Japan Culture


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Japan Culture

  1. 1. Business Communication Project <br />On <br />JAPAN<br />Submitted By:- <br />Group 7<br />Tharun- A30601909012<br />Mani- A30601909013<br />Ugendhar- A3060909014<br />Suuresh- A30601909040<br />Nandita- A30601909048<br />Dinesh- A30601909062<br />Abhinay- A30601909075<br />Mithun- A30601909082<br />INTRODUCTION<br />In 1603, a Tokugawa shogun ate (military dictatorship) ushered in a long period of isolation from foreign influence in order to secure its power. For more than two centuries this policy enabled Japan to enjoy stability and a flowering of its indigenous culture. Following the Treaty of Kanagawa with the US in 1854, Japan opened its ports and began to intensively modernize and industrialize. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japan became a regional power that was able to defeat the forces of both China and Russia. It occupied Korea, Formosa (Taiwan), and southern Sakhalin Island. In 1931-32 Japan occupied Manchuria, and in 1937 it launched a full-scale invasion of China. Japan attacked US forces in 1941 - triggering America's entry into World War II - and soon occupied much of East and Southeast Asia. After its defeat in World War II, Japan recovered to become an economic power and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity, elected politicians - with heavy input from bureaucrats and business executives - wield actual decision-making power. The economy experienced a major slowdown starting in the 1990s following three decades of unprecedented growth, but Japan still remains a major economic power, both in Asia and globally.<br />Japan has a population of approximately 125 million people packed tightly into a rather small geographic area. The official language in Japan is Japanese. Japanese is spoken only in Japan. The literacy rate in Japan is very close to 100 percent and 95 percent of the Japanese population has a high school education.<br />Japan’s form of government is parliamentarian democracy under the rule of a constitutional monarch. The Prime Minister is the chief government officer. The dominant religion is Shinto, which is exclusive to Japan. However, the Japanese have no official religion.<br />Culturally, the Japanese tend to be somewhat introverted in their ways. They generally are not receptive to outsiders. The relationships and loyalty to the group is critical for success when conducting business in Japan.<br />104774942545<br />Facts:-<br />4 Main islands-Hokkaido, Honshu (or the mainland), Shikoku, and Kyushu.<br />It is small country, about the size of Montana, but ranks 7th in the world in total population with 127,000,000 people.<br />75% Mountainous. Mt. Fuji is the highest peak in Japan, standing 3,776 meters above sea level.<br /><ul><li>Chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)
  2. 2. Head of government: Prime Minister Naoto KAN (since 8 June 2010)</li></ul>Rulers- The emperor was supposed to be the ruler, but the shogun are the ones who actually had more power.<br />Religion- Shinto and Buddhism <br />Tokyo is the capital.<br />Excellent fishing waters, key resource.<br />Lacks many key resources, especially minerals and metals which mean Japan relies heavily on trade.<br />Very mountainous, little productive farmland.<br />Located on the ring of fire, Japan experiences many Earthquakes.<br />Fun Fact:-<br /><ul><li>The Japanese tend to be rather direct in their questioning of foreigners. You may be asked personal questions such as how much money do you earn or how large is your house?
