Culture of Japan Submitted By:- Group 7 Tharun- A30601909012 Mani- A30601909013 Ugendhar- A3060909014 Suuresh- A30601909040 Nandita- A30601909048 Dinesh- A30601909062 Abhinay- A30601909075 Mithun- A30601909082
INTRODUCTION 4 Main islands-Hokkaido, Honshu (or the mainland), Shikoku, and Kyushu. 75% Mountainous. Mt. Fuji is the highest peak in Japan, standing 3,776 meters above sea level. Chief of state: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989) Head of government: Prime Minister Naoto KAN (since 8 June 2010) Religion- Shinto and Buddhism Tokyo is the capital.
continued Excellent fishing waters, key resource. Lacks key resources, especially minerals and metals-relies heavily on trade. Very mountainous, little productive farmland. Located :- On the Ring of fire, experiences many Earthquakes. Total population was 127.51 million. $34,022.94 per Capita is the GDP.
Fun Facts Direct in questioning of foreigners. You may be asked personal questions such as how much money do you earn or how large is your house? Over 90% of the Japanese population buys a comic-magazine daily. Frogs - symbol of good luck. Drink tea - almost every meal. Heavy traffic – In Tokyo, a bicycle - faster than a car for most trips up to 50 minutes.
FLAG White rectangular flag with a large red disk. Called Nisshōki ("sun-mark flag") in Japanese, but is more commonly known as Hinomaru ("sun disc"). Flag Meaning:- Circle in the middle represents sun. Japan's name translates to "The land of the rising sun.“ White represents honesty and purity and red disc is a sun symbol meaning brightness, sincerity and warmth. JGSDF: - Japan Ground Self-Defense Forces JASDF:- Japan Air Self-Defense Forces
National Anthem "KimiGaYo" (May 1,000 Years of Happy Reign Be Yours) is the official national anthem of Japan as was unofficial until 1999. It is in the form of a Waka, an ancient Japanese style of poem, from the Heian period. The author is unknown. Lyrics (Phonetic Translation) Kimigayowa Chiyoni, Yachiyoni Sazareishi no, Iwao to narite, Koke no musu made. Lyrics (English Translation) May my Lord's reign, Continue for a thousand, Eight thousand generations, Until pebbles Grow into boulders, Covered in moss.
Religion Shinto: - Believe that all living and non- living things contain spirits, or kami. It linked people to the forces of nature. Buddhism: - Arrived in Japan as a result of cultural diffusion. It divided into different sects, including Jodo, Shin, Nichiren, Zen. Confucianism: - Strong emphasis placed on the principles of filial piety (loyalty to parents) and loyalty to the ruler.
Japanese Women Prior to 15th century AD Confucianism, Buddhism, Samurai feudalism highly discriminatory to women. Confucianism: - “A woman is to obey her father as daughter, her husband as wife, and her son as aged mother.” Buddhism: - “No salvation for a woman.” Samurai Feudalism: - “A woman should look upon her husband as if he were heaven itself.” Believes:- Woman could be happy as full –time house-wives. Women are dependent and independency is not welcomed by the society. Working women often given menial, secondary jobs and are often seen as “wallflowers”.
Education Japanese language - not so easy to read, write and learn. You have to learn the three forms of spoken Japanese.
Intimate :- used when you’re at home.
Polite :- used in well-educated companies.
Honorific :- used to show respect to your elders.
Clothing Kimono- worn by all classes, men and women. Materials and colors show class. Silk reserved for upper classes like samurai while others wear hemp, ramie, cotton and other common fabrics.
Land Situated off the eastern seaboard of the Eurasian continent in northern hemisphere. Located between approximately 20 degrees to 45 degrees north latitude and stretches over 3,200 kilometers. Land is full of undulations, with mountainous regions including hilly terrain accounting for about three-quarters of its total area. Mountains are generally steep and are intricately carved out by ravines. Hilly terrain extends between mountainous regions and plains. Forests account - largest portion.
Climate Annual average temperature - 10 to 20 degrees centigrade, and annual precipitation - 1,000 to 2,500 millimeters. Typically experiences hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters. Unique characteristic - it has two long spells of rainy seasons, one in early summer when southeast monsoon begins to blow and other in autumn when winds cease. From summer to autumn, tropical cyclones generated in tropical seas develop into typhoons and hit Japan, sometimes causing storm and flood damage.
Food HAbit The Meal (gohan):- Two Kinds of Food: ‘Staple’ and ‘Other dishes’ Staple (gohan) is rice Other dishes (okazu) are fish, meat, vegetables. Traditional Concept of Meal:- Neutral flavor of rice considered complement to meal. Fill up on gohan, okazu stimulate appetite. Traditional meal has no Western counterpart. Sake = rice, so the two are not consumed simultaneously. Most basic meal: rice, soup, side dish.
