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Stress management by -n.g.palit


What is stress? Stress is a part of being alive. A total absence of stress can be achieved only in death. Stress is the "wear and tear" our minds and bodies experience. …

What is stress? Stress is a part of being alive. A total absence of stress can be achieved only in death. Stress is the "wear and tear" our minds and bodies experience.
Stress occurs when the pressure is greater than the resource. 80% of all modern diseases originate from 'stress'.
"Stress Management" is the art of taking care of oneself. So, become aware of your stressors and your physical and emotional reactions.
Our aim is not to eliminate stress but to learn how to manage and use it to help us.

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  • 2. FIRST Let us understand what is Stress?
  • 3. STRESS • Stress is a part of being alive. • The only time there is a total absence of stress is in death.
  • 4. STRESS • Stress becomes a problem, when we have too much stress and are unable to cope with it. *Image via Bing
  • 5. ! WHAT IS STRESS ? Stress is the reaction, people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed upon them. It arises when they worry which they are unable to cope up with.
  • 6. WHAT IS STRESS ? Stress is the “wear and tear” our minds and bodies experience as we attempt to cope with our continually changing environment
  • 7. CHRONIC STRESS DIAGRAM *Image via Bing
  • 8. DEFINITION S=P>R Stress occurs when the pressure is greater than the resource
  • 9. What is ’Stress Management’? The art of taking care of oneself
  • 10. Physical Symptoms of Stress 1. Physical Symptoms Fa ti Sleep Pa F Dizz ines s g tin a in Swe gu e g es t t ern C h a n P t lpi a n tio a es Chang on Digesti ain and P Aches s He tbea s ed H ea r M is ada c ts atin gA Br ea he nd th Tre m les sn e ss blin g
  • 11. FEELINGS of STRESS • • • • • • • • Worry Tense Tired Frightened Elated Depressed Anxious Anger Why I feel sick?
  • 12. REACTION TO STRESS Greek Philosopher – Epictetus Men are disturbed not by the things that happen, but by their opinion of the things that happen. The manner in which you choose to interpret, react to and handle a perceived stress can very often be far more damaging to you than the actual stress could ever be on its own.
  • 13. WHAT ARE STRESSORS ? Stressors are events that threaten or challenge people.
  • 14. STRESSORS Become aware of your stressors & your emotional and physical reactions
  • 15. TYPES OF STRESSORS • External • Internal
  • 16. EXTERNAL STRESSORS • • • • • Physical Environment Social Interaction Organisational Major Life Events Daily Hassles I got the answer
  • 17. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT • • • • Noise Strong Lights Heat Confined Spaces
  • 18. SOCIAL INTERACTION • • • • Rudeness Continuous ‘Bossism’ Aggressive behaviours by others Constant Bullying
  • 19. ORGANISATIONAL • Strict Rules & Regulations • “Red – Tapism” • Deadlines
  • 20. MAJOR LIFE EVENTS • • • • • Birth Death Lost job Promotion Marital status change
  • 21. DAILY HASSLES • Long Commuting • Misplaced keys • Mechanical breakdowns
  • 22. INTERNAL STRESSORS • • • • Choice of Lifestyle Negative self - talk Mind traps Personality traits
  • 23. LIFE STYLE CHOICES • High Caffeine intake • Lack of sleep • Overloaded schedule
  • 24. NEGATIVE SELF - TALK • Pessimistic thinking • Self- criticism • Over analysing
  • 25. MIND TRAPS • • • • • Unrealistic expectations Taking things personally Thinking too much Exaggeration Rigid thinking
  • 26. PERSONALITY TRAITS • Perfectionists • Workaholics
  • 27. TYPES OF STRESS • Eustress – Positive • Distress – Negative, Commonly known as STRESS
  • 28. TYPES OF STRESS • Negative stress • Positive stress Let me think…..
  • 29. NEGATIVE STRESS It is a contributory factor in minor conditions, such as headaches, digestive problems, skin complaints, insomnia and ulcers.
  • 30. NEGATIVE STRESS CYCLE *Image via Bing
  • 31. POSITIVE STRESS • Keeps you motivated • Makes you perform better under pressor
  • 32. POSITIVE STRESS Stress can also have a positive effect, like: improving motivation and providing the stimulation to cope with challenging situations. Stress also provides the sense of urgency.
  • 33. INDIVIDUAL LEVEL Every person is different, with different perceptions and reactions to different events. There is no single level of stress for all people. Some are more sensitive owing to childhood experiences, or the influences of teachers, parents and religion etc.
  • 34. PERSONAL STRESS * Most of the stress we experience is selfgenerated. * How we perceive life - whether an event makes us feel encouraged or discouraged, happy or sad – depends to a large extent on how we perceive ourselves.
  • 35. SELF-GENERATED STRESS Self-generated stress is something of a paradox.. Recognising that we create most of our own stress, is the first step towards coping with them.