  3. 3. Over 90% of the Japanese population buys a comic-magazine daily
  4. 4. Frogs are the symbol of good luck in Japan
  5. 5. Japanese drink tea with almost every meal
  6. 6. Heavy traffic – In Tokyo, a bicycle is usually faster than a car for most trips up to 50 minutes</li></ul>FLAG<br />The national flag of Japan is a white rectangular flag with a large red disk (representing the sun) in the center. This flag is officially called Nisshōki ("sun-mark flag") in Japanese, but is more commonly known as Hinomaru ("sun disc").<br />Japan Flag Meaning:-<br />The circle in the middle of the flag represents the sun. Japan's name translates to "The land of the rising sun." The white represents honesty and purity and the red disc is a sun symbol meaning brightness, sincerity and warmth.<br />JGSDF: - Japan Ground Self-Defense Forces<br />JASDF: - Japan Air Self-Defense Forces<br />NATIONAL ANTHEM<br />"Kimi Ga Yo" (May 1,000 Years of Happy Reign be yours) is the official national anthem of Japan as was unofficial until 1999. It is in the form of a Waka, an ancient Japanese style of poem, from the Heian period. The author is unknown.<br />Lyrics (Phonetic Translation)<br />Kimi ga yo wa<br />Chiyo ni,<br />Yachiyo ni<br />Sazare ishi no,<br />Iwao to narite,<br />Koke no musu made.<br />Lyrics (English Translation)<br />May my Lord's reign,<br />Continue for a thousand,<br />Eight thousand generations,<br />Until pebbles<br />Grow into boulders,<br />Covered in moss.<br />Lyrics (Japanese)<br />君が代は<br />千代に<br />八千代に<br />さざれ石の<br />巌となりて<br />苔の生すまで<br />There is a theory that this lyric was once a love poem.<br />In 1869 Oyama Iwao and other Satsuma military officers selected Kimi Ga Yo as a national anthem and made an Englishman John William Fenton write music for it. However, due to bad reputation, it was abandoned in 1876. The present music was composed by Hayashi Hiromori in 1880.<br />RELIGION<br />Religion played an important part in Japanese life. At first, most Japanese followed the Shinto religion. This religion is like nature worship. It teaches that sea, trees and other forms of nature are like gods. Japanese also added ancestor worship to their Shinto beliefs. 5591175-593090 Buddhist is one of the major religions in Japan. Buddhist was found in India. It spread across South Asia and reached Japan in 552. Today there are four Buddhist parts in Japan: Zen, Jodo, Shin, Nichiren. Buddhist has influence life in Japan especially its art.<br />Shinto: - believe that all living and non- living things contain spirits, or kami. It linked people to the forces of nature.<br />Buddhism: - Arrived in Japan as a result of cultural diffusion. It divided into different sects, including Zen Buddhism. <br />Confucianism: - Strong emphasis placed on the principles of filial piety (loyalty to parents) and loyalty to the ruler.<br />5353050191135EDUCATION<br />Education played an important role in Japanese life. Almost all Japanese can read and write. Japanese language is not so easy. First, you have to learn the three forms of spoken Japanese. They are intimate, polite, and the honorific. Intimate is used when you’re at home. Polite is used in well-educated companies. Honorific is used to show respect to your elders.<br />CLOTHING<br />Kimono- worn by all classes, men and women. Materials and colors showed the class. Silk was reserved for the upper classes like the samurai while others wore hemp, ramie, cotton and other common fabrics.<br />LAND<br />Japan is an island nation situated off the eastern seaboard of the Eurasian continent in the northern hemisphere. The islands form a crescent-shaped archipelago stretching from northeast to southwest parallel to the continental coastline with the Sea of Japan in between. The country is located between approximately 20 degrees to 45 degrees north latitude and stretches over 3,200 kilometers. It consists of the main islands of Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa, and more than 6,800 smaller islands of varying sizes. Its surface area totals approximately 380,000 square kilometers, a figure equivalent to 0.3 percent of the global land mass.<br />Since the Japanese archipelago is located in a zone of relatively young tectonic plate movement, it is particularly prone to various physiographical phenomena. The land is full of undulations, with mountainous regions including hilly terrain accounting for about three-quarters of its total area. The mountains are generally steep and are intricately carved out by ravines. Hilly terrain extends between the mountainous regions and the plains.<br />Forests account for the largest portion of the nation's surface area. There are approximately 250,000 square kilometers (which equates to 66 percent of the nation's surface area) of forests, followed by approximately 50,000 square kilometers of farmland (13 percent). Together, forests and farmland thus cover approximately 80 percent of the nation. There are approximately 20,000 square kilometers of building land (5 percent).