Analysis Of  Biomass And  Biofuels
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  • 1. Energy Today With your favorite host Vignesh Sridharan Guests on today’s show K. Vaideesh Subbaraj Shivendra Upadhyay M. Vishwanath Analysis of Biomass and Biofuels as source of energy
  • 2. Technology and Environmental Impact of Biomass & Biofuels
  • 3.  
  • 4. Technology
    • Biomass technology today serves many markets that were developed with fossil fuels and modestly reduces their use
    • Uses - Industrial process heat and steam, Electrical power generation, Transportation fuels (ethanol and biodiesel) and other products.
    • Primary focus of the Biomass Program – development of advanced technologies.
  • 5. Current Focus
    • Platform technologies
    • Sugar Platform Technology
    • Thermochemical Platform Technology
  • 6. Bio-refinery
    • A facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass.
    • Analogous to today's petroleum refineries
    • It is based on the “Sugar Platform“ and the “Thermochemical Platform“
  • 7.  
  • 8. Liquid Fuel Technology
  • 9. Bio-diesel
    • Made by transforming animal fat or vegetable oil with alcohol .
    • Fuel is made from rapeseed (canola) oil or soybean oil or recycled restaurant grease.
    • Directly substituted for diesel either as neat fuel or as an oxygenate additive
  • 10. Modified Waste Vegetable Fat
    • Designed for general use in most compression ignition engines .
    •   The production of MWVF can be achieved in a continuous flow additive process.  
    • It can be modified in various ways to make a 'greener' form of fuel
  • 11. E-Diesel
    • Uses additives in order to allow blending of ethanol with diesel.
    • Ethanol blends of 7.7% to 15% and up to 5%
    • Additives that prevent the ethanol and diesel from separating at very low temperatures or if water contamination occurs.
  • 12. Jatropha
    • Biodiesel from Jatropha
    • Seeds of the Jatropha nut is
    • crushed and oil is extracted
    • The oil is processed and
    • refined to form bio-diesel.
  • 13. Gaseous fuel Technology
  • 14. Gasification Technology
    • Gobar gas Production
    • Biogas
    • Synthesis gas
  • 15. Gasification
    • A process that uses heat, pressure, and steam to convert materials directly into a gas composed primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
    • Gasification technologies rely four key engineering factors
    • 1. Gasification reactor atmosphere (level of oxygen or air content).
    • 2. Reactor design.
    • 3. Internal and external heating.
    • 4. Operating temperature.
  • 16. Gasification
    • Typical raw materials - coal, petroleum-based materials, and organic materials.
    • The feedstock is prepared and fed, in either dry or slurried form, into a sealed reactor chamber called a gasifier .
    • The feedstock is subjected to high heat, pressure, and either an oxygen-rich or oxygen-starved environment within the gasifier.
  • 17. Raw Materials for Gasification
  • 18. Gasification
    • Products of gasification :
    • * Hydrocarbon gases (also called syngas).
    • * Hydrocarbon liquids (oils).
    • * Char (carbon black and ash).
    • Syngas is primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen (more than 85 percent by volume) and smaller quantities of carbon dioxide and methane
  • 19. Gasifier Plant
  • 20. Gasifier Plant
  • 21.  
  • 22. Types of Gasifiers
    • Updraft Gasifier
  • 23. Types of Gasifiers
    • Downdraft Gasifier
  • 24. Types of Gasifiers
    • Twin-fire Gasifier
  • 25. Types of Gasifiers
    • Crossdraft gas producers
  • 26. Gobar gas
    • Gobar gas production is an anaerobic process
    • Fermentation is carried out in an air tight, closed cylindrical concrete tank called a digester
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29. Solid Fuel
  • 30. Wood
    • Domestic heating with wood is still by far the largest market for bio-energy
    • Dramatic improvements of technology in domestic heating equipment
    • Improved tiled stoves, advanced logwood boilers, woodchip boilers, pellet boilers and pellet stoves.
    • Pourable wood-based fuel is also available
  • 31. Tiled stoves
  • 32. Pellet Boilers and Stoves
  • 33. Logwood boiler
  • 34. Woodchip boilers
  • 35. Environmental Concerns
    • Air Pollution
    • Soil Deterioration
  • 36. Air Concerns
    • Biomass processing technologies and biofuels use have the potential to increase emissions of ozone precursors
      • Increase in No x emissions
    • Excessive inhalation of ethanol is harmful
    • Combustion of ethanol would result in increased atmospheric concentrations of carcinogens
    • Emission of relatively large sized particulate matter
  • 37. Soil Concerns
    • Burning biomass deprives local eco-systems of nutrients
    • Production of dedicated energy crops renders land fallow
    • Reduced land availability for cattle grazing
    • Increased use of pesticides and fertilizers to produce energy crops contaminate ground and surface water
      • Affects fish and wildlife
  • 38. Environmental Benefits
    • Reduction of waste
    • Extremely low emission of greenhouse gases compared to fossil fuels
    • Ethanol is Carbon neutral and forms a part of the carbon cycle
    • Growing variety of crops increases bio-diversity
  • 39. Socio-Economic Benefits
    • Helps developing economies by promoting agrarian communities
    • Increase in jobs
    • Increase in trade balance (Indian perspective) due to lesser dependence on foreign resources
  • 40. BIO FUELS
    • THE WORLD SCENARIO
  • 41. BRAZIL
    • World leader in production and export of ethanol.
    • Ethanol produced per day equivalent to 200,000 barrels of gasoline.
    • 24% blend ethanol mandatory.
    • Competitiveness
    • Bio diesel initiatives underway
  • 42. U.S.A.
    • Ethanol : a big boost to economy
    • E85 sells cheaper than gasoline
    • Currently production aimed at 4.5 Billion gallons/yr
    • MTBE phased out in many states
    • Soya bean main source of biodiesel
  • 43. E.U.
    • Rapeseed main source of bio diesel
    • 3-15% blended petrol
    • France: Bio diesel exempted from domestic tax
    • Germany: Sales of bio diesel 99 million US gallons
    • Rise of SVO as domestic fuel
  • 44. The Significant Others
    • China: 3 rd largest producer of ethanol producing 220,000 tons of ethanol, exporting 90,000 tons in 2000.
    • In southeast Asia, the Jatropha tree is used as a significant fuel source
    • Malaysia and Indonesia are starting pilot-scale production from palm oil.
  • 45. India
    • Sources of ethanol:
        • Sugarcane
        • Molasses
        • Agricultural waste
    • Low average cost of Rs.18/litre projected
    • Annual production capacity of 1.5 Billion litres
  • 46.
    • Sources of biodiesel:
        • Honge
        • Jatropha
    • High capital, broad scale production plan initiated
    • Cost per liter projected at Rs. 27
    India (Contd.)
  • 47.  
  • 48. Bio Mass
    • Biomass already supplies 14 % of the world’s primary energy consumption. On average, biomass produces 38 % of the primary energy in developing countries.
    • USA: 4% of total energy from bio mass, around 9000 MW
    • INDIA is short of 15,000 MW of energy and it costs about 25,000 crores annually for the government to import oil.
  • 49.
    • Bio Mass from cattle manure, agricultural waste, forest residue and municipal waste.
    • Anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes to give bio gas
    • Digester consumes roughly one third the power it’s capable of producing.
    • Fertilizers as by product.
    • Average electricity generation of 5.5kWh per cow per day!!
  • 50. Thank You