Japanese Cuisine Suyaki—beef Fugu—puffer fish, delicacy Tofu and Natto--soybeans Tempura Noodles Pickles and Preserved Seafood
Dessert Mochi—rice cakes Sugar historically rare Green tea taken after meals to “quench thirst and change the mood” Sweets taken with tea between meals Dessert stems from Western influence
Eating and dining If you leave your plate empty it means you want more food. If you’re finished, leave some food on your plate. There is no American way like “help yourself.” Do not eat until the host offers food. No tipping system in restaurants. Eating and drinking while walking down the street is considered impolite to others. Do not leave a mess when you’re done eating. Put your chopsticks down, fold your napkins and fix your area.
continued Do not pick up food on the same end that you used to eat your with. Try to use the ends of the chopsticks for picking up, and the front (smaller end) to eat with. It is normal to make slurping noises when drinking or eating noodles. It shows that you enjoy food and keeps it from burning your mouth. When leaving a restaurant or somewhere do not steal or take some napkins or little souvenirs - Considered very rude. Before you start eating you say “Itadakimasu” and “Gochisosamadeshita” when finished. “Kampai” means cheers and is used for drinking. Don’t pour your own drink; if the glass is empty usually the host will pour it.
Appearance Dress to impress – dress as per your status. Men - dark conservative attire. Business suits - most suitable. Shoes should be easy to remove, as you will do so often. Slip-ons are the best choice. Women’s dress should be conservative. Little emphasis should be placed on accessories. They should be minimal. Women should not wear pants in a business situation. Japanese men tend to find it offensive. Women should only wear low-heeled shoes to avoid towering over men. Avoid using large hand gestures, unusual facial expressions and any dramatic movements. The Japanese do not talk with their hands and to do so could distract your host. Pointing in not acceptable. Do no blow your nose in public.
continued Avoid the "OK" sign; in Japan it means money. Personal space is valued. Because the Japanese live in such a densely populated area, they value their personal space. A smile can have double meaning. It can express either joy or displeasure. Use caution with your facial expressions. They can be easily misunderstood. The Japanese are not uncomfortable with silence. They use it to their advantage in many situations. Allow your host to sit in silence. “Ladies first” is not used in Japan. The Japanese will refuse help from ANYONE even if it is needed. But the third times the charm. Usually you just ask until the third time when they will either accept or politely refuse. Sarcasm is not appropriate for any situation. The Japanese consider it rude and may ruin a relationship. Japanese women wear their kimono with the left side over the right. DO NOT wear it the other way; it is only for the deceased person at a funeral. Japanese women cover their mouth when they laugh.
Behaviour The word for toasting is kampai, pronounced 'kahm-pie'. When toasting the glass is never left unfilled. Drinking is an important part of Japanese culture. It is a way to relieve business stress. Never pour a drink yourself; always allow someone else to do it for you. Most business entertaining is done in restaurants or bars after business hours. Often in karaoke or "hostess bars." Businesswomen should not attend "hostess bars.” Let the host order the meal and pay. Business may be discussed at dinner during these events. Japanese rarely entertain in the home. If you are invited to the home of your Japanese host, consider it a great honor and display a tremendous amount of appreciation. Style is tantamount. The gift itself is of little importance, the ceremony surrounding it is very important.
continued In social event, punctuality is not expected. It is the custom to be "fashionably late.” If you do take your host out insist upon paying. They will refuse but insist. They will prefer Western-style restaurant when entertain them. Key phrases to learn are "itadakimasu" at the beginning of dinner, and "gochisou-sama-deshita" at the end. It is polite use these phrase and it will show you host that you have enjoyed the meal. "Sumimasen" (excuse-me) is a very useful term to add to your vocabulary along with the phrase "kekkodesu" (I've had enough). Do not openly display money. It is rare to see it given from person to person in Japan. Important to use an envelope to pass money. In Asia the number 14 is bad luck, because in Japanese it sounds like the word ‘shuh-shuh’, which sounds like the word for death.
