section III consists transistor levelhardware implementation for multiplication algorithm usingVedic mathematics; section IV representing proposedalgorithm for complex multiplier design section Vrepresenting the simulation results and finally Section VIrepresenting the conclusions. II. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF VEDIC SUTRAS Fig, I: Multiplication procedure using "Urdhva-tiryakbyham " sutra The gifts of the ancient Indian mathematics in the world B. "Nikhilam Navatascaramam Dasatah" Sutrahistory of mathematical science are not well recognized. Thecontributions of saint and mathematician in the field ofnumber theory, Sri Bharati Krsna Thirthaji Maharaja, in the Nikhilam sutra means "all from 9 and last from 10".fonn of Vedic Sutras (fonnulas) [11] are significant for Mathematical description of this sutra can be fonnulated as:calculations. He had explored the mathematical potentials Assuming A and B are two n-bit numbers to be multiplied andfrom Vedic primers and showed that the mathematical their product is equals to P. ioperations can be carried out mentally to produce fast answers A Lf:Ol Ai 10 = where Ai E {O,l, ... ... ...9} (1)using the Sutras. In this paper we are concentrating on B Lf:O = l Bi 10i where Bi E {O,l, ...... ...9} (2)"Urdhva-tiryakbyham", and "Nikhilam NavatascaramamDasatah" fonnulas and other fonnulas are beyond the scope of Multiplication Rule:this paper. P=AB (3)A. "Urdhva-tiryakbyham " Sutra Equation (3) can be refonnulated as by adding and subtracting The meaning of this sutra is "Vertically and crosswise" the tenn 102"+ l O"(A+8) in the right hand sideand it is applicable to all the multiplication operations. Fig. 1represents the general multiplication procedure of the 4x4 P = AB + I02n + IOnCA + B) - I02n - IOnCA + B) (4)multiplication. This procedure is simply known as array = {lOnCA + B) - I02n} + 102n - IOnCA + B) + AB (5)multiplication technique [12]. It is an efficient multiplicationtechnique when the multiplier and multiplicand lengths are Equation no 5 can be derived for both the numbers if thesmall, but for the larger length multiplication this technique is number is greater than the base or less than the base.not suitable because a large amount of carry propagationdelays are involved in these cases. To overcome this problem If the number is greater than the base:we are describing Nikhilam sutra for calculating themultiplication of two larger numbers. = IOn{CA + B) - IOn} + {(10n - A)CIOn - B)} (6) If the number is less than the base:TSllVLSIOP153 238
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Proceeding of the 2011 IEEE Students Technology Symposium 14-16 January, 2011, lIT Kharagpur= lOn{(A + B) - iOn} + {(A - 10n)(B - ion)} (7) then the multiplication of the residual parts (Zl xz2) can be easier to compute. The Subtractor blocks are required to 10n{A - (lOn - B)} + {(ion - A)(lOn - B)} (8) extract the residual parts (ZI and Z2). The second subsection (ED) is used to extract the power (kl and k2) of the radix and= lOn(A - B) + (A B)} (9) it is followed by a subtractor to calculate the value of (k1 - k2).The third subsection array multiplier [10] is used toWhere A and B are the lOn,s complement of A and B. calculate the product (Zl xZZ). The output of the subtractor (kl- k2) and Zz are fed to the shifter block to calculate the value ofSubtraction Rule: Z2 x Zk1-k2.The first adder-subtractor block has been used toA= iOn - Lf=-Ol Ai 10i (10) calculate the value of X ± Z2 x Zk1-k2• The output of the first adder-subtractor and the output of the second Exponent (11) Determinant (k2) are fed to the second shifter block to compute the value of Zk2 x (X ± Z2 X Zk1-k2). The output ofThe serious drawback of Nikhilam sutra can be summarized the multiplier (ZI xz2) and the output of the second shifteras: (Zk2 x (X ± Z2 x Zk1-k2))are fed to the second adder (i) Both the multiplier and multiplicand are less or subtractor block to compute the value of (Zk2 x (X ± Z2 x greater than the base. Zk1-k2)) ± Zl Z2 (ii) Multiplier and multiplicand are nearer to the base. A. Mathematical expression/or RSU Consider an n bit binary number X, and it can be represented as III. PROPOSED MULT1PLlER ARCHITECTURE DESIGN X= Lf�l Xi Zi Where XjE {O, l}. Then the values of X must lie in the rangeZn-1 ::;; X < Zn. Consider the mean of the The mathematical expression for the proposed algorithm is range is equals to A.shown below. Broadly this algorithm is divided into threeparts. (i) Radix Selection Unit (ii) Exponent Determinant (iii) 2n-1+2n A= (20)Multiplier. 2 --Consider two n bit numbers X and Y. kl and k2 are the = zn-2 X 3exponent of X and Y respectively. X and Y can be represented If X >A Then radix = 2nas: If X::;; A Then radix = 2n-1X= Zk1 ± Zl (12) x yy= Zk2 ± Z2 (13) For the fast multiplication using Nikhilam sutra the basesof the multiplicand and the multiplier would be same, (here wehave considered different base) thus the equation (13) can berewritten as (19) Fig. 2: Hardware implementation of "NikhiIam Sutra " Hardware implementation of this mathematics is shown in The Block level architecture of RSU is shown in Fig.Fig. 2. The architecture can be decomposed into three main 3.RSU consists of three main subsections: (i) Exponentsubsections: (i) Radix Selection Unit (RSU) (ii) Exponent Determinant (ED), (ii) Mean Determinant (MD) and (iii)Determinant (ED) and (iii) Array Multiplier. The RSU is Comparator. n number bit from input X is fed to the EDrequired to select the proper radices corresponding to the input block. The maximum power of X is extracted at the outputnumbers. If the selected radix is nearer to the given number which is again fed to shifter and the adder block. The secondTSllVLSIOP153 239