<br />CLIMATE<br />The Japanese archipelago has a temperate marine climate, with four distinct seasons, an annual average temperature of between 10 to 20 degrees centigrade, and annual precipitation of 1,000 to 2,500 millimeters. Japan typically experiences hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters. The topography of Honshu, however, features a series of major mountain ranges running from north to south. Because of this feature, the northwest monsoon in the winter brings humid conditions with heavy precipitation (snow) to Honshu's Japan Sea side but comparatively dry weather with low precipitation to the Pacific Ocean side. In summer, the winds blow mainly from the southeast, giving rise to hot and humid weather. Another unique characteristic of Japan's climate is that it has two long spells of rainy seasons, one in early summer when southeast monsoon begins to blow and the other in autumn when the winds cease. From summer to autumn, tropical cyclones generated in the tropical seas develop into typhoons and hit Japan, sometimes causing storm and flood damage.<br />POPULATION<br />Japan's 2009 total population was 127.51 million. This ranked tenth in the world and made up 1.9 percent of the world's total. Japan's population density measured 343 persons per square kilometer in 2005, ranking fifth among countries with a population of 10 million or more.<br />Currently Japan is ranking 7th largest country population wise.<br />From the eighteenth century through the first half of the nineteenth century, Japan's population remained steady at about 30 million. However, following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, it began expanding in tandem with the drive to build a modern nation-state. In 1926, it reached 60 million, and in 1967, it surpassed the 100 million mark. However, Japan's population growth has slowed in more recent years, with the annual pace of population growth averaging about one percent from the 1960s through the 1970s. Since the 1980s, it has declined sharply. Japan's total population peaked at 127.84 million in December 2004. The 2005 Population Census showed the figure to be 127.77 million, declining from the previous year for the first time after World War II. The 2009 population estimate was 127.51 million, down by 183,000 from the year before.<br />RECENT ECONOMIC TREND AND GDP<br />$34,022.94 per Capita is the GDP.<br />The Japanese economy maintained a long-lasting recovery since the beginning of 2002. However, the path has not been flat, given the two "soft patches (temporary softening in the market)" in the past and impairment in some parts of the economy. The first soft patch was caused by slower export growth following economic slowdowns in the U.S.A. and the Asian region, both Japan's major export destinations, since late 2002. The second soft patch resulted from slower export growth owing to a surplus inventory of information-related producer goods in Japan as demand for IT-related goods declined worldwide since late 2004. During the phase of Japan's economic recovery from the beginning of 2002, there was a common trend where exports were showing signs of steady growth, reflecting a brisk recovery of the world economy, but then a soft patch set in and pushed exports down, resulting in sluggish growth in both production and personal spending. As exports picked up, the economy broke away from this slower period.<br />However, with the start of 2008, private consumption and investments in plant and equipment fell flat and so did production, bringing the economic recovery to a standstill. This occurred against the backdrop of soaring crude oil and raw material prices and repercussions from the subprime mortgage loan problems that, since mid-2007, rapidly clouded future prospects for the world economy further. Moreover, after the failure of a major American investment bank in September 2008, the situation worsened and even developed into a global financial crisis. Stock prices plummeted in Japan as well, which, combined with the sharp appreciation of the yen, and further undermined business and household confidence.<br />As signs of recovery began to appear in the economy in April 2009, the Cabinet Office decided to define, tentatively, March 2009 to be the trough of the economic cycle. In November 2009, the government also summed up price movements to conclude that they were "in a state of moderate deflation." As of June 2010, the economy is picking up steadily, paving the way for a self-sufficient recovery. Since February 2009, the overall index of consumer prices (with 2005 as the base year = 100) has remained constantly below the previous year's levels. On the other hand, the unemployment rate (a seasonally adjusted figure) reached 5.6 percent, a record high, in July 2009 and the 2009 annual average rose 1.1 percentage points from the previous year to 5.1 percent, marking the highest increase ever. The fact that the unemployment rate persists at high levels, which hit 5.2 percent in May 2010, implies that employment conditions still remain bleak.