Inaccesible places like south pole depend purely on diesel and kerosene for their power supply of pipelines and gas stations
Because these structures could not be installed on the seabed at such great depths, (able to withstand high pressures at great water depths, etc.). came into general use, reducing the number of wells. The transition from deep offshore to ultra-deep offshore will require higher allocations of R&D resources
(less than 5,000 feet subsurface)
OPEC plays a crucial role in oil market
The graph shows the fluctuation of oil price with year and historic events depicting how much politics affects
Since what is given in the table is only the year that the consumption will peak after which we can obviously expect the consumption to decline the reserves as such will be completely consumed much later. The cumulative consumption of crude is shown and it is predicted to last another 100 odd years.
As we can see the price increase in coal price is very small, why then is it not being used as extensively as it shld
The issues currently facing coal are much more in the context of international, regional and national environmental policy conditions relating to the use of coal. This table shows why we need to take strict environmental measures inorder to use coal
The world has realized the seriousness of such pollution and many treaties and agreements have been signed by countries across the globe to reduce emissions. One such agreement is the Kyoto Protocol
160 nations met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limitations on greenhouse gases for the nations and to reach a consensus on energy issues, use, energy prices and economy. (such as preserving forests).
Conventional method uses the heat obtained from burning coal to produce steam which drives turbines connected to generators. In order to improve efficiency we use a combination of gas turbine and steam turbine
Waste heat from fossil-fueled steam-electric generating unit is dissipated into rivers. This adversely affects aquatic life. To counter this effect, evaporative cooling towers are installed so that it can be used as a fuel for fuel cells or refineries. transform gaseous forms of mercury released when coal burns into solids that can be captured by flue gas filters or other particulate removal devices (natural gas & light distillate oil
&quot; Hybrid&quot; combination of a coal gasifier and a fluidized bed combustor. coal is partially gasified in a pressurized gasifier Left behind in the gasifier is a combustible char that can be burned in a fluidized bed combustor or advanced high-temperature furnace to produce steam to drive a steam-turbine power cycle and to heat combustion air for the gas turbine. Heat from the gas turbine exhaust also can be recovered to produce steam for the steam turbine Using fluidised bed reduces so2. , a chemical sorbent can be added to capture sulfur impurities. Efficiencies greater than 55% in hybrid system
This approach is used in coal gasification plant, which generates a syngas made mostly of CO and H 2 . The CO and H 2 are then separated and reacted in a controlled environment releasing almost pure CO 2 . . With this approach various amine-based processes already exist, and retrofit to existing plant is possible. These approaches are expensive at the moment. involve the use of enriched oxygen as feedstock for the combustion process. This, together with recycling of combustion products, results in CO 2 and H 2 O products, which are readily separated.
10-year demonstration project to create the world's first coal-based, zero-emissions electricity and hydrogen power plant...&quot; Additionally, other countries will be invited to participate in the demonstration project through the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum and other mechanisms. The prototype plant will establish the technical and economic feasibility of producing electricity and hydrogen from coal
By 2015, develop the core modules for a fleet of fuel-flexible, multi-product energy plants that boost power efficiencies to 60+ percent, emit virtually no pollutants, and with carbon sequestration release minimal or no carbon emissions. Integration with fuel cells ; could process coal, natural gas, biomass, petroleum coke (from oil refineries), and municipal waste. , to control greenhouse gases emissions. To develop a suite of . greater than 60% for coal-based systems and 75% for natural gas-based systems combustion, gasification, high efficiency furnaces and heat exchangers, advanced gas turbines, fuel cells, and fuels synthesis
Syn gas should be free of contaminates for this purpose
As already mentioned before natural gas is least polluting…cleaner fuel.
However newer reserves are found from time to time showing some kind of hope
. Processing of raw gas involves stripping the gas of hydrogen sulphide and most of its carbon dioxide content to produce marketable gas. The most common traditional method of handling these by-products, referred to as acid gas, is to convert it to elemental sulphur, which is then pelletized. Injection of the acid gas into a suitable underground formation, such as a depleted reservoir, is gaining recognition as a method of significantly reducing emissions.
Inspite of all this, it is a very favoured fuel because of its environment friendly nature While the exact amount of natural gas reserves is still not clear, reserve forecasts have been steadily increasing as existing reserves are more extensively explored.
Sometimes called the resource of the future - and it always will be - this rock, with its enormous potential, might be experiencing a comeback in the US in the next few years. But, might and might not, don't they mean the same thing? Since it does not contain any liquid hydrocarbon, extraction is very uneconomical The total energy and water requirements together with environmental and monetary costs (to produce shale oil in significant quantities) have so far made production uneconomic.
Global oil-shale resources exceed 3.5 trillion barrels, The oil shale industry has been in operation in various countries around the world for more than 100 years Australia’s oil reserves are predicted to supply power for another 50 years Maximum reserves are found in the North America recoverable reserves are The oil crisis of the early 1970s saw many multinational oil companies and government agencies investing large sums of money into oil shale research and development
Estonia depends mostly on shale oil deposits
Three stages first stage was functional in 2001 and produced 4000 barrels per day Stage 1 produces oil in two approximately equal fractions: a naphtha fraction, which is low in sulphur and is used to make ultra low sulphur petrol diesel and jet fuel, and a medium shale oil fraction which is used as a blend for fuel oil. Planning is now focussed on Stage 2, which will have four times the capacity of Stage 1 producing 15,000 b/d. STP are seeking equity partners to proceed because of financial crunches
This is larger than the Saudi Arabia oil reserves, which are estimated at 240Gb. , including oil not recoverable using current technology, (Alberta)
Amount of natural gas in methane hydrate is estimated to be far greater than all the world's conventional natural gas resources. Reserves is so much that If only one percent of the methane hydrate resource could be made technically and economically recoverable, the United States could more than double its domestic natural gas resource base. This is a staggering amount when compared to 5500 trillion cubic feet
Contains a solid hydrocarbon, kerogen which is "fossilised algae".
Time, pressure and temperature have transformed these sediments into a hydrocarbon-bearing rock.
Contains no liquid hydrocarbons.
The heating of the oil shale, forces the decomposition of kerogen and hydrocarbons are released as a vapour which on cooling becomes liquid oil and gas.
Reserves Country Recovery method Proved recoverable reserves million tonnes (oil) Average yield of oil kg oil/ tonne Estimated additional reserves million tonnes (oil) USA surface 60 000 – 80 000 57 62000 Australia In-situ 1725 53 35260