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Fossil fuels

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  • Inaccesible places like south pole depend purely on diesel and kerosene for their power supply of pipelines and gas stations
  • Because these structures could not be installed on the seabed at such great depths, (able to withstand high pressures at great water depths, etc.). came into general use, reducing the number of wells. The transition from deep offshore to ultra-deep offshore will require higher allocations of R&D resources
  • (less than 5,000 feet subsurface)
  • OPEC plays a crucial role in oil market
  • The graph shows the fluctuation of oil price with year and historic events depicting how much politics affects
  • Since what is given in the table is only the year that the consumption will peak after which we can obviously expect the consumption to decline the reserves as such will be completely consumed much later. The cumulative consumption of crude is shown and it is predicted to last another 100 odd years.
  • As we can see the price increase in coal price is very small, why then is it not being used as extensively as it shld
  • The issues currently facing coal are much more in the context of international, regional and national environmental policy conditions relating to the use of coal. This table shows why we need to take strict environmental measures inorder to use coal
  • The world has realized the seriousness of such pollution and many treaties and agreements have been signed by countries across the globe to reduce emissions. One such agreement is the Kyoto Protocol
  • 160 nations met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limitations on greenhouse gases for the nations and to reach a consensus on energy issues, use, energy prices and economy. (such as preserving forests).
  • Conventional method uses the heat obtained from burning coal to produce steam which drives turbines connected to generators. In order to improve efficiency we use a combination of gas turbine and steam turbine
  • Waste heat from fossil-fueled steam-electric generating unit is dissipated into rivers. This adversely affects aquatic life. To counter this effect, evaporative cooling towers are installed so that it can be used as a fuel for fuel cells or refineries. transform gaseous forms of mercury released when coal burns into solids that can be captured by flue gas filters or other particulate removal devices (natural gas & light distillate oil
  • " Hybrid" combination of a coal gasifier and a fluidized bed combustor. coal is partially gasified in a pressurized gasifier Left behind in the gasifier is a combustible char that can be burned in a fluidized bed combustor or advanced high-temperature furnace to produce steam to drive a steam-turbine power cycle and to heat combustion air for the gas turbine. Heat from the gas turbine exhaust also can be recovered to produce steam for the steam turbine Using fluidised bed reduces so2. , a chemical sorbent can be added to capture sulfur impurities. Efficiencies greater than 55% in hybrid system
  • This approach is used in coal gasification plant, which generates a syngas made mostly of CO and H 2 . The CO and H 2 are then separated and reacted in a controlled environment releasing almost pure CO 2 . . With this approach various amine-based processes already exist, and retrofit to existing plant is possible. These approaches are expensive at the moment. involve the use of enriched oxygen as feedstock for the combustion process. This, together with recycling of combustion products, results in CO 2 and H 2 O products, which are readily separated.
  • 10-year demonstration project to create the world's first coal-based, zero-emissions electricity and hydrogen power plant..." Additionally, other countries will be invited to participate in the demonstration project through the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum and other mechanisms. The prototype plant will establish the technical and economic feasibility of producing electricity and hydrogen from coal
  • By 2015, develop the core modules for a fleet of fuel-flexible, multi-product energy plants that boost power efficiencies to 60+ percent, emit virtually no pollutants, and with carbon sequestration release minimal or no carbon emissions. Integration with fuel cells ; could process coal, natural gas, biomass, petroleum coke (from oil refineries), and municipal waste. , to control greenhouse gases emissions. To develop a suite of . greater than 60% for coal-based systems and 75% for natural gas-based systems combustion, gasification, high efficiency furnaces and heat exchangers, advanced gas turbines, fuel cells, and fuels synthesis
  • Syn gas should be free of contaminates for this purpose
  • As already mentioned before natural gas is least polluting…cleaner fuel.
  • However newer reserves are found from time to time showing some kind of hope
  • . Processing of raw gas involves stripping the gas of hydrogen sulphide and most of its carbon dioxide content to produce marketable gas. The most common traditional method of handling these by-products, referred to as acid gas, is to convert it to elemental sulphur, which is then pelletized. Injection of the acid gas into a suitable underground formation, such as a depleted reservoir, is gaining recognition as a method of significantly reducing emissions.
  • Inspite of all this, it is a very favoured fuel because of its environment friendly nature While the exact amount of natural gas reserves is still not clear, reserve forecasts have been steadily increasing as existing reserves are more extensively explored.
  • Sometimes called the resource of the future - and it always will be - this rock, with its enormous potential, might be experiencing a comeback in the US in the next few years. But, might and might not, don't they mean the same thing? Since it does not contain any liquid hydrocarbon, extraction is very uneconomical The total energy and water requirements together with environmental and monetary costs (to produce shale oil in significant quantities) have so far made production uneconomic.