<br />HOFSTEDE<br />The Geert Hofstede analysis for Japan is dramatically different from other Asian Countries such as Hong Kong, Korea or China. In Japan Masculinity is the highest characteristic. The lowest ranking factor is Individualism, which coincides with their high ranking in Uncertainty Avoidance. Japan is a more collectivist culture that avoids risks and shows little value for personal freedom.<br />FOOD HABIT<br />The Meal (gohan):-<br />Two Kinds of Food:<br />‘Staple’ and ‘Other dishes’<br />Staple (gohan) is rice<br />Other dishes (okazu) are fish, meat, vegetables<br />Traditional Concept of Meal:-<br />Neutral flavor of rice considered complement to meal<br />Fill up on gohan, okazu stimulate appetite<br />Traditional meal has no Western counterpart<br />Sake = rice, so the two are not consumed simultaneously<br />Most basic meal: rice, soup, side dish<br />Courses of a typical Japanese meal today:-<br />Alcohol rarely consumed with breakfast or lunch but part of daily evening meal for adult population. While sake is being drunk, rice not eaten. Because they are the same, sake is drunk while eating a variety of non-rice dishes. Only after drinking one’s fill, the first rice is eaten, and then the drinking cup is left untouched. After rice, meal is concluded by drinking green tea. Fruit or sweet served occasionally with tea but not common. Dessert was taken between meals with tea, traditionally. Today, more home meals include dessert as a result of Western influence. <br />Side dishes with rice and with sake:-<br />Soup:-<br />Present at all meals (“one soup, one side dish, and rice” for the minimum complete meal)<br />Two kinds:-<br />Sumashi-jiru—clear stock/salt broth<br />Miso-shiru—miso dissolved into thick solution<br />Soups are prepared includes vegetables, meat, etc. to be eaten with chopsticks. Broth is typically drunk from bowl, which is held in the left hand (chopsticks right).<br />Japanese Cuisine:-<br />Suyaki—beef<br />Fugu—puffer fish, delicacy<br />Tofu and Natto--soybeans<br />Tempura<br />Noodles<br />Pickles and Preserved Seafood<br />Dessert:-<br />Mochi—rice cakes<br />Sugar historically rare<br />Green tea taken after meals to “quench thirst and change the mood”<br />Sweets taken with tea between meals<br />Dessert stems from Western influence<br />EATING AND DINING<br /><ul><li>In Japan if you leave your plate empty it means you want more food. If you’re finished then leave some food on your plate.
  7. 7. There is no American way like “help yourself.” Do not eat until the host offers food.
  8. 8. There isn’t tipping in Japanese restaurants.
  9. 9. Eating and drinking while walking down the street is considered impolite to others.
  10. 10. Do not leave a mess when you’re done eating. Put your chopsticks down, fold your napkins and fix your area.
  11. 11. Do not pick up food on the same end that you used to eat your with. Try to use the ends of the chopsticks for picking up, and the front (smaller end) to eat with.
  12. 12. It is normal to make slurping noises when drinking or eating noodles. It shows that you enjoy the food and keeps it from burning your mouth.
  13. 13. When leaving a restaurant or somewhere do not steal or take some napkins or little souvenirs. It is considered very rude.
  14. 14. Before you start eating you say “Itadakimasu” and “Gochisosama deshita” when finished. “Kampai” means cheers and is used for drinking.
  15. 15. Don’t pour your own drink; if the glass is empty usually the host will pour it.</li></ul>APPEARANCE<br />Those who dress according to their status or position impress the Japanese. Dress to impress.<br />Men should wear dark conservative attire. Business suits are most suitable.<br />Casual dress is never appropriate in a business setting.<br />Shoes should be easy to remove, as you will do so often. Slip-ons are the best choice.<br />Women’s dress should be conservative. Little emphasis should be placed on accessories. They should be minimal.<br />Women should not wear pants in a business situation. Japanese men tend to find it offensive.<br />Women should only wear low-heeled shoes to avoid towering over men.<br />Avoid using large hand gestures, unusual facial expressions and any dramatic movements. The Japanese do not talk with their hands and to do so could distract your host.<br />Avoid the "OK" sign; in Japan it means money. <br />Pointing in not acceptable.<br /> Do no blow your nose in public<br />Personal space is valued. Because the Japanese live in such a densely populated area, they value their personal space.<br />A smile can have double meaning. It can express either joy or displeasure. Use caution with your facial expressions. They can be easily misunderstood.<br />The Japanese are not uncomfortable with silence. They use it to their advantage in many situations. Allow your host to sit in silence.<br /><ul><li>“Ladies first” is not used in Japan.
  16. 16.  The Japanese will refuse help from ANYONE even if it is needed. But the third times the charm. Usually you just ask until the third time when they will either accept or politely refuse.
