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Three Models for mLearning


Presentation on the occasion of the launch of v2 of the Cleveland Historical app, 26 May 2011

Presentation on the occasion of the launch of v2 of the Cleveland Historical app, 26 May 2011

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  • The People formerly Known as the audiencehttp://journalism.nyu.edu/pubzone/weblogs/ pressthink/2006/06/27/ppl_frmr.html(Jay Rosen, PressThink, June 27, 2006)
  • Jeff Howe, CrowdsourcingAmy Sample Ward:“Crowdsourcing invites diversity by encouraging anyone with an idea or interest to participateCrowdsourcing levels the playing field so it isn’t just your “favorites” or those you already know that get to play”http://amysampleward.org/2011/05/18/crowdsourcing-vs-community-sourcing-whats-the-difference-and-the-opportunity/
  • We know these people, so working with them produces different strategies, calls to action and outcomes
  • Amy Sample Ward:Here are a few instances when crowdsourcing just isn’t a fit:You need things to be very specific or follow tight criteriaYou are working very quickly or flexibly (where communication with the crowd could be difficult or time consuming)You already know what you want (be honest – some times organizations know what they want to do or what the product is they want to build, engaging in a crowdsourced process will only frustrate possible supporters when that truth becomes clear)
  • A teenager arrives at Postal Museum with hisparents anticipating a boring visit: “Stamps – really?”He is surprised to encounter Owney:“OMG why is there a dog here?” He uses the app to learn more about Owney and watches a video about the stray dog who turned into a celebrity, travelling with U.S. Mail trains across the country, and eventually the world.From Collections Search, he finds out thatOwney received a tag from the teen’s hometown, Cincinnati, Ohio; he posts a photo of the tag to his friends on Facebook and Bookmarks his find in the app.He uses the app to comment, “My great grandfather used to be a mail carrier. I wonder if he ever met Owney.”He reads another user’s comment, “You can follow ‘Owney’ on Twitter! Twitter.com/OwneyTheDog” (Twitter run by NPM education office). Our teen visitor signs up to follow Owney on his own Twitter account.This is crowdsourcing: we may know of this kid, but we don’t know him and he wasn’t previously part of the Smithsonian community, but has possibly made the transition through the social media tools he has used during his first visit.
  • Our teen visitor represents what we think of as a “typical user”. His comments and engagement are casual, not too in depth, but is a powerful way to start a conversation that is likely to help him remember the Smithsonian positively.We also know that a smaller, but very influential part of our audience are visitors with a high degree of subject expertise. They are often already part of the Smithsonian community and can share information and engage other interested members of the public as well as the Smithsonian’s curators and scientists in a different level of “increase and diffusion of knowledge”.User scenario: A Japanese ceramics collector visits Freer Sackler1. Sees the work “Creation” by Yasokichi. The only information about it is the panel text:2. Uses app to type in accession number into our search to see if there is any information about it3. Collections search only returns basic information4. Visitor knows that this artist died recently and was recognized as a “National Treasure” by the Japanese government; leaves a comment including a link to artist’s obituary (blog post) from 2009 with photo of artist: http://e-yakimono.blogspot.com/2009/08/living-national-treasure-tokuda.htmlNow when other visitors search for object, they will be able to learn more about this object than we are currently able to provide them. The Smithsonian has certainly made enormous strides to make our content easily accessible online, but we still have a long way to go. This presented us with an enormous challenge when designing the app. You can find many of our objects in our collections search, but often there is often little to no information associated with them that is relevant to the public. We can recruit this segment of our visitors to be “citizen curators and scientists” who will engage in higher level conversations about our objects. We will never have enough money and staff to do all that we can and should do at the Smithsonian. By “recruiting the world” – a primary goal of the Smithsonian’s Mobile Strategy – we can not only increase and better diffuse knowledge, but we also engage a broader audiences as true stakeholders and partners in our mission. By recruiting our visitors to help us improve the mobile app, we give them a real stake in its success. This kind of radical use of social media tools has never been done before in a museum or cultural institution guide, and the ethos of collaboration that lies at the heart of this project is what makes it revolutionary, sustainable, and deeply valuable to achieving the Institution’s Four Grand Challenges and its strategic goals.


  • 1. From Headphones to Microphones
    Three models for mLearning
    in the Museum – and beyond?