  • Global oil-shale resources exceed 3.5 trillion barrels, The oil shale industry has been in operation in various countries around the world for more than 100 years Australia’s oil reserves are predicted to supply power for another 50 years Maximum reserves are found in the North America recoverable reserves are The oil crisis of the early 1970s saw many multinational oil companies and government agencies investing large sums of money into oil shale research and development
  • Estonia depends mostly on shale oil deposits
  • Three stages first stage was functional in 2001 and produced 4000 barrels per day Stage 1 produces oil in two approximately equal fractions: a naphtha fraction, which is low in sulphur and is used to make ultra low sulphur petrol diesel and jet fuel, and a medium shale oil fraction which is used as a blend for fuel oil. Planning is now focussed on Stage 2, which will have four times the capacity of Stage 1 producing 15,000 b/d. STP are seeking equity partners to proceed because of financial crunches
  • This is larger than the Saudi Arabia oil reserves, which are estimated at 240Gb. , including oil not recoverable using current technology, (Alberta)
  • Amount of natural gas in methane hydrate is estimated to be far greater than all the world's conventional natural gas resources. Reserves is so much that If only one percent of the methane hydrate resource could be made technically and economically recoverable, the United States could more than double its domestic natural gas resource base. This is a staggering amount when compared to 5500 trillion cubic feet
  • Transcript

    • 1.  
    • 2. Agenda
      • Oil
        • Production Technology
        • Reserves & Demand
        • Economics
      • Coal
        • Reserves – World & India
        • Economics
        • Pollution control Policies
        • Clean coal Technologies
      • Natural Gas
        • Reserves & Production
        • Economics
      • Shale Oil
        • Reserves
        • Case study – Stuart Project, Australia
      • Tar Sands
      • Methane Hydrate
      • Conclusion
    • 3.
      • Fossil Fuels are energy-rich substances that have formed from long-buried plants and microorganisms.
      • The gasoline that fuels our cars, the coal that powers electrical plants, the natural gas that heats our homes are all fossil fuels.
      Workhorses Of Our Energy Sector
    • 4. They are indispensable…
      • High energy density
        • 73,890 BTU/ lb of Natural Gas
        • 17,400,000 BTU/ton of Lignite Coal
        • 138,000 BTU/gal of Fuel oil
      • Renewable sources vary with
          • Geographical location
          • Season
          • Time of day
      • Relative inexpensiveness.
      • Needed to provide back up.
      • The entire transportation infrastructure is built around fossil fuels.
      • It is next to impossible to alter these to suit any other resources.
    • 5. Basic Technology of Oil Extraction
      • The crude oil is separated in a distillation column into various fractions of multifarious uses.
    • 6.  
    • 7. Current Production Technologies
      • Development and use of (3D) seismic waves.
      • Innovative drilling and production structures.
      • Carbon dioxide reinjection
      • Deep offshore Production:
      • FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Offloading) and TLP (Tension Leg Platform) systems.
      • New materials for flexibles.
      • Horizontal and multibranch wells.
      • The current depth is around 1800 m, the next target depth is 3000 m.
    • 8.  
    • 9. Micro hole drilling
      • Aimed at slashing costs and reducing environmental impacts of drilling.
      • Tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths.
      • The Technique:
        • Ultra small-diameter holes.
        • Adapts coiled tubing drilling techniques.
        • Drill motor and bit are deployed on the end of tubing coiled around a spool on a trailer.
        • Trailer pulled by pickup truck.
    • 10. Oil Reserves & Production
      • Currently, the world has proven reserves of a little over 1,100 million barrels.
      • Production of oil is around 37 million tonnes per annum.
      • India reserves and production(1999)
      Proved recoverable reserves (crude oil and NGL’s, million tonnes) 645 Production (crude oil and NGL’s, million tonnes, 1999) 36.7 R/P ratio (years) 16.7
    • 11.
      • Middle East countries hold 65% of oil and 34% of the gas reserves.
      • 14 of the major oil producing countries constitute the Organization of the petroleum exporting corporation (OPEC)
      • OPEC has proven reserves of 891,116 million barrels of crude oil, representing 78.3% of the world reserves, and produces around 40% of the world’s crude.
      Role of OPEC
    • 12. Increasing Demands And Consequences
      • Oil is extracted at the rate of 75 million barrels per day, which means the current reserves are predicted to last only for another 35-40 years.
      • The cost of oil has already
      • surged past $70 per barrel.
    • 13.  
    • 14.  
    • 15.  
    • 16. COAL The energy bridge to the future!!
      • First fossil fuel to be discovered.
      • Pushed to background because of its environmental effects.
      • The two major uses for coal – steel production and electricity.
