Communication SkillsCommunication SkillsBy –By – N.G.PalitN.G.Palit
What is Communication?What is Communication?Communication is the art ofCommunication is the art oftransmitting information, ideastransmitting information, ideasand attitudes from one personand attitudes from one personto another.to another.Communication is the processCommunication is the processof meaningful interaction amongof meaningful interaction amonghuman beings.human beings.
What is Communication?What is Communication?Communication is defined asCommunication is defined asthe interchange of thoughtsthe interchange of thoughtsor opinions throughor opinions through’’shared symbolsshared symbols’’ e.ge.glanguagelanguage, words,, words, phrasesphrases etcetc
What is Effective Communication?What is Effective Communication?Communication would beCommunication would betermed effective if there is atermed effective if there is aconstructive feedback and all theconstructive feedback and all theobjectives achieved.objectives achieved.Communication becomes effectiveCommunication becomes effectiveonly when the language used is effective,only when the language used is effective,the message conveyed is clear and thethe message conveyed is clear and thepredetermined purpose is achieved.predetermined purpose is achieved.
Most common ways toMost common ways toCommunicateCommunicateSpeakingWritingVisualVisualImageImageBodyLanguage
Four Facts of CommunicationFour Facts of CommunicationSenderSenderReceiverReceiverMessageMessageFeedback (response)Feedback (response)
Four Facets of CommunicatioFour Facets of CommunicationnIn any communication:In any communication:TheThe ’Sender’Sender’’ is the person who trying tois the person who trying tocommunicate a message.communicate a message.TheThe ’Receiver’Receiver’ is the person to whom the’ is the person to whom themessage is directed.message is directed.A message is sent to conveyA message is sent to convey ’’information’.information’.Information is meant to changeInformation is meant to change ’behaviour’.’behaviour’.
Communication mechanismCommunication mechanismThe message:The message:The source of message is the sender. The sender mustThe source of message is the sender. The sender mustknow why the communication is necessary & what resultknow why the communication is necessary & what resultis needed.is needed.Encoding:Encoding:Encoding is the process of taking your message andEncoding is the process of taking your message andtransferring it into the proper format for sharing it with thetransferring it into the proper format for sharing it with theaudience.audience.Channel:Channel:Channel is the method of communication that youChannel is the method of communication that youchoose, such as face-to-face, by telephone or via e-mail.choose, such as face-to-face, by telephone or via e-mail.
Communication mechanismCommunication mechanismDecoding:Decoding:It is the process of receiving the message accurately,It is the process of receiving the message accurately,and understand the information.and understand the information.Feedback:Feedback:It is the response from the receiver.It is the response from the receiver.Feedback lets you know if your communication wasFeedback lets you know if your communication wassuccessful or not.successful or not.Feedback can be Verbal & Non-verbal Reactions.Feedback can be Verbal & Non-verbal Reactions.It can be Positive feedback and Negative feedbackIt can be Positive feedback and Negative feedback
Communication is a two-wayCommunication is a two-wayprocessprocessCommunication is aCommunication is a’’two-way process’.two-way process’.Sender to ReceiverSender to Receiver((message)message),, and receiverand receiverto senderto sender ((feedback)feedback)
Nature of communicationNature of communicationIt has four specific skills:It has four specific skills:1. Reading1. Reading2. Writing2. Writing3. Speaking3. Speaking4. Listening4. Listening
Channel of communicationChannel of communicationChannel means pathway.Channel means pathway.The route through whichThe route through whichmessage flows from sendermessage flows from senderto receiver.to receiver.Different channels used in anDifferent channels used in anorganizationorganization::1. Formal channel1. Formal channel - official form- official form2. Informal channel2. Informal channel – unofficial form– unofficial form
Types of CommunicationTypes of CommunicationOn the basis of organizational relationship:On the basis of organizational relationship:1.1. FormalFormal2. Informal2. InformalOn the basis of flow:On the basis of flow:1. Vertical1. Vertical2. Diagonal / crosswise2. Diagonal / crosswise3. Horizontal3. Horizontal
Informal communicationInformal communication’Grapevine’’Grapevine’’’Grapevine’Grapevine’ is also anis also aninformal communicatioinformal communication.n.It follows no rules andIt follows no rules andspreads fast like grapevine.spreads fast like grapevine.There are two types ofThere are two types ofGrapevine:Grapevine:II. Rumours. Rumours2. Gossips2. Gossips
Types of CommunicationTypes of CommunicationOn the basis of Expression:On the basis of Expression:1. Oral1. Oral2. Written2. Written3. Gesture3. Gesture
Various means of communicationVarious means of communicationVerbal communicationVerbal communicationOralWrittenNon-VerbalcommunicationSign languageBody languagePara languageSpace, Surrounding &Time
Verbal & non-verbalVerbal & non-verbalcommunicationcommunicationIn Verbal CommunicationIn Verbal Communication::Words account for only -Words account for only - 7%7%ToneToneModulationModulation 38%38%VolumeVolumeTotal - 45%Total - 45%BalanceBalance 55%55% is through non-verbal Communication,is through non-verbal Communication,which includes:-which includes:-Our Body Language.Our Body Language.Breathing.Breathing.Our movement.Our movement.