    Nancy Proctor, Smithsonian Institution
    26 May 2011
  • 2. Agenda for today:
    Putting “the people formerly known as the audience” first
    Why mobile?
    New opportunities for “mLearning”
    • Learning on demand
    • 3. Learning in the crowd and the community
    • 4. Peer-to-peer learning
  • Housekeeping
    Ways of staying in touch:
    Hashtags: #mtogo #SImobile
    Unanswered questions? http://wiki.museummobile.info/museums-to-go/mobile-faqs
  • 5. Audio Tour 1.0
    Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1952
  • 6. It’s NOT about the Technology
    Fraunhofer Institute, Kunstmuseum Bonn: ‘Beat Zoderer’ exhibition (Listen project) 2003
    Fraunhofer Institute, Kunstmuseum Bonn: ‘Beat Zoderer’ exhibition (Listen project) 2003
  • 7. Audio Tour 2.0 3.0?
  • 8. Understanding the mobile behaviors of your audience is the first step in building a mobile strategy or product.
  • 9. Some ways we can think about “the people formerly known as the audience”in museums…
  • 10. Mobile Metrics
    New Categories:
  • 11. A “snapshot” of mobile behavior
    Increasing mobilesophistication
    Mobile Technographics
    • Use mobile Internet weekly
    • 12. Visit social networks weekly
    • 13. Consume news and information
    • Stream music or video
    • 14. Purchase music tracks
    • 15. Purchase mobile content
    • Send or receive email
    • 16. Use maps or navigation
    • 17. Use mobile Internet less than weekly
    • Use no data service except:
    • 18. SMS, MMS, or IM
    • 19. Email less than monthly
    • Only use voice
    • Do not own a mobile phone
  • 20. College educated visitors are tech-savvy mobile users
    Base: 10,971 US adults with college degreesSource: North American Technographics Benchmark Survey, Q2 2010
  • 21. Age is top predictor of behavior
    Base: 10,971 US adults with college degreesSource: North American Technographics Benchmark Survey, Q2 2010
  • 22. Families with teens text – a LOT
    Base: 2,941 US adults with college degrees and cell phones in families with children 18 years old and youngerSource: North American Technographics Benchmark Survey, Q2 2010
  • 23. Teenagers are heavy users of all mobile data services
    • Teens are texters— 83% text at least monthly compared to 57% of US adults 18 years and older
    • 24. Data intensive mobile behavior is at average levels
    • 25. Mobile Internet use is 22% vs. 23% overall
    • 26. Email from a mobile device is 25% vs 23% overall
    • 27. Regardless of age, teens behave similarly, though 16 and 17 year olds have greater autonomy and larger budgets
  • Your Target Audience
    Identify & describe your target audience:
    What mobile platforms do they already use?
    Traditional museum audio/multimedia tours
    Cellphone (voice, SMS)
    Personal media player (podcasts, video…)
    Smartphone (apps, mobile web, email…)
    Mobile social media (Flickr, Twitter, FB…)
    How do they use them elsewhere & why?
  • 28. Why are they visiting?Whom are they visiting with?
    Falk’s Identity Segmentations orPeople-Objects-Ideas
    Experience seekers
    Andrew J. Pekarik and Barbara Mogel, CURATOR 53/4 • OCT 2010
  • 29. What do visitors want to know?
    Question mapping in the gallery:
    • Semi-structured interviews
    • 30. FAQs and comments cards
    • 31. Questions posed to staff…
  • Why mobile?
  • 32. Mobile is a unique mix:
    of the personal
    and the social
  • 33. Mobile is Disruptive
    A new set of tools and platformsfor communications, learning and developing and distributing content
    Photo CC licensed: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jdlasica/138927384/
  • 34. Mobile is Disruptive
    And also:
    A fundamentally new way of connecting, collaborating and learning
  • 35. Mobile is social media
  • 36. Some ideas from the museum world:
    Learning on demand
    Learning from the crowd& the community
    Peer-to-peer learning
    New Opportunities for mLearning
  • 37. Learning on demand & in new contexts
    Our audiences now access the museum through a wide range of platforms beyond our walls and websites
    Photo by Mike Lee, 2007;
    from the American Art Museum’s Flickr Group
  • 38. The Multiplatform Museum
  • 39. The Multiplatform Museum
  • 40. More than multiplatform…
  • 41. The Museum is a Distributed Network
    Edward Hoover, 2010, from Flickr.