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Proceeding of the 2011 IEEE Students Technology Symposium 14-16 January, 2011, lIT Kharagpurinput to the shifter is the (n+I) bit representation of decimal1.If the maximum power of X from the ED unit is (n-I) then X (input number)the output of the shifter is i"-I). The adder unit is needed toincrement the value of the maximum power of X by I. Thesecond shifter is needed to generate the value of 2".Here n is Shift. Gnd ���4---�----- {the incremented value taken from the adder block. The Mean SO-J.----I +Determinant unit is required to compute the mean of (zn-l Sll-r----��--�-Zn). The Comparator compares the actual input with the mean + I----.. Dont Carevalue of (zn-l zn). If the input is greater than the meanthen 2" is selected as the required radix. If the input is lessthan the mean then 2"-1 is selected as the radix. The selectinput to the multiplexer block is taken from the output of thecomparator.B. Exponent Determinant The hardware implementation of the exponent Exponentdeterminant is shown in Fig. 4.The integer part or exponent ofthe number from the binary fixed point number can be Fig. 4: Hardware implementation of exponent determinantobtained by the maximum power of the radix. For the nonzero input, shifting operation is executed using parallel in IV. COMPLEX MULTIPLIERparallel out (PIPO) shift registers. The number of select lines(in FigA it is denoted as S], So) of the PIPO shifter is chosen Complex multiplier design by using parallel adders andas per the binary representation of the number (N-1)IO. Shift subtractors has been designed by Saha[I]. Fig. 5 shows thepin is assigned in PIPO shifter to check whether the number is direct method for implementation of the complex multiplierto be shifted or not (to initialize the operation Shift pin is design. In this paper complex multiplier design is done usinginitialized to low). A decrementer [13] has been integrated in Vedic Multipliers and Vedic subtractors.this architecture to follow the maximum power of the radix. A Multiplication Algorithmsequential searching procedure has been implemented here to <Input>search the first I starting from the MSB side by using A and B : Multiplicand and multiplier respectively.shifting technique. For an N bit number, the value (N-I)1 O is Both are complex numbers .A =Ar +jA; and B =Br +jB; (here all are N Bit unsigned numbers). X (nBit) Stepl. Select the appropriate base using RSU. Step2. Multiply the numbers as shown in Fig 15 and then add or subtract them to obtain the real and the imaginary part of the result . �_l--�_-J.-l bit represe:n1ationofl -.:n+-::.. > <Output> Cin=l Result :Cr and C; are the real and imaginary part of complex number. V. SIMULATION RESULT ANALYSIS All the algorithm of this paper was simulated and their functionality was examined by using Spice Spectre. Performance parameters such as propagation delay and power consumptions analysis of this paper using standard 90nm Selected CMOS technology. To evaluate the performance parameters, Radix we give the values of the computational effort using array Fig. 3: Hardware implementation of RSU multiplier and Vedic multiplier. As shown, the application of the Vedic method for mUltiplication cuts the amount of thefed to the input of decrementer. The decrementer is hardware as well as increases the performance parametersdecremented based on a control signal which is generated by such as propagation delay, dynamic switching powerthe searched result. If the searched bit is 0 then the control consumptions, and dynamic leakage power consumptions. Thesignal becomes low then decrementer start decrementing the performance parameters analysis using array multiplicationinput value (Here the decrementer is operating in active low and Vedic multiplication is shown in Table I. Input data islogic). The searched bit is used as a controller of the taken as a regular fashion for experimental purpose. We havedecrementer. When the searched bit is I then the control kept our main concentration for reducing the propagationsignal becomes high and the decrementer stops further delay, dynamic switching power and dynamic leakage powerdecrementing and shifter also stops shifting operation. The consumption and energy delay product.output of the decrementer shows the integer part (exponent) of A comparison between different architecture in terms ofthe number. propagation delay and dynamic switching power consumptionTSllVLSIOP153 240
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Proceeding of the 2011 IEEE Students Technology Symposium 14-16 January, 2011, lIT Kharagpur arithmetic, parallel adder based implementation, and algebraic B· 1-. transformation based implementation. This novel architecture combines the advantages of the Vedic mathematics for multiplication which encounters the stages and partial product reduction. The proposed complex number multiplier offered 20% and 19% improvement in terms of propagation delay and power consumption respectively, in comparison with parallel adder based implementation. Whereas, the corresponding improvement in terms of delay and power was found to be 33% and 46% respectively, with reference to the algebraic transformation based implementation. Future work is in progress regarding the layout of (16,16)x(16,16) bit complex number multiplier. REFERENCES Fig. 5: Implementation method of complex mUltiplier A comparison between different architecture in terms of [I] P. K. Saha, A. Banerjee, and A. Dandapat, "High Speed Low Power Complex Multiplier Design Using Parallel Adders and Subtractors,"propagation delay and dynamic switching power consumption International Journal on Electronic and Electrical Engineering,is tabulated in Table II. The proposed complex number (/JEEE), vol 07,no. II, pp 38-46,Dec. 2009.multiplier offered 20% and 19% improvement in terms of [2] R. E. Blahut, Fast Algorithms for Digital Signal Processing, Reading,propagation delay and power consumption respectively, in MA: Addison-Wesley, 1987. [3] S. He, and M. Torkelson, "A pipelined bit-serial complex multipliercomparison with parallel adder based implementation. using distributed arithmetic," in proceedings IEEE InternationalWhereas, the corresponding improvement in terms of delay Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Seattle, WA, April 30-May-03,and power was found to be 33% and 46% respectively, with 1995,pp. 2313-2316.reference to the algebraic transformation based [4] J. E. VoIder, "The CORDIC trigonometric computing technique," IRE Trans. Electron. Comput., vol. EC-8,pp. 330-334,Sept. 1959.implementation. [5] R. Krishnan, G. A. Jullien, and W. C. Miller, "Complex digital signal processing using quadratic residue number systems," IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing, vol. 34,Feb. 1985. TABLE I [6] T. Aoki, K. Hoshi, and T. Higuchi,"Redundant complex arithmetic and PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX MULTIPLIER its application to complex multiplier design," in Proceedings 29th IEEE International symposium on Multiple-Valued-Logic, Freiburg, May 20-Multi Using Array Multiplier Using Vedic MUltiplier 22,1999,pp. 200-207.plier Del Avg. Lkg. EDP Dela Avg. Lkg. EDP [7] Z. Huang, and M. D. Ercegovac, "High-Performance Low-Power LeftType ay Power Pow (lO- y Powe Pow (10- to-Right Array Multiplier Design," IEEE Transactions on Computers, 21 ) 21 ) (ns) (mw) er J-s (ns) r er J- vol 54,no. 3, pp 272-283,March 2005. (m (mW (m s [8] S. Y. Kung, H. J. Whitehouse, and T. Kailath,VLSI and Modern Signal W) ) W) Processing, Englewood Cliffs,NJ: Prentice-Hall,1985.4x4 1.87 3.02 1.73 10.56 1.11 1.74 1.68 2.14 [9] P. Mehta, and D. Gawali, "Conventional versus Vedic mathematical method for Hardware implementation of a multiplier," in Proceedings8x8 3.56 4.14 6.78 52.46 2.02 3.29 3.12 13.4 IEEE International Cotiference on Advances in Computing, Control, and 3 Telecommunication Technologies, Trivandrum, Kerala, Dec. 28-29,16xl6 5.03 7.89 11.1 199.6 4 6.5 6.78 104 2009,pp. 640-642. [IO] H. D. Tiwari, G. Gankhuyag,C. M. Kim, and Y. B. Cho, "Multiplier design based on ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics," in Proceedings IEEE International SoC Design Cotiference, Busan, Nov. 24-25, 2008, TABLE II pp. 65-68. COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT ARCHITECTURE OF [11] J. S. S. B. K. T. Maharaja, Vedic mathematiCS, Delhi: Motilal COMPLEX MULTIPLIER Banarsidass Publishers Pvt Ltd,200I.Multiplier Type Architecture Delay Power EDP [12] C. S. Wallace, "A suggestion for a fast multiplier," lEE Trans. Used (ns) (mw) ( 10-2 1 J-s) Electronic Comput., vol. EC-3,pp. 14-17,Dec. 1964.16xl6 Blahut [2] 6 12 432 [I3] P. K. Saha, A. Banerjee, and A. Dandapat, "High Speed Low Power Factorial Design in 22nm Technology," in Proceedings AlP16xl6 Distributed Algorithm [3] 25 15 9375 International Cotiference on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology,16xl6 Saha [ I] 5 8 200 Guwahati,2009,pp. 294-301.16xl6 Proposed 4 6.5 104 VI. CONCLUSION In this paper we report on a novel complex numbermultiplier design based on the formulas of the ancient IndianVedic Mathematics, highly suitable for high speed complexarithmetic circuits which are having wide application in VLSIsignal processing. The implementation was done in Spice spectreand compared with the mostly used architecture like distributedTSllVLSIOP153 241