What is Verbal Communication?What is Verbal Communication?Verbal means use of words. So, verbalVerbal means use of words. So, verbalcommunication may becommunication may be either oral or written.either oral or written.1. Oral Communication:1. Oral Communication:This is communication through spoken words.This is communication through spoken words.2. Written Communication:2. Written Communication:Communication through written words, like:Communication through written words, like:letters, memos, circulars, manuals etcletters, memos, circulars, manuals etc
Impact of oral communication?Impact of oral communication?
Non-verbal CommunicationNon-verbal Communication
Contribution of body languageContribution of body language
Major areas of non-verbalMajor areas of non-verbalbehaviours are:behaviours are:* Eye contact* Eye contact* Facial expressions* Facial expressions* Gestures* Gestures
Non-verbal behaviourNon-verbal behaviourPosture & body orientationPosture & body orientationProximityProximityParalinguisticsParalinguistics
GesturesGesturesRecognizeRecognize attitudesattitudes conveyedconveyedthrough Body Language.through Body Language.Pick upPick up non-verbal signals fromnon-verbal signals frombody language.body language.Facial expressions canFacial expressions can enhanceenhanceor detractor detract verbal communicationverbal communication..
Gesture can be effectively used toGesture can be effectively used toaugment our oral communicationaugment our oral communication
Para linguisticsPara linguisticsComponents ofComponents of Para linguisticsPara linguistics are:are:Rate of speedRate of speedWhen a speaker speaks too fast, he is seen asWhen a speaker speaks too fast, he is seen asmore competentmore competent..PitchPitchPich should be changed according to thePich should be changed according to thecontext of the spoken words.context of the spoken words.VolumeVolumeLoudLoud people are considered as agressive.people are considered as agressive.Soft spokenSoft spoken voices are perceived as timid or polite.voices are perceived as timid or polite.
Barriers in communicationBarriers in communicationNOISE FACTORNOISE FACTOR
Barriers to communicationBarriers to communicationNoiseNoiseAssumptions / MisconceptionsAssumptions / MisconceptionsInappropriate mediumInappropriate mediumLanguage differencesLanguage differencesEmotionsEmotionsPoor listening skillsPoor listening skillsDistractionsDistractions
b. Internal Stimulib. Internal StimuliNoise FactorNoise Factor: It is interference in communication: It is interference in communicationa. Physical Noisea. Physical Noise
Barriers in communicationBarriers in communication1.1. Semantic BarrierSemantic Barrier::a.a. SymbolsSymbols with different meaningwith different meaningb. Badly expressed message or use ofb. Badly expressed message or use ofJargons(specialist’s language).Jargons(specialist’s language).c. Unclarified assumptionsc. Unclarified assumptionsd. The same words can haved. The same words can havedifferent meanings, depending ondifferent meanings, depending onhow we interpret them. Example:how we interpret them. Example:””A woman without her manA woman without her man,, is nothing”is nothing”””A woman,A woman, wthout her man is nothing”wthout her man is nothing”
Psychological or Emotional BarrierPsychological or Emotional Barrieraa. Lack of attention. Lack of attentionb. Premature evaluationb. Premature evaluationc. Loss of transmission & poor retaintionc. Loss of transmission & poor retaintiond.d. Distrust of communication.Distrust of communication.e. Failure to communicate properly.e. Failure to communicate properly...
Communication involves threeCommunication involves threecomponentscomponents1. Verbal Messages:1. Verbal Messages:The words we choose.The words we choose.2. Paraverbal Messages:2. Paraverbal Messages:What we transmit through tone, pitch etc.What we transmit through tone, pitch etc.It is not what you say,It is not what you say, it is how you sit is how you say it, thatay it, thatmatters.matters.3. Non-verbal Messages:3. Non-verbal Messages:Mainly our bodylanguage.Mainly our bodylanguage.These three components are used:These three components are used:** To send clear & concise messagesTo send clear & concise messages* Receive & correctly understand messages sent to us.* Receive & correctly understand messages sent to us.