  • 36. Response To Stress Dr. Hans Selye 1930’s Dr. Walter Cannon ‘ Flight or Fight Response’
  • 37. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Stress response is controlled by our Endocrine System. Demands on the physical or mental systems of the body, result in hormone secretion (Adrenaline, testosterone)
  • 38. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM RESPONSES • • • • • • Increased pupil dilation Perspiration Increased heart rate and blood pressure Rapid breathing Tenseness of muscle Increased mental alertness
  • 39. GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME • Alarm response • Adaptation • Exhaustion
  • 40. ALARM RESPONSE This is the “ Fight or Flight” response that prepares the body for immediate action. *Image via Bing
  • 41. ADAPTATION PHASE If the source persists, the body prepares for long-term protection, secreting hormones to increase blood sugar levels. Fatigue, concentration lapses, irritability and lethargy result as the stress turns negative.
  • 42. EXHAUSTION In chronic stress situations, sufferers enter the exhaustion phase: The body experiences ‘ adrenal exhaustion’ leading to decreased stress tolerance, progressive mental and physical exhaustion, illness and collapse.
  • 43. SYMPTOMS OF STRESS • • • • Physical symptoms Mental symptoms Behavioural symptoms Emotional symptoms
  • 44. PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS • • • • • • • Sleep pattern changes Fatigue Loss of sexual drive Headaches Aches and pains Infections Indigestion • • • • Dizziness Fainting Sweating & trembling Tingling of hands & feet • Breathlessness • Palpitations • Missed heartbeats
  • 45. MENTAL SYMPTOMS • • • • • • Lack of concentration Memory lapses Difficulty in making decisions Confusion Disorientation Panic attacks *Image via Bing
  • 46. • • • • • • • BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS Appetite changes - too much or too little Eating disorders - anorexia, Increased intake of alcohol & other drugs Increased smoking Restlessness Fidgeting Nail biting
  • 47. EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS • • • • • Bouts of depression Impatience Fits of rage Fearfulness Deterioration of personal hygiene.
  • 48. STRESS RELATED ILLNESSES Stress is not the same as ill-health, but has been related to such illnesses as; • • • • Cardiovascular disease Immune system disease Asthma Diabetes
  • 49. Effects of Stress • • • • • • Digestive disorders Ulcers Skin complaints - psoriasis Headaches and migraines Pre-menstrual syndrome Depression
  • 50. COSTS OF STRESS 80% of all modern diseases have their origins in stress. Many working days per year are lost directly from stress - related illness.
  • 51. STRESS AT WORK Stress at Work
  • 52. WHY DO WE WORK ? Work provides us income and fulfils a variety of other needs; - mental and physical exercise, social contact, a feeling of self-worth and competence.
  • 53. FACTORS INFLUENCING WORK STRESS • The drive for success • Changing work patterns • Working conditions • Overwork • Under-work • • • • • Uncertainty Conflict Responsibility Relationships at work Change at work
  • 54. THE DRIVE FOR SUCCESS Society is driven by ‘work’, personal adequacy equates with professional success, we crave for status and hate failure. Our culture demands monetary success / professional status.
  • 55. CHANGING WORK PATTERNS Many people feel lucky to have a job. Unemployment, new technology affect emotional and physical security. No more life-long jobs, more short - term contracts. Financial and emotional burnout is increasing at all levels.
  • 56. WORKING CONDITIONS Physical and mental health is adversely affected by unpleasant working conditions, such as high noise levels, lighting, temperature and unsocial or excessive hours.
  • 57. OVERWORK Stress may occur due to inability to cope with the technical or intellectual demands of a particular task. Circumstances such as long hours, unrealistic deadlines may compound this.
  • 58. UNDERWORK This may arise from boredom because there is not enough to do, or because a job is dull and repetitive.
  • 59. UNCERTAINTY Uncertainty about the individual’s work, responsibilities, and a lack of communication and feedback can result in confusion, helplessness, and stress.
  • 60. CONFLICT Stress can arise from work, which the individual does not want to do or that conflicts with their personal, social and family values.
  • 61. RESPONSIBILITY The greater the level of responsibility the greater is the potential level of stress.
  • 62. RELATIONSHIPS AT WORK Good relationships with colleagues are crucial. Open discussion is essential to encourage positive relationships.
  • 63. CHANGES AT WORK Changes which alter psychological, physiological and behavioural such as promotion, retirement etc, are particularly stressful.
  • 64. Summary Work is important Work Stresses - Heat, Noise Job satisfaction Responsibility Relationships - Good / bad Changes - long / short term
  • 65. Self - help
  • 66. STRESS Not all the stress we experience is generated at work !!
  • 67. Causes of Stress • External Stresses • Internal Stresses
  • 68. External Stresses - Organisational Company take over Reductions / layoffs Major reorganisation Employee benefit cuts Workloads vary Fast paced work React to changes Insufficient resources Low Pay Technology changes Workplace conditions
  • 69. External Stresses - Major Life Events Death of a loved one Divorce / separation Injury/illness ( self / family ) Marriage/ engagement Loss of job Retirement Sexual Problems Change in financial status Change of job / work Change in responsibilities Shifting of house
  • 70. RECOGNISE THE PROBLEM The most important point is to recognise the source of the negative stress. And then, take measures to overcome it.