  17. 17. Sarcasm is not appropriate for any situation. The Japanese consider it rude and may ruin a relationship.
  18. 18.  Japanese women wear their kimono with the left side over the right. DO NOT wear it the other way; it is only for the deceased person at a funeral.
  19. 19. Japanese women cover their mouth when they laugh</li></ul>BEHAVIOR<br />The word for toasting is kampai, pronounced 'kahm-pie'. When toasting the glass is never left unfilled. Drinking is an important part of Japanese culture. It is a way to relieve business stress. <br />Never pour a drink yourself; always allow someone else to do it for you.<br />Most business entertaining is done in restaurants or bars after business hours. Often in karaoke or "hostess bars." Businesswomen should not attend "hostess bars.”<br />Let the host order the meal and pay. Business may be discussed at dinner during these events.<br />Japanese rarely entertain in the home. If you are invited to the home of your Japanese host, consider it a great honor and display a tremendous amount of appreciation.<br />If you are invited to a social event, punctuality is not expected. It is the custom to be "fashionably late.”<br />If you do take your host out insist upon paying. The Japanese will refuse but insist. They will prefer that you choose a Western-style restaurant when entertain them.<br />Key phrases to learn are "itadakimasu" at the beginning of dinner, and "gochisou-sama-deshita" at the end. It is polite use these phrase and it will show you host that you have enjoyed the meal.<br />"Sumimasen" (excuse-me) is a very useful term to add to your vocabulary along with the phrase "kekko desu" (I've had enough).<br />It is perfectly acceptable to slurp your noodles. Doing so will exhibit your enjoyment of your food. To do otherwise, indicates that your meal was not a pleasant one.<br />Do not openly display money. It is rare to see it given from person to person in Japan. It is important to use an envelope to pass money.<br />In Asia the number 14 is bad luck, because in Japanese it sounds like the word ‘shuh-shuh’, which sounds like the word for death. <br />Tipping is not expected.<br />Style is tantamount. The gift itself is of little importance, the ceremony surrounding it is very important.<br />BODY LANGUAGE<br />Japanese people prefer not to stand close to others. The Japanese frown on open displays of affection. They do not touch in public. It is highly inappropriate to touch someone of the opposite sex in public. Try and avoid touching others.<br /><ul><li>Do not take a smile as being a signal of happiness, the Japanese smile when mad, embarrassed, sad or disappointed.
  20. 20. While sitting, don’t show the bottom of your shoes.
  21. 21. It is rude to talk to someone when leaving your hands in your pockets.
  22. 22. Put your hand in front of your face. Make sure your palm is facing towards your face. Then wave it back and forth, this is a polite way to answer “no” or “I don’t know” to a compliment.
  23. 23. It is considered rude to stare at someone. Eye contact isn’t polite.
  24. 24. Don’t lean against anything, a chair, a wall, a door, etc.
  25. 25. When visiting someone, sit towards the edge to show proper respect and leaning back means closeness (such as a childhood friend).</li></ul>COMMUNICATIONS<br />In Japan, business cards are called meishi. Japanese give and receive meishi with both hands. It should be printed in your home language on one side and Japanese on the other. Present the card with the Japanese language side up.<br />The card will contain the name and title along with the company name, address and telephone number of the businessman. In Japan, businessmen are call "sarariman."<br />Take special care in handling cards that are given to you. Do not write on the card. Do not put the card in you pocket or wallet, as either of these actions will be viewed as defacing or disrespecting the business card. Upon receipt of the card, it is important to make a photocopy of the name and title of the individual in your mind. Examine the card carefully as a show of respect. <br />In a business situation, business cannot begin until the meishi exchange process is complete.<br />The customary greeting is the bow. However, some Japanese may greet you with a handshake, albeit a weak one. Do not misinterpret a weak handshake as an indication of character.<br />If you are greeted with a bow, return with a bow as low as the one you received. How low you bow determines the status of the relationship between you and the other individual. When you bow keep your eyes low and your palms flat next to your thighs. The business card should be given after the bow. This is very important to remember. <br />In introductions use the person’s last name plus the word san which means Mr. or Ms. the Japanese prefer to use last names. Do not request that they call you by your first name only. If you are uncertain about the pronunciation of a name, ask for assistance.