Body Language Japanese people prefer not to stand close to others. The Japanese frown on open displays of affection. They do not touch in public. It is highly inappropriate to touch someone of the opposite sex in public. Try and avoid touching others. Do not take a smile as being a signal of happiness, the Japanese smile when mad, embarrassed, sad or disappointed. While sitting, don’t show the bottom of your shoes. It is rude to talk to someone when leaving your hands in your pockets. Put your hand in front of your face. Make sure your palm is facing towards your face. Then wave it back and forth, this is a polite way to answer “no” or “I don’t know” to a compliment. It is considered rude to stare at someone. Eye contact isn’t polite. Don’t lean against anything, a chair, a wall, a door, etc. When visiting someone, sit towards the edge to show proper respect and leaning back means closeness (such as a childhood friend).
communication Business cards are called meishi. Give and receive meishi with both hands.Printed in your home language on one side and Japanese on the other. Present the card with the Japanese language side up. Card will contain the name and title along with company name, address and telephone number of the businessman. In Japan, businessmen are call "sarariman." Take special care in handling cards given to you. Do not write on the card. Do not put the card in you pocket or wallet, as either of these actions will be viewed as defacing or disrespecting the business card. Upon receipt of the card, it is important to make a photocopy of the name and title of the individual in your mind. Examine the card carefully as a show of respect. In a business situation, business cannot begin until the meishi exchange process is complete. The customary greeting is the bow. However, some Japanese may greet you with a handshake, albeit a weak one. Do not misinterpret a weak handshake as an indication of character. If you are greeted with a bow, return with a bow as low as the one you received. How low you bow determines the status of the relationship between you and the other individual. When you bow keep your eyes low and your palms flat next to your thighs. The business card should be given after the bow.
Continued In introductions use the person’s last name plus the word san which means Mr. or Ms. the Japanese prefer to use last names. Do not request that they call you by your first name only. If you are uncertain about the pronunciation of a name, ask for assistance. Understand that the Japanese prefer not to use the word no. If you ask a question they may simply respond with a yes but clearly mean no. Understanding this is critical in the negotiation process. In Asia the number 4 is bad luck, because in Japanese it sounds like the word ‘shuh-shuh’, which sounds like the word for death. Heightened sense of formality and professionalism. Usually drinks are handed out at the start of the meeting. They will we handed out in order of rank. Wait for the top guy to drink his first. Tourists and foreigners are not expected to bow, or at least bow correctly, unless they are greeting the emperor.
Gifting Do not give ANYONE a gift unless you have for everyone. The idea of gift giving on birthdays and holidays like Christmas and Chanukah isn’t very common yet. Use two hands and do a formal bow to give and take gift. Bring back souvenirs when you return from a trip. “Oseibo and chugen”- In December and June, friends and family give gifts to each other. Usually worth not more then 5,000 yen, (about $42.32) these gifts are called “Oseibo and chugen” Birthdays-The West has greatly influences the people here, and even though this isn’t a traditional gift-giving occasion, some families have started. When unwrapping a gift, carefully remove the wrapping paper.
Continued Presentation of the gifts more important than the actual gift. It is also polite to send a thank you note back. Gift giving is very important both business and personal gifts. Always wrap gifts. Do not wrap inwhite as it symbolizes death. Do not use bright colors or bows to wrap the gift. It is better to have the hotel or the store wrap the gift to ensure that it is appropriate. Do not surprise the recipient. Give warning to host that you intend to give them gift. Do not give gifts in odd number (4 and all as it is bad luck and four sounds like the word for death) Good gift ideas include top choice beef, fruit and alcohol such as brandy, quality whiskey and Bourbon along with excellent wines. They also appreciate gifts from high-end department stores like Saks and Neiman Marcus.
Organization Behaviour Business organization:- Hierarchical and Bureaucratic High degree of harmony and cooperation Key focus on quality Information oriented Seniority system:- Based on factors like age, sex, family name, occupation, physical features and birthplace Titles are extremely important - signifies prestige and respect Hierarchy legitimates the use of power
Continued Decision making:- Centralized ‘Ringi’ system – all members involved in the process Often slow – unwillingness to take risk and avoids on the spot decision making Long term perspective Other aspects:- Punctuality- always be on time Indirectness critical in communication and avoid conflicts Private people and uncomfortable with physical contact Japanese less pressured by deadlines, slowdown as complications develop – threatened by stressful situations.
Continued Information exchange:- Wait for counterpart’s signal before starting negotiation Japanese are information oriented - offer detailed explanations before making actual proposal Ensure to discuss long term generalized goals Use informal channel of communication to get the true feeling of the Japanese Concession and agreement:- Make the first proposal and receive counter proposal – focus on reciprocity Japanese examine all issues simultaneously in a more holistic approach Concessions are made only near the end of the talks and usually all at once – basic goal of long term mutual benefit Customary to give the buyer a discount (called sabitsu) when agreement is reached - to demonstrate friendship and sincerity
Hofstede Masculinity is the highest characteristic. Individualism is the lowest ranking factor. Uncertainty Avoidance is ranked high Japan is a more collectivist culture that avoids risks and shows little value for personal freedom.
India vs. Japan
Continued Similarities :- Both Indians and Japanese give much importance to family.
Big Five FActor Extraversion:- High Neuroticism:- Low Agreeableness:- High Openness to experience:- Moderate Conscientiousness:- Moderate