What makes a goodWhat makes a goodcommunicator?communicator?ClarityIntegrity TimingAdequacy
Tips for good communicationTips for good communicationskillsskillsKnowledge of oneselfKnowledge of oneselfGet to know othersGet to know othersPrepare & organizePrepare & organizeKnow what you want to sayKnow what you want to sayKnow your messageKnow your messageThink before you talkThink before you talk
Tips for good PresentationTips for good PresentationPracticePractice the power of persuationthe power of persuationKnow about the audienceKnow about the audienceUse theUse the ’KISS’KISS’ method’ methodUse simple termsUse simple terms for better clarityfor better clarityChoose correct wordsChoose correct wordsAvoid technical jargonsAvoid technical jargonsSpeak audience’s languageSpeak audience’s language
Tips for good PresentationTips for good Presentation
Factors important for goodFactors important for goodcommunicationcommunicationWatch your toneWatch your toneTone gives evidence of your feelingsTone gives evidence of your feelingsSoften tone to show respectSoften tone to show respectNever reveal negative emotionsNever reveal negative emotionsChoose your words carefullyChoose your words carefullyWatch your language & toneWatch your language & toneMaintain good eye contactMaintain good eye contactWatch receiver’s body languageWatch receiver’s body languageKeep you vocabulary constantly updatedKeep you vocabulary constantly updated
Factors important for goodFactors important for goodcommunicationcommunicationSpeak from the heartSpeak from the heartUse suitable pausesUse suitable pausesStop talkingStop talkingThink what to say nextThink what to say nextEmphasize a point by pausingEmphasize a point by pausingPause gives listeners time to thinkPause gives listeners time to think
Factors important for goodFactors important for goodcommunicationcommunicationVary your rate of speechVary your rate of speechScreen your distractionsScreen your distractionsDevelop the art of listeningDevelop the art of listeningAim for open, timely and two-wayAim for open, timely and two-waycommunicationcommunicationFollow up on communicationFollow up on communication
Power Of ListeningPower Of ListeningThe philosopher EpictetusThe philosopher Epictetusstressed the power ofstressed the power oflistening in this quote:listening in this quote:””Nature gave us one toungueNature gave us one toungueand two ears, so that weand two ears, so that wecould hear twice as much ascould hear twice as much aswe speak”.we speak”.
Hearing Vs ListeningHearing Vs ListeningHearingHearing: A physical process.: A physical process.Natural & passive.Natural & passive.Listening:Listening:Physical as well as mentalPhysical as well as mentalprocess, active and learnedprocess, active and learnedprocess,process, is a skill.is a skill.
Listen ActivelyListen ActivelyPrepare to listenPrepare to listen by focusingby focusingon the speaker.on the speaker.Control & eliminateControl & eliminatedistractionsdistractions so that you canso that you canfocus on the message.focus on the message.Establish appropriate eye contactEstablish appropriate eye contact to showto showinterest.interest.Use listening as an opportunityUse listening as an opportunityto get information, share others views and brodento get information, share others views and brodenyour knowledge.your knowledge.
Listen ActivelyListen ActivelyNon.verbal:Non.verbal:Be aware of the speaker’sBe aware of the speaker’snon-verbal messages.non-verbal messages.Verbal:Verbal:Pay attention to the wordsPay attention to the wordsand feelings that are beingand feelings that are beingexpressed.expressed.
Mechanical CommunicationMechanical CommunicationBy using mechanicalBy using mechanicaldevices the communicationdevices the communicationcan be sent.can be sent.Examples:Examples:Internet, radio, T.V. Etc.Internet, radio, T.V. Etc.