<br />Understand that the Japanese prefer not to use the word no. If you ask a question they may simply respond with a yes but clearly mean no. Understanding this is critical in the negotiation process. <br />In Asia the number 4 is bad luck, because in Japanese it sounds like the word ‘shuh-shuh’, which sounds like the word for death.<br />Heightened sense of formality and professionalism.<br />Usually drinks are handed out at the start of the meeting. They will we handed out in order of rank. Wait for the top guy to drink his first.<br />Tourists and foreigners are not expected to bow, or at least bow correctly, unless they are greeting the emperor.<br />GIFTING<br />Do not give ANYONE a gift unless you have one for everyone.<br />The idea of gift giving on birthdays and holidays like Christmas and Chanukah isn’t very common yet.<br />To give and to receive a present, you must use two hands and do a formal bow.<br />When returning from a trip it’s customary to bring back souvenirs.<br />The giving of gifts is more important than what the gift actually is.<br />“Oseibo and chugen”- In December and June, friends and family give gifts to each other. Usually worth not more then 5,000 yen, (about $42.32) these gifts are called “Oseibo and chugen”<br />Birthdays-The West has greatly influences the people here, and even though this isn’t a traditional gift-giving occasion, some families have started.<br />When unwrapping a gift, carefully remove the wrapping paper.<br />Be sure that the presentation of the gifts is as important as or more important than the actual gift. It is also polite to send a thank you note back.<br />Postcards are not given as a gift, fruits, chocolate, a statue and other small things are proper.<br />Gift giving is very important both business and personal gifts.<br />Always wrap gifts. The selection of the wrapping paper is critical. Do not give anything wrapped in white as it symbolizes death. Do not use bright colors or bows to wrap the gift. It is better to have the hotel or the store wrap the gift to ensure that it is appropriate.<br />Do not surprise the recipient with the gift. Give your host some warning during the evening that you intend to give them a present.<br />Do not give gifts in odd number or the number four, as odd numbers are bad luck and four sounds like the word for death in Japanese.<br />Good gift ideas include top choice beef, fruit and alcohol such as brandy, quality whiskey and Bourbon along with excellent wines. They also appreciate gifts from high-end department stores like Saks and Neiman Marcus.<br />JAPANESE WOMEN<br />Prior to 15th century AD Confucianism, Buddhism, Samurai feudalism highly discriminatory to women.<br />Confucianism: - “A woman is to obey her father as daughter, her husband as wife, and her son as aged mother.”<br />Buddhism: - “No salvation for a woman.”<br />Samurai Feudalism: - “A woman should look upon her husband as if he were heaven itself.”<br />Japanese believe that woman could be happy as full –time house-wives. Women are perceived as dependent and any display of independency is not welcomed by the society. Working women were often given menial, secondary jobs and are often seen as “wallflowers”.<br />WORK CUTLTURE<br />Doing Business in Japan? Let us help you do it better...<br />An ancient culture developed within the geographical boundaries of an island has produced a modern day society with strong cultural values, traditions and customs. Doing business in Japan or with the Japanese arguably poses the most potential for cross cultural misunderstandings.<br />Doing business in Japan necessitates cultural awareness. This means proper preparation in terms of understanding the business culture, business etiquette, meeting protocol and many others cross cultural issues.<br />Our respected cross cultural training course for Japan is designed to assist individuals and companies get the best out of their dealings with or in Japan. <br />Each training course is 100% bespoke, carefully tailored to meet the particular needs of every client. The course assists global players build their cultural awareness of Japan. This in turn leads to strong interpersonal relationships; clearer lines of cross cultural communication and minimizing cross cultural misunderstandings.<br />Business organization:-<br />Hierarchical and Bureaucratic<br />High degree of harmony and cooperation<br />Key focus on quality<br />Information oriented<br />Seniority system:-<br />Based on factors like age, sex, family name, occupation, physical features and birthplace<br />Titles are extremely important - signifies prestige and respect<br />Hierarchy legitimates the use of power<br />Decision making:-<br />Centralized <br />‘Ringi’ system – all members involved in the process<br />Often slow – unwillingness to take risk and avoids on the spot decision making<br />Long term perspective<br />Other aspects:-<br />Punctuality- always be on time<br />Indirectness critical in communication and avoid conflicts<br />Private people and uncomfortable with physical contact<br />Japanese less pressured by deadlines, slowdown as complications develop – threatened by stressful situations.