The backward design model comprisesof the following three stages: I. Identify desired results II. Determine acceptable evidence III. Plan learning experiences and instruction
When to develop your lesson plan? Once you have selected the standard and determined the acceptable evidence that will demonstrate student achievement, then you can develop a lesson plan that will provide students with the opportunity to reach the desired objectives. Wiggins and McTighe (1999) utilize the "WHERE" approach in this stage of the process.
W H E R E approachWiggins and McTighe (1999) utilize the "WHERE" approach in this stage of the process.W stands for students knowing Where they are heading, Why they are heading there, What they know, Where they might go wrong in the process, and What is required of them.H stands for Hooking the students on the topic of study.E stands for students Exploring and Experiencing ideas and being Equipped with the necessary understanding to master the standard being taught.R stands for providing opportunities for students to Rehearse, Revise, and Refine their work.E stands for student Evaluation.
the implementation The rewarding part of the process comes next with the implementation of the lesson plan in the classroom. Any necessary changes or additions can be incorporated into your lesson plan. After students have had the opportunity to learn the selected Standard, the students will need to be assessed to determine if they have successfully reached the desired goal. The student assessment can also be used to modify the original lesson plan.
The unit or course design • Reflects a coherent design -- big ideas and essential questions clearly guide the design of, and are aligned with, assessments and teaching and learning activities. • Makes clear distinctions between big ideas and essential questions, and the knowledge and skills necessary for learning the ideas and answering the questions. • Uses multiple forms of assessment to let students demonstrate their understanding in various ways. • Incorporates instruction and assessment that reflects the six facets of understanding -- the design provides opportunities for students to explain, interpret, apply, shift perspective, empathize, and self-assess.
The unit or course design • Anchors assessment of understanding with authentic performance tasks calling for students to demonstrate their understanding and apply knowledge and skills. • Uses clear criteria and performance standards for teacher, peer, and self evaluations of student products and performances. • Enables students to revisit and rethink important ideas to deepen their understanding. • Incorporates a variety of resources. The textbook is only one resource among many (rather than serving as the syllabus).
The teacher • Informs students of the big ideas and essential questions, performance requirements, and evaluative criteria at the beginning of the unit or course. • Hooks and holds students interest while they examine and explore big ideas and essential questions. • Uses a variety of strategies to promote deeper understanding of subject matter. • Facilitates students active construction of meaning (rather than simply telling). • Promotes opportunities for students to "unpack their thinking" -- to explain, interpret, apply, shift perspective, empathize, or self-assess (incorporates the six facets of understanding).
The teacher • Uses questioning, probing, and feedback to stimulate student reflection and rethinking. • Teaches basic knowledge and skills in the context of big ideas and explores essential questions. • Uses information from ongoing assessments as feedback to adjust instruction. • Uses information from ongoing assessments to check for student understanding and misconceptions along the way. • Uses a variety of resources (beyond the textbook) to promote understanding.
The learners • Can describe the goals (big ideas and essential questions) and performance requirements of the unit or course. • Can explain what they are doing and why (i.e., how todays work relates to the larger unit or course goals). • Are hooked at the beginning and remain engaged throughout the unit or course. • Can describe the criteria by which their work will be evaluated.
The learners • Are engaged in activities that help them to learn the big ideas and answer the essential questions. • Are engaged in activities that promote explanation, interpretation, application, perspective taking, empathy, and self-assessment (the six facets). • Demonstrate that they are learning the background knowledge and skills that support the big ideas and essential questions. • Have opportunities to generate relevant questions. • Are able to explain and justify their work and their answers. • Are involved in self- or peer-assessment based on established criteria and performance standards. • Use the criteria or rubrics to guide and revise their work. • Set relevant goals based on feedback.
In the classroom environment• The big ideas and essential questions are central to thework of the students, the classroom activity, and the normsand culture of the classroom.• There are high expectations and incentives for all studentsto come to understand the big ideas and answer theessential questions.• All students and their ideas are treated with dignity andrespect.• Big ideas, essential questions, and criteria or scoringrubrics are posted.• Samples or models of student work are made visible.• Exploration of big ideas and essential questions isdifferentiated, so some students are able to delve moredeeply into the subject matter than others.
engaging design /effective design? •Clearly, we want our designs to be engaging but engaging work is insufficient. •The work must also be effective, must promote maximum achievement. •Must demonstrate that students have achieved the targeted understandings. An engaging design stimulates students to actively participate whereas an effective design includes appropriate evidence that desired results have been achieved.
•What needs to be uncovered is vital.•Big ideas are often subtle, abstract,and not obvious.•Teaching that is grounded in textbookcoverage only can leave students witha superficial grasp of key ideas•An erroneous view of how knowledgebecomes knowledge.