      • Accounts for 23% of the global primary energy demand, 38% of world electricity production and 70% of world steel production.
    • 17. Reserves
      • The proved recoverable world reserves at the end of 1991
      India has proven coal reserves of 84,396 million tonnes Type of coal Reserves (million tonnes) Bituminous 519 062 Sub-bituminous 276 301 Lignite 189 090
    • 18.  
    • 19.
      • The present reserves represent a life span of hundreds of years at the current rate of production and consumption
      • The average open market sales price of coal in the USA is around $30/ton
      Reserves…
    • 20. Reverting to COAL
      • For coal to reestablish itself as the primary fuel, it will need to reduce its environmental footprint .
      • Comparison of Air Pollution from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels (kilograms of emission per TJ of energy consumed)
      Natural gas Oil Coal Nitrogen oxides 43 142 359 Sulphur di oxide 0.3 430 731 Particulates 2 36 1333
    • 21.
      • Major pollutants are volatile organic compounds (VOC), Nitrogen oxides (NOX), CO, SO2, particulate matter, mercury and lead .
      • Electric utility power plants 72%, 35%, and 33% of total emissions of SO2, CO2, and NOx.
      • Average mercury content of coal is 7.4 pounds per trillion Btu of energy input to the coal-fired electricity generator.
    • 22.
      • Kyoto Protocol
      • Reduce "CO 2 - equivalent" gas emissions.
      • Actions that take carbon out of the atmosphere.
      • Countries to limit greenhouse gas emissions , relative to the levels in 1990.
      • USA hasn’t signed it as yet but instead agreed to reduce emissions from 1990 levels by 7 percent during the period 2008 to 2012.
      • Clear Skies Initiative
      • Sulfur dioxide emissions to be cut by 73%
      • Nitrogen oxide emissions to be reduced by 67%
      • Mercury emissions be cut by 69%
    • 23. Combined Cycle
      • Combines gas turbine and steam turbine.
      • Exhaust energy from gas section used in steam system.
      • High thermal efficiency.
      • Small plants combined.
      • High mobility.
    • 24. Gasification
      • Breaks down coal into basic chemical constituents.
      • Coal is exposed to hot steam and controlled amounts of air or oxygen under high temperature and pressures.
      • Carbon molecules in coal break apart, setting off chemical reactions that produce syn gas and other gaseous compounds.
      • Integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC)
      • Syn gas is burned in a combustion turbine which drives an electric generator.
      • The exhaust gases are used to heat steam.
    • 25. Knocking the NOx out of coal
      • NOx emissions reduced at low-combustion temperatures and by use of low-nitrogen fuels, low- NOx burners and fluidized-bed combustion.
      • Particulate matter removed by fabric filters or electrostatic precipitator.
      • Membranes for separating gases .
      • Selective removal of hydrogen from syngas.
      • Flue gas desulfurisation units, selective catalytic control systems and evaporative cooling towers.
      • Sulfur extracted from coal converted into commercial-grade sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur.
      • Mercury controls - sorbents and oxidizing agents.
    • 26. Transport Reactor
    • 27. Carbon Sequestration
      • It is a family of methods for capturing and permanently isolating gases that could contribute to global climate change.
      • CARBON CAPTURE
      • Pre-combustion capture
      • Post-combustion capture
      • Oxyfuel technologies. 
      • CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION
      • Industrial use of CO 2 in plastics and other chemical industries
      • Inorganic sequestration as carbonates
      • Biological conversion to fuel
      • Geological sequestration, in salt domes, or coal beds
      • Injection into active oil wells
      • Injection into exhausted gas or oil wells
      • Injection into aquifers
      • Ocean disposal
    • 28.  
    • 29. SO 2 emissions (thousand tonnes of SO 2 ) Fuel Type 1990 2003 % change Coal 2710 727 -73 Other solid fuels 68 19 -72 Fuel Oil 605 66 -89 Other petroleum products 193 82 -57 Gaseous fuels 10 11 +6 Other emissions 125 73 -41 Total 3711 979 -74
    • 30.  
    • 31. US Initiatives
      • FutureGen - Tomorrow's Pollution-Free Power Plant
      • $1 billion dollar project.
      • Employs coal gasification integrated with combined cycle electricity generation and the sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions.
      • Will require 10 years to complete.
      • In the operational phase, it will generate revenue streams from the sales of electricity, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
    • 32.  
    • 33. Vision 21 The "Ultimate" Power Plant Concept
      • Multiple products - electricity in combination with liquid fuels and chemicals or hydrogen or industrial process heat.
      • Not restricted to a single fuel type.
      • Coupled with carbon sequestration technologies.
      • Technology modules interconnected to produce selected products.
      • Very High efficiencies with near-zero emissions.
      • Uses low-polluting processes.
