Open Source Software Licenses
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Open Source Software Licenses

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A brief introduction to open source licenses, why they are important, different types of licenses, and challenges related open source software licenses. Latter part of the presentation also talks a ...

A brief introduction to open source licenses, why they are important, different types of licenses, and challenges related open source software licenses. Latter part of the presentation also talks a bit about how to apply Apache Licence to a project.

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Open Source Software Licenses Open Source Software Licenses Presentation Transcript

  • Open Source Software Licenses Victor Rodriguez Doncel <vrodriguez@fi.upm.es>Nandana Mihindukulasooriya <nmihindu@fi.upm.es> Ontology Engineering Group (OEG) Facultad de Informática Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  • Intellectual property basics• Patents • protects inventions (novel, useful, and non-obvious) • the right to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, selling, or importing • public disclosure of the inventions• Copyrights • Unique expression of ideas (original works of authorship) • exclusive rights to reproduce the copyrighted work, to prepare derivative works, to distribute copies of the copyrighted work, to perform the copyrighted work publicly, or to display the copyrighted work publicly• Trademarks • a name, phrase, or symbol that Identifies a source for product or service • prevent others from using a confusingly similar mark• Trade secrets • Secret information with an economic value © 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Software is intellectual property• Software  Intellectual Property• Source code • Copyrighted (Expression of an idea) • Patentable (Innovative algorithms, improvements) • Can contain trademarks (Provenance)• Is it legal ? • modify / derivative works • redistribute • sell © 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Free Software Foundatation• The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).• The freedom to study how the program works, and change it so it does your computing as you wish (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.• The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2).• The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others (freedom 3). By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this. © 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Open Source Initiative1. Free redistribution, royalty free2. Availability of source code3. Right to modify and create derived works4. Integrity of the authors source code5. No discrimination against persons or groups6. No discrimination against fields of endeavor7. Distribution of license8. License must not be specific to a product9. License must not restrict other software10. License must be Technology-Neutral© 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Software Licenses • Software without licenses • Intellectual Property Laws apply • Copyrighted by default (Berne Convention) • Licenses are used to explicitly express • Rights • Obligations • Conditions • Warranty disclaimers • Important when delivering software • Users are can make decisions whether or not to use the software<<K-CAP, September 2nd, 2009, California, USA>> 6
  • WTFPL & BEER-ware DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2, December 2004 Copyright (C) 2004 Sam Hocevar <sam@hocevar.net> Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim or modified copies of this license document, and changing it is allowed as long as the name is changed. DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. You just DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO. /* * ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- * "THE BEER-WARE LICENSE" (Revision 42): * <phk@FreeBSD.ORG> wrote this file. As long as you retain this notice you * can do whatever you want with this stuff. If we meet some day, and you think * this stuff is worth it, you can buy me a beer in return Poul-Henning Kamp * ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- */© 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • BSD 3-Clause LicenseCopyright (c) <YEAR>, <OWNER>All rights reserved.Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted providedthat the following conditions are met: •Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. •Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. •Neither the name of the <ORGANIZATION> nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THEIMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSEARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BELIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, ORCONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OFSUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESSINTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER INCONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISINGIN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OFSUCH DAMAGE.© 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Some more verbose licenses• GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html• Apache License, Version 2.0 http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.txt© 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Open Source License Proliferation• More than 2200 licenses• Popular OSS licenses License % GNU General Public License (GPL) 2.0 32.65% Apache License 2.0 12.84% GNU General Public License (GPL) 3.0 11.62% MIT License 11.28% BSD License 2.0 6.83% Artistic License (Perl) 6.27% GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) 2.1 6.19% GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) 3.0 2.62% Eclipse Public License (EPL) 1.61% Code Project Open 1.02 License 1.33% Microsoft Public License 1.32% Mozilla Public License (MPL) 1.1 1.08% Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) 0.31% BSD 2-clause "Simplified" or "FreeBSD" License 0.30% Common Public License (CPL) 0.26% http://osrc.blackducksoftware.com/data/licenses/ (Data from over 900K projects) 10© 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • License Types• Main types • Public domain • Permissive • Weak copyleft • Copyleft • Network Protective• Dual licensing • A business model • A compatability hack 11© 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • License CompatibilityDiagram credit - Carlo Daffara - http://timreview.ca/article/416 © 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Challenges • Selecting a suitable license • What is the goal of making my code open source ? • Do I want my code to remain in same licensing conditions ? • Do I want to be business friendly ? • Etc. • Ensuring Compatibility • Third-party dependencies • Honoring the attributions and other obligations © 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 13
  • Applying the Apache License (I) • Guidelines followed by ASF projects • License header in all the source files • LICENSE and NOTICE files in the top directory of your distribution • LICENSE • copy of the Apache license text http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.txt • References to third-party licenses e.g. - http://incubator.apache.org/guides/examples/LICENSE • NOTICE • to collect copyright notices and required attributions (AL 4.d) • the standard author and copyright notice • inherited copyright and attributions notices • all attribution and copyright notices required by licenses for third party documents • E.g. - http://www.apache.org/licenses/example-NOTICE.txt © 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 14
  • Applying the Apache License (II) – License Template • Boilerplate license header in all source files Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner] Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License. 15 © 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Applying the Apache License (III) - NOTICE • Reflects the product name and year(s) of distribution of the current and past versions of the product • Collects copyright notices and required attributions [PRODUCT_NAME] Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner] This product includes software developed at [Organization Name][Organization URL]. Portions of this software were developed at XYZ Org. This project contains code derived from ABC project / book / etc. Copyright (c) [years] [Original Authours]. See [url] 16 © 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Some helpful tools • Apache Rat – A release audit http://creadur.apache.org/rat/ • Maven Release Plugin http://maven.apache.org/maven-release/maven-release-plugin/ • Apache Creadur http://creadur.apache.org/ • Eclipse Code Templates (Default license header comment) © 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 17
  • References• http://opensource.org/licenses• http://www.softwarefreedom.org/resources/• http://www.cs.miami.edu/~burt/learning/Csc322.052/doc s/opensourcedmk.pdf• http://euro.ecom.cmu.edu/program/law/08- 732/Transactions/LegalIssuesNimmer.pdf• http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5758/• http://oreilly.com/openbook/osfreesoft/book/ch01.pdf• http://www.codinghorror.com/blog/2007/04/pick-a- license-any-license.html• http://www.apache.org/dev/apply-license.html• http://www.apache.org/legal/src-headers.html 18© 2013, OEG. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/