•Students often leave school with misunderstandings about what we thought they had learned.•Just because we teach for an understanding doesnot mean that students will leave without or avoidmisunderstanding.•The challenge is to better anticipatemisunderstandings and address them at the designstage.•Student misunderstanding will likely increase themore the ideas in question are abstract, requireprior knowledge, are counterintuitive, and arepresented in summary fashion.
The purpose of ongoing assessment is to identify misconceptions and misunderstanding before it is too late, before the unit concludes and teachers engage in summative assessment
These guidelines move teachers from thinking only aboutwhat they want to do and need to accomplish to thinkingabout what students, end users of their design, will need toachieve understanding. The backward design approach suspends instructional planning, the development of specific lessons and selection of teaching strategies, until the last phase of the process. Instructional methods are selected based on the specific types of learning needed to achieve the desired results in a unit. As curriculum designers, we organize a sequence backward from specific tasks and expectations. Lessons are derived from the desired results, based on building up performance skills and knowledge. We head right up to the desired performance, even if it has to be simplified or scaffolded. We build up performance progressively; and we revisit the fundamentals as needed. The process is iterative [repetitive, recurring, recycling at higher levels] rather than linear.
GRASPS: Model – Early Childhood ExampleG: Goal: Your goal is to create a larger than lifemodel of a butterfly and write/illustrate a bookwith a fiction and nonfiction section about yourbutterfly. R: Role: You are the teacher. Your job is to teachthe preschoolers about butterflies.A: Audience: You will invite the preschool class tocome to your classroom to learn about butterflies.S: Situation: Your challenge is to teachpreschoolers about butterflies by performing yourbook. P: Product: You will act out your book with yourbutterfly model.S: Standards for Success: Your book andperformance will be judged by you, your teacher,and two of your peers using the student rubric.
To what extent does the idea, topic, orFilter 1 process represent a "big idea" having enduring value beyond the classroom? To what extent does the idea, topic, orFilter 2 process reside at the heart of the discipline? To what extent does the idea, topic, orFilter 3 process require uncoverage? To what extent does the idea, topic, orFilter 4 process offer potential for engaging students?
Current research on intelligence and the brain suggests that we learn best when we are engagedin meaningful classroom learning experiences that help us discover and develop our strengths and talents. (Silver, Strong and Perini, 1997)
these learning experiences thatteachers not only motivate ourquest to learn, but also foster thedevelopment of persistence andeffort that is necessary foracquiring skills, knowledge, andattitudes in sufficient depth for usto be able to apply them in othersettings.
The prior knowledge that we bringwith us to a new learning situationexerts a tremendous influence onhow we interpret this newexperience. In order to successfullylearn new information, we must beable to construct meaning activelyand relate it to our own lives in ameaningful way.
the teacher focuses on thelearner’s understanding ofcontent and the ability touse the information ratherthan on the memorizationof isolated bits ofinformation.
The new information that thestudent is engaged in learningfocuses on "real life" or "authentic"tasks that require problem solving,creative thinking, and criticalthinking. This approach requiresteachers to structure what isaddressed instructionally and inthe curriculum around key ideasrather than try to "cover content".
As educators it is of the utmost importancethat we recognize and nurture all of thevaried human intelligences and all of thecombinations of intelligences in ourstudents. Through this recognition, we canincrease our students’ learning andproblem solving abilities if we increasetheir repertoires of problem solving toolsby actively encouraging them to use allfacets of intelligence (Parry and Gregory, 1998).
Clearly, we want our designs to be engaging but engaging work is insufficient. The work must also be effective, must promote maximum achievement, and must demonstrate that students have achieved the targeted understandings. An engaging design stimulates students to actively participate whereas an effective design includes appropriate evidence that desired results have been achieved.Considering what needs to beuncovered is vital when designingcurriculum because big ideas areoften subtle, abstract, and notobvious. Teaching that is grounded intextbook coverage only can leavestudents with a superficial grasp ofkey ideas and an erroneous view ofhow knowledge becomesknowledge.
Students often leave school with misunderstandings about what we thought they had learned. Just because we teach for an understanding does not mean that students will leave without or avoid misunderstanding. The challenge is to better anticipate misunderstandings and address them at the design stage. Student misunderstanding will likely increase the more the ideas in question are abstract, require prior knowledge, are counterintuitive, and are presented in summary fashion.The purpose of ongoingassessment is to identifymisconceptions andmisunderstanding beforeit is too late, before theunit concludes andteachers engage insummative assessment.
These guidelines move teachers from thinking onlyabout what they want to do and need to accomplishto thinking about what students, end users of theirdesign, will need to achieve understanding.The backward design approach suspendsinstructional planning, the development of specificlessons and selection of teaching strategies, until thelast phase of the process. Instructional methods areselected based on the specific types of learningneeded to achieve the desired results in a unit. Ascurriculum designers, we organize a sequencebackward from specific tasks and expectations.Lessons are derived from the desired results, basedon building up performance skills and knowledge.We head right up to the desired performance, evenif it has to be simplified or scaffolded. We build upperformance progressively; and we revisit thefundamentals as needed. The process is iterative[repetitive, recurring, recycling at higher levels]rather than linear.