  • 42. The Museum is transforming from Acropolis…
    Nancy Proctor, ProctorN@si.edu
  • 43. … into Agora
  • 44. WWW Learning
    New media
    New platforms
    New contexts
    New formats
    Amanda Hankerson/Minneapolis Institute of Arts©2011 Minneapolis Institute of Arts
  • 45. Crowdsourcing
  • 46. The People’s Institution
    James Smithson:
    “for the increase
    and diffusion of
    Louise RochonHoover,"Secretary Henry Posts DailyWeather Map in Smithsonian Building, 1858.”
    The Megatherium Club, a group of young naturalists who collected for the Smithsonian in the 19th C. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megatherium_Club
  • 47. SI Mobile’s Vision
    Recruit the world
    to increase and diffuse knowledge
    by using mobile platforms to enlist collaborators globally in undertaking the real and important workof the Institution.
    Put the Smithsonian not just in the people’s pockets,
    but in their hands.
  • 48. “You don’t need a mobile strategy;
    you need mobile to be part of the strategy.”
  • 49. SI Mobile’s Strategy
    Integrate mobile into everything we do to create a whole greater than the sum of its parts;
    Transform the way the Institution works in order to achieve its strategic goals and vision for the 21stcentury.
  • 50. SI Mobile’s Strategic Goals
    Engagenew audiences where they are, both on-site and beyond SI’s walls.
    Create new opportunities for learning, creativity and shared discovery within and beyond the museum and classroom
    Open access to our data, collections and research and support new uses of it through collaborative structures and platforms.
    Equip SI staff with new toolsto work at the leading edge of their fields.
    Transcenddisciplinary boundaries by connecting communities, conversations and initiatives.
    Update the Smithsonian experience to reflect shared brand values.
  • 51. A crazy idea?
    “A Wikipedia of the Physical World”
  • 52. Wikipedia
    …78 million visitors monthly as of January 2010. There are more than 91,000 active contributors working on more than 17,000,000 articles in more than 270 languages.
    That means the average contributor works on ~186 articles?!
  • 53. Meaningful Workers
  • 54. Thinking outside the audiotour box
    “From we do the talking to
    we help you do the talking.”
    – Chris Anderson, Wired, Smithsonian 2.0 Conference, 24 Jan 2009 http://smithsonian20.si.edu/schedule_webcast2.html
    From Headphones to Microphones
  • 55. Mobile Social Media as Art
    Halsey Burgund’sScapes
    deCordova Sculpture Park & Museum
    Lincoln, MA – until Nov 14
  • 56.
  • 57. Community-sourcing
  • 58. http://amysampleward.org/2011/05/18/crowdsourcing-vs-community-sourcing-whats-the-difference-and-the-opportunity/
  • 59. Save Outdoor Sculpture!
  • 60. Work in Progress…
  • 61. Stamps? Really?
  • 62. A Citizen Curator
    "Creation” 1992TokudaYasokichi , (Japanese, 1933-2009) Heisei era Porcelain with polychrome enamel glazes; H: 8.8 W: 54.8 D: 54.8 cm Komatsu City, Ishikawa prefecture, Japan; Gift of the Japan Foundation Sackler Gallery level 3, S1993.13
  • 63. Peer-to-peer learning
  • 64. Teaching is the best way to learn
  • 65. A Platform for Learning Innovation
  • 66. Learning in a Distributed Network
    Who is a teacher?
    Edward Hoover, 2010, from Flickr.
  • 67. Nancy Proctor, ProctorN@si.edu 9 December 2008
    Educators in the Agora
  • 68. Nancy Proctor, ProctorN@si.edu 9 December 2008
    Educators in the Agora:
    • Are experts in their fields
    • 69. Inspire us with their passionfor the subject
    • 70. Help make the subject relevant to our lives
    • 71. Curate the conversation
    • 72. Help us see, read & think critically
    • 73. Take us from “we do the talking” to “we help you do the talking”
  • Housekeeping
    Ways of staying in touch:
    Hashtags: #mtogo #SImobile
    Unanswered questions? http://wiki.museummobile.info/museums-to-go/mobile-faqs