  • 72. ABC STRATEGY A = AWARENESS What causes you stress? How do you react?
  • 73. ABC STRATEGY B = BALANCE There is a fine line between positive / negative stress How much can you cope with before it becomes negative ?
  • 74. ABC STRATEGY C = CONTROL What can you do to help yourself combat the negative effects of stress ?
  • 75. MANAGING STRESS – Our goal is not to eliminate stress but to learn how to manage and use it – to help us.
  • 76. Stress Management Techniques How can I get rid of stress? • Change your thinking • Change your behaviour • Change your lifestyle
  • 77. Change your Thinking • Re-framing • Positive thinking
  • 78. Re-framing * Re-framing is a technique to change the way you look at things in order to feel better about them. * Re-framing does not change the external reality, but helps you to view things in a different light which is less stressful.
  • 79. Positive Thinking Forget powerlessness, dejection, despair, failure Stress leaves us vulnerable to negative suggestion, so focus on positives; • Focus on your strengths • Look for the opportunities • Seek out the positive, & make changes.
  • 80. Change your Behaviour • • • • Be assertive Get organised Use Humour Diversion and distraction Oh, - really
  • 81. Be Assertive Assertiveness helps to manage stressful situations, and will , in time, help to reduce their frequency. The key to assertiveness is verbal and non verbal communication. .
  • 82. Equality and Basic Rights 1) The right to express my feelings 2) The right to express opinions / beliefs 3) The right to say ‘Yes/No’ for yourself 4) Right to change your mind 5) Right to say ‘I don’t understand’ 6) Right to be yourself, not acting for the benefit of others
  • 83. Equality & Basic Rights 7) The right to make reasonable requests of others 8) The right to set my own priorities
  • 84. Being Assertive Being assertive involves standing up for your personal rights and expressing your thoughts, feelings and beliefs directly, in ways that don’t infringe the rights of others.
  • 85. Assertive People • • • • Respect yourself and others Take responsibility for actions and choices Ask openly for what they want Self - confidence remains intact
  • 86. Assertive Skills • • • • • Establish good eye contact / don’t stare Stand or sit comfortably - don’t fidget Talk in a firm, steady voice Use positive body language Concise and to the point
  • 87. Benefits • • • • • Higher self-esteem Less self-conscious Manage stress more successfully Appreciate yourself and others more easily Feeling of self-control
  • 88. Time Management • Make a list What MUST be done What SHOULD be done What would you LIKE to do • Cut out time wasting • Learn to drop unimportant activities • Learn to say ‘No’ where required
  • 89. Time Management • Plan your day • Set achievable goals • Don’t waste time making excuses for not doing something
  • 90. Ventilation ‘A problem shared is a problem halved’ Develop a support network through friends or colleagues to talk with. It’s not always events that are stressful but how we perceive them. Writing a diary or notes may help release feelings but do not re-read what has been written.
  • 91. Humour • • • • • Good stress - reducer Applies at home and work Relieves muscular tension Improves breathing Pumps endorphins into the bloodstream the body’s natural painkillers
  • 92. Diversion and Distraction • • • • • • Take time out Get away from things that bother you Doesn’t solve the problem Reduce stress level Calm down Think logically
  • 93. Change Your Lifestyle • • • • • • Diet Smoking & Alcohol Exercise Sleep Leisure Relaxation
  • 94. DIET • Eat a healthy diet. • Avoid Caffine (stimulant) • Take less salt
  • 95. Stress Friendly Diet • Eat fresh fruits • • • • • • Take regular meals Eat slowly Eat variety of foods Take enough fluids Eat food with fiber Resist the temptation to overeat.
  • 96. Smoking and Alcohol • Moderate your consumption
  • 97. Benefits of Exercise • Uses up excess energy released by the ‘Fight or Flight’ reaction. • Improves blood circulation • Lowers blood pressure • Clears the mind of worrying thoughts • Improves self image • Makes you feel better about yourself • Increases social contact
  • 98. Sleep • Good stress reducer • Difficult to cope when tired • Wake refreshed after night’s sleep • Plenty of daytime energy
  • 99. Leisure • Interest • Gives you a ‘break’ from stresses • Provides outlet for relief • Provides social contact
  • 100. Benefits of Relaxation • Lowers blood pressure • Combats fatigue • Promotes sleep • Reduces pain • Eases muscle tension
  • 101. Benefits of Relaxation * Decreases mental worries * Increases concentration • Increases productivity • Increases clear thinking
  • 102. Tips to Handle Stress • Work smarter, not harder • Carry reading material with you. • Accept the fact that time will be spent on activities outside your control. • Record daily activities, achievements, goals, sources of delay, and time wasted to realize hidden opportunities.
  • 103. Tips to Handle Stress • Always maintain a short task list. • Continually ask yourself ”What is the best use of my time right now”? • Be physically active to relieve tension. • Make quick decisions. • Carefully mix work & breaks. • Have a positive attitude. • Relax.
  • 104. Any Question?
  • 105. Thank you By – N.G.Palit
  • 106. At the End If you liked this presentation, please feel free to send your valuable feedback to me at