Planning Instruction: Think in terms of ThreeOrientations to Teaching:Transmission [one way communication such aslecture and demonstration];Transaction [two-way communication such asquestioning and discussion];Transformation [learning by doing such aswork-experience, practicum, simulation, role-playing].Think in terms of Five Orientations to Teaching:Transaction; Transformation; Engineering;Developmental; Nurturing
1. What does X mean?2. How can X be described?3. What are the comp0onent parts of X?4. How is X made or done?5. How should X be made or done?6. What is the essential function of X?7. What are the causes of X?8. What are the consequences of X?9. What are the types of X?10. How does X compare to Y?11. What is the present status of X?12. How can X be interpreted?13. What are the facts about X?14. How did X happen?15. What kind of person is X?16. What is my personal response to X?17. What is my memory of X?18. What is the value of X?19. How can X be summarized?20. What case can be made for or against X?
STEP 3 STEP 1 PLAN LEARNING EXPERIENCES IDENTIFY LEARNER OUTCOMES and INSTRUCTION What are students expected to What learning activities will enable students understand, to know and do? achieve the learner outcomes? TEACHER AS AN ASSESSOR TEACHER AS ACTIVITY DEVELOPER STEP 2 STEP 4 DETERMINE ACCEPTABLE PLAN ASSESSMENT and EVALUATION EVIDENCE (CRITERIA) STRATEGIESWhat would you accept as evidence that How will students demonstrate what they students understand, know and can do? learned? TEACHER AS AN ASSESSOR TEACHER AS AN ASSESSOR STEP 5 REFLECTION What will you do to decide what the next step in teaching should be? TEACHER AS AN ASSESSOR TEACHER AS ACTIVITY DEVELOPER
The Brain-Compatible ClassroomCharacteristics: absence of threat, collaboration, enrichedenvironment, immediate feedback, meaningful content, choice/multipleintelligences, adequate time, mastery at the application level, activelearningThe Life Guidelines by which we operate: mutual respect;trustworthiness; truthfulness; active empathetic listening; appreciation,no putdowns; positive, encouraging, supportive interaction; safety;always do personal bestThe Life skills: caring, responsibility, perseverance, teamwork, effort,commonsense, initiativeThe Learning Climate: teacher as creator and curator of theclassroom climate- trust, mutual respect, risk-taking, encouragement,cooperation, openness, encouragement, free & open communication,inclusiveness, belonging, influence, DESCA: dignity,energy/enthusiasm, self-management, community, awareness.
Preconditions of creative learning environmentsFor learning and teaching spaces to be creative, theNACCCE argues that adults and young peopleequally need to be supported by physicalenvironments that provide them with the:■ ability to formulate new problems, rather thandepending on others to define them■ ability to transfer what they learn acrossdifferent contexts■ ability to recognise that learning is an ongoing,incremental process and involves making mistakesand learning from failure■ capacity to focus your attention in pursuit ofa goal.
Effect of ‘creativity’ and ‘meditation’ rooms on pupils■ Pupils’ self-esteem and sense of wellbeing was raisedthrough involvement in designing the meditation andcreativity rooms■ Pupils benefited from learning specific techniques forrelaxation and creative thinking in the redesigned rooms■ Pupils felt greater ownership of their learningenvironment when given the power to design and create it■ Pupils working in their own creative room become moreengaged in writing activities■ Feedback from pupils and parents was positive inassessing the outcomes of the project■New strategies were developed for teaching meditation,relaxation, philosophy and creativity■Staff felt the new rooms provided creative resources forthe whole school
Strategies to encourage imagination■ Dialogue – this implies time and spacesdesigned to support this■ Dreaming time – rooms set aside fordreaming■ Experiment■ Storytelling■Going beyond the school walls, makingconnections with the neighbourhood andcommunity■ Allowing students to use their locallandscape to identify problems and fromthere to develop imaginative solutions
Role of a Teacher•At school, only the quality of teacher is agreater determinant of student successthan the environment.•Environments can be nourishing ortoxic, supportive or draining.• Environments are never neutral … (Jensen, 2003)
In other wordsSTAGE III: Develop a lesson plan that will provide students with the opportunity to reach the desired objectives.
First think like an assessor beforedesigning specificunits and lessons
TEACHERS.. think like an assessor before designing specific units and lessons, and consider up front how to determine whether students have attained the desired understandings. When units or projects are anchored by performance tasks or projects, evidence is provided that indicates whether students are able to use their knowledge in context, a more appropriate means of evoking and assessing enduring understanding. More traditional assessments (quizzes, tests, and prompts) are used to round out the picture by assessing essential knowledge and skills that contribute to the culminating performances.
Teachers must address the specifics of instructional planning -choices about teaching methods, sequence of lessons, and resource materials - AFTER identifying the desired results and assessments. Teaching is a means to an end.