Communication ObjectivesCommunication ObjectivesA.I.D.A formulaA.I.D.A formulaA -A - CaptureCapture AttentionAttentionI -I - ArouseArouse InterestInterestD -D - CreateCreate DesireDesireA -A - Inspire to takeInspire to take ActionAction
Communication GapCommunication GapThe gap between the intended meaningThe gap between the intended meaningand the perceived meaning is called theand the perceived meaning is called theCOMMUNICATION GAPCOMMUNICATION GAPGAP1INTENDEDMEANING4PERCEIVEDMEANING
Communication GapCommunication Gap1.1. Intended MeaningIntended Meaning is what we mean to say.is what we mean to say.2.2. What we actually say.What we actually say.There is a difference between 1 & 2There is a difference between 1 & 23. What receiver hears.3. What receiver hears.4.What receiver understands is the4.What receiver understands is thePerceived meaningPerceived meaningThere is a difference between 3 & 4There is a difference between 3 & 4Finally, there is a big gap between 1 & 4. ThisFinally, there is a big gap between 1 & 4. Thisis called theis called the –– ’Communcation Gap’’Communcation Gap’
Communication down the lineCommunication down the lineMemo from the Managing Director to theMemo from the Managing Director to theWorks Director:Works Director:Tomorrow morning there is a total eclipse of theTomorrow morning there is a total eclipse of thesun at nine O’clock. This is something which wesun at nine O’clock. This is something which wecan’t see everyday. So, let the workforce linecan’t see everyday. So, let the workforce lineup outside in their best clothes to watch it. Toup outside in their best clothes to watch it. Tomark this rare occasion I shall personallymark this rare occasion I shall personallyexplain it to them. If it is raining, we shall not beexplain it to them. If it is raining, we shall not beable to see it very well and inthat case theable to see it very well and inthat case theworkforce will assemble in the canteen.workforce will assemble in the canteen.
Memo from Work Director to GeneralMemo from Work Director to GeneralWorks ManagerWorks ManagerBy order of the Managing Director there will beBy order of the Managing Director there will bea total eclipse of the sun at nine O’clocka total eclipse of the sun at nine O’clocktomorrow morning. If it is raining, we shall nottomorrow morning. If it is raining, we shall notbe to see it very well at the site, in our bestbe to see it very well at the site, in our bestclothes.clothes.In that case, the disappearance of the sun willIn that case, the disappearance of the sun willbe followed through in the canteen. This isbe followed through in the canteen. This issomething that we can’t see happen everyday.something that we can’t see happen everyday.
Memo from General WorksMemo from General WorksManager to Works ManagerManager to Works ManagerBy the order of the Managing Director, we shallBy the order of the Managing Director, we shallfollow through in our best clothes, thefollow through in our best clothes, thedisappearance of the sun in the canteen at ninedisappearance of the sun in the canteen at nineO’clock to morning.O’clock to morning.The Managing Director will tell us whether it isThe Managing Director will tell us whether it isgoing to rain. This is something we can’t seegoing to rain. This is something we can’t seehappen everyday.happen everyday.
Memo from Works Manager toMemo from Works Manager toForemanForemanIf it is raining in the canteen tomorrow morningIf it is raining in the canteen tomorrow morningwhich is something we can’t see happen everywhich is something we can’t see happen everyday, our Managing Director in his best clothesday, our Managing Director in his best clotheswill disappear at nine O’clock.will disappear at nine O’clock.
Message from Foreman to theMessage from Foreman to theshop-floorshop-floorTomorrow morning at nine O’clock ourTomorrow morning at nine O’clock ourManaging Director will disappear. It is a pittyManaging Director will disappear. It is a pittythat we can’t see this happen everday.that we can’t see this happen everday.
Poor vocabulary problemPoor vocabulary problemOnce, a man with poor EnglishOnce, a man with poor Englishvocabulary went to a British lady-doctor tovocabulary went to a British lady-doctor toconsult about his wife, because theyconsult about his wife, because theywere not blessed with any child even afterwere not blessed with any child even afterseveral years of marriage.several years of marriage.When the doctor asked about his wife’sWhen the doctor asked about his wife’sproblem, he explained the problem in thisproblem, he explained the problem in thisway:way:
Poor vocabularyPoor vocabulary””Here is my wife Rita. Her problem is thatHere is my wife Rita. Her problem is thatshe isshe is ’’ unbearableunbearable’’ (can’t bear a child),(can’t bear a child),no, no she isno, no she is ’inconceiveable’’inconceiveable’ ((can’tcan’tconceive), no, no, I am sorry, she isconceive), no, no, I am sorry, she is’’impregnableimpregnable’’ (can’t become pregnant).(can’t become pregnant).So, improve your vocabulary to avoidSo, improve your vocabulary to avoidthis type of situation.this type of situation.
Perception GroovePerception GrooveA nurse and a doctor fell in love and gotA nurse and a doctor fell in love and gotmarried. After a few months they had a child.married. After a few months they had a child.But, the doctor says thatBut, the doctor says that ” I am not the father” I am not the fatherof the child”.of the child”.Then what is the matter?Then what is the matter?