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Primary education and corpus-based methods

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Talk nbu

  1. 1. Primary school education and computer-based language study TEMENUZHKA SEIZOVA-NANKOVA
  2. 2. New methods of studying English 1 <ul><li>We are at the threshold of a new era of English language studies. </li></ul><ul><li>The time-honoured, hands-on methods,’using relatively small amounts of data and large amounts of thought’ are not supplanted but are strongly complemented by the new methods </li></ul><ul><li>  1 D. Crystal. Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English language </li></ul>
  3. 3. ‘ grammatical syllabus’ <ul><li>Research into the contemporary language of 20 th century fostered by the theories and methods of descriptive linguistics gave as a result the so-called ‘ grammatical syllabus ’ focusing the linguistic competence of language speaker (NSvsNNS) . Grammars such as Thompson and Martinet(1986) supported English coursebooks based on slot and filler approaches to language teaching </li></ul>
  4. 4. ‘ the communicative syllable’ <ul><li>Research into language (Hymes 19..) gave as a result the so-called ‘ communicative syllabus ’ in coursebooks focusing the communicative competence of language speaker (NSvsNNS). </li></ul><ul><li>Activities are built around a situation and learners themselves are responsible for conduction the interaction to its conclusion </li></ul>
  5. 5. ‘ lexical syllabus’ <ul><li>The new perspective in language study introduces new methods of analysis as a consequence of the technological revolution </li></ul><ul><li>the time-honoured, hands-on methods,’using relatively small amounts of data and relatively large amounts of thought’ 2 are not supplanted but are strongly complemented by the new methods </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘ lexical syllabus ’ places special emphasis on lexical patterns and reliance on a corpus for making generalizations on language. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Some new contentions <ul><li>Grammar and lexis can no longer be separated and opposed to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Change of emphasis within mainstream linguistics inevitably brings about changes in foreign language teaching/pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic instrumentation and computer science has already changed the way we look at language. All areas of language study have been profoundly affected by technological developments </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Grammar – huge corpora of spoken and written English are making it possible to carry out studies of structures of unprecedented detail and in an unprecedented range of varieties </li></ul><ul><li>The Lexicon – remarkable progress in the compilation of lexical databases giving rise to an explosion of new types of dictionaries and that is not all. </li></ul>
  8. 8. SOME OLD AND NEW CONCEPTS AND TERMS <ul><li>CORPUS </li></ul><ul><li>WORD/WORD FORM/ LEXEME </li></ul><ul><li>GRAMMATICAL OR FUNCTIONAL WORD / LEXICAL WORD </li></ul><ul><li>ENTRY/HEADWORD/LEMMA </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES AND TOKENS </li></ul><ul><li>CORE VOCABULARY </li></ul>
  9. 9. CORPUS <ul><li>What is a corpus- a large collection of data in machine readable form available for use not only for researchers but also for language teachers and learners. Some of the standard computer corpora: </li></ul><ul><li>The BNC (British National Corpus) </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus of the Contemporary American. </li></ul><ul><li>The Brown Corpus of American English </li></ul>
  10. 10. WORD/WORD FORM/ LEXEM E <ul><li>Ambiguity of the term ‘word’ (Lyons p.194-208): </li></ul><ul><li>The phonological or orthographic word </li></ul><ul><li>The grammatical words </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. sang the past tense of sing, represents one grammatical word, while cut on the other represents 3 grammatical words. The relation is one-to-one . Instances of one-many b/n phonological and grammatical words: e.g. /mi:t/: meet , meat , and many-one /ri:d/,/red/: read(homonymous form pr.& past tense of read) the latter being in correspondence with the orthographic word red , and reed </li></ul><ul><li>The lexeme -a third usage of the term ‘word’ </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. singing is another form of the word /verb sing , but singer is a different word with its own set of forms. Notationally, lexemes will be distinguished from words by the use of capitals. The orthographic word cut represents three different inflectional forms’/i.e. 3 different grammatical words/ of the lexeme CUT. </li></ul>
  11. 11. GRAMMATICAL OR FUNCTIONAL WORD / LEXICAL WORD <ul><li>the four major parts of speech /PoS: </li></ul><ul><li>Noun, verb, adjective and adverb </li></ul><ul><li>PoS tagging </li></ul>
  12. 12. Defining the adjective “honest” <ul><li>A person who is honest does not tell lies, cheat people or violate the law </li></