Mental retardation (mr) ppt

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  • 1. Mental Retardation (MR)/ Intellectual Disability (ID) Prepared by: Abugan, Nancy Lara U. Bayani Obi C. Ruiz, Benedict U.
  • 2. Nature and Characteristics • Mental retardation refers to significantly sub average general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent impairments in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period. • Characterized by two dimensions: limited intellectual ability and difficulty in coping with the social demands of the environment.
  • 3. Causes 1. Maternal use of alcohol and drugs during pregnancy. 2. Maternal infections (such as HIV) 3. Poverty can cause mental retardation through high chances of: • Lead poisoning • Inadequate diet • Inadequate health care
  • 4. Manifestations • Lack of or slow development of motor skills, language skills, and self-help skills, especially when compared to peers • Failure to grow intellectually or continued infant-like berhavior
  • 5. • Lack of curiosity • Problems keeping up in school • Failure to adapt (adjust to new situations) • Difficulty understanding and following social rules
  • 6. History • Egyptian Papyrus of Thebes in 1552 B.C. (Harris 2006)- children with Intellectual Disability (ID) were born because the gods had been angered. • Before the 18th century- societies differed in how or whether they conceptualized intellectual disability.
  • 7. • France in 1799. - Jean-Marc Itard, a medical doctor, developed a skill-based program for a feral child he named Victor. • Eduoard Seguin- "physiological and moral education" and some of its elements, like individualized instruction and behavior management, are still practiced. - in 1866 published an influential reference book, Idiocy and its Treatments in Physiological Methods.
  • 8. • Johann Guggenbühl- established the first known residential facility for PWID in 1841 in Switzerland. • - The facility was called Abendberg, and during its tenure it received international attention, creating a "prototype for institutional care" (Beirne-Smith et al. 2006).
  • 9. Ethical Issues • Allowing patients with mental retardation to make their own decisions about treatment, within the limits of a competency test, is consistent with the principle of normalization, which underlies contemporary approaches to providing human services to patients with mental retardation
  • 10. • Mental retardation, understood as a culturally imposed condition, is not relevant to the moral status of a person.