    • 34.  
    • 35. Fuel Cells - for near zero emissions coal-based systems
      • Based on electrochemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen.
      • Integrated gasification fuel cell hybrids have the potential to achieve up to 60 percent efficiency and near-zero emissions.
      • Hydrogen separated from syn gas got from gasification.
      • Exhaust gases can be used to drive gas turbines.
      • Small 3-10 kW scale fuel cell systems combined to give larger systems for use in hybrid power systems.
    • 36. Natural Gas
      • The world had around 5500 trillion cubic meters at the end of 2003.
    • 37.
      • Current reserves represent a life span of
      • 60 years.
      • Indian Scenario
      Some Statistics… Proved recoverable reserves (billion cubic metres) 647 Production (net billion cubic metres,1999) 19.5 R/P ratio (years) 26.5
    • 38.
      • Why Natural Gas?
        • Cleaner fuel, has low carbon/hydrogen ratio hence less carbon dioxide emission.
        • Has a distinct hydrogen-rich molecular structure, hence supply hydrogen for future technologies like fuel cells.
      • 3D seismic technologies now used to locate fractures in the earth.
      • Combined cycle technology used.
      • Acid reinjection employed for better efficiency.
    • 39. Economics
      • The price is based on
        • calorific value of gas
        • local demand
        • supply
        • cost of alternate liquid fuels
      • Cost of natural gas has increased over 200% in the past 2 decades.
    • 40. Bright Prospects…
      • Shale Oil
      • Is a 40-50 million-year-old sedimentary rock.
      • Contains a solid hydrocarbon, kerogen which is "fossilised algae".
      • Time, pressure and temperature have transformed these sediments into a hydrocarbon-bearing rock.
      • Contains no liquid hydrocarbons.
      • The heating of the oil shale, forces the decomposition of kerogen and hydrocarbons are released as a vapour which on cooling becomes liquid oil and gas.
    • 41. Reserves Country Recovery method Proved recoverable reserves million tonnes (oil) Average yield of oil kg oil/ tonne Estimated additional reserves million tonnes (oil) USA surface 60 000 – 80 000 57 62000 Australia In-situ 1725 53 35260
    • 42.
      • The Estonia and Tapa deposits are situated in the west of the Baltic Basin
      • Share of oil shale in the Estonian national primary energy balance is 52-54%.
      • Oil shale output had reached 7 million tonnes by 1955
      • Mainly used as a power station/chemical plant fuel and in the production of cement.
      • The opening of more thermal plants boosted production and by 1980 (the year of maximum output) the figure had risen to 31.35 million tonnes.
    • 43. Stuart Project - Australia
      • Incorporates the Alberta-Taciuk Processor (ATP) retort technology.
      • Three staged plant aimed at producing
      • 85 000 b/d by 2009.
    • 44.  
    • 45.
      • Higher emissions of greenhouse gases than conventional oil resources.
      • Plans are on to reduce these emissions by
        • Creating a ‘carbon sink’ through planting trees to create permanent forests. This would ‘capture’ or sequester carbon dioxide
        • Building a bio-ethanol plant to operate alongside the Stuart Shale Oil plant, and be based on woody biomass sourced from local plantations and sugar wastes.
    • 46. Tar Sands
      • Deposits of bitumen - viscous oil that must be rigorously treated in order to convert it into an upgraded crude oil
      • Of the oil sands found in Alberta, 10-12% is bitumen, 80-85 % is mineral matter, and 4-6% is water.
      • Reserves estimated at 280-300 billion barrels.
    • 47. Processing Technique
      • Must be mined or recovered in situ.
      • Recovery processes include extraction and separation systems to remove the bitumen from the sand and water.
      • Cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) currently used.
      • Technique not advanced enough to make it economical.
    • 48. Methane Hydrate…the gas resource of the future
      • It is a compound of water and methane
      • Forms under pressure at cold temperatures.
      • Potential significant source of natural gas.
      • Large volumes of hydrate based natural gas found on Alaska's North Slope.
      • Natural gas potential of methane hydrate approach 400 million trillion cubic feet.
    • 49. Fossil Fuels… the fuels of the past & the fuels for the future
      • The volumes of exploitable oil and gas are closely correlated to technological advances, technical costs.
      • Any improvement in the recovery rate - even if by only one point - allows the industry to tap substantial additional reserves.
      • Coal with its plentiful reserves and inexpensiveness offers tremendous potential if we carry out environment friendly plans.
      • With the various technological advancements, and alternate sources for oil and gas, the end of fossil fuels is still centuries away.
    • 50.
      • “ The path to the future is neither as rosy as some people hope nor as thorny as others fear, but depends on how effectively we pick out the weeds and nurture the bush as we walk ”
    • 51. Thank you!

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