<br />Information exchange:-<br />Wait for counterpart’s signal before starting negotiation<br />Japanese are information oriented - offer detailed explanations before making actual proposal<br />Ensure to discuss long term generalized goals<br />Use informal channel of communication to get the true feeling of the Japanese<br />Concession and agreement:-<br />Make the first proposal and receive counter proposal – focus on reciprocity <br />Japanese examine all issues simultaneously in a more holistic approach<br />Concessions are made only near the end of the talks and usually all at once – basic goal of long term mutual benefit<br />Customary to give the buyer a discount (called sabitsu) when agreement is reached - to demonstrate friendship and sincerity <br />INDIA VS. JAPAN<br />India and Japan are two countries that show lot of differences between them when it comes to their population, climate, political conditions, tourism, economy and the like.<br />The government of India is federal parliamentary constitutional republic and democratic. On the other hand the government of Japan is unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. The Legislature in India is termed Sansad. On the contrary the Legislature in Japan is termed Diet of Japan.<br />The two countries differ from each other when it comes to their position in the globe. India lies in the south Asian region. On the other hand Japan lies in the East of Asia. India is a peninsula. On the contrary Japan is an archipelago. It can also be said that India forms a part of a larger subcontinent.It is interesting to note that Japan’s economy is stable when compared to that of India. Industrialization in Japan is also more advanced when compared to the industrialization in India. The currency used in India is the rupee whereas the currency used in Japan is the yen.<br />Japan is characterized by the temperate type of climate. It is interesting to note that you would find the climate of Japan largely varied from north to south. On the other hand the climate in India is largely influenced by Thar Desert and the Himalayas. Hence you would find that four different types of climate called the tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid and montane exist in India.<br />The economy of Japan is influenced by various industries in the production of electronics, machine tools, steel, ships, chemical substances and motor vehicles. Japan is known for its abundance in service sector too as it is a seat of banking, insurance, transportation, real estate and telecommunication. On the other hand India’s economy is triggered by petroleum products, textile goods, engineering goods, software, gems and jewelry, chemicals, fertilizers, machinery and crude oil. India is in fact one of the fastest growing economies in the world.<br />India is characterized by the presence of several races. On the other hand Japan has a single race. Caste system is prevalent in India even now. On the other had Japan is devoid of caste system. One of the important differences between India and Japan is that India was under the captivity of the English till it attained independence in the year 1947. On the other hand Japan was never held captive by any foreign nation. In other words Japan was never invaded.<br />It is interesting to note that India did not invade any country in the past but was in fact invaded by many countries. Several languages are spoken in India whereas Japan is not home to several languages. Japanese is its prime language. India is officially called as the Republic of India and lies in South Asia. Japan, which is officially called as Nippon, is an island country that lies in East Asia. While India is divided into many states, Japan is divided into prefectures. In area, Japan is very much smaller to India. While Japan is an archipelago, India is part of a larger subcontinent. Japan comprises of a single race. On the other hand, India consists of many races. Unlike Japan, one can come across a lot of religions in India. Moreover, In India, caste system is very much prevalent, which is not seen in Japan society.<br />In physical features, there is a vast difference between the people. When talking about history, both India and Japan has a vast history. But India had been under foreign rule for many years. On the other hand, Japan does not have a history of foreign invasions. When talking of culture, Japan’s cultural linage can be traced to the prehistoric Jomon culture. India also has a vast tradition and culture, which dates back to the Indus valley civilization. The Indian culture has been evolved through ages and has been influenced by many other cultures .Time Difference is of 3 and half hour. India and Japan cannot be compared in any sense as they are totally different in all aspects. One can come across differences in all walks of life. Though India and Japan are poles apart, they have some similarities also. For example, both Indians and Japanese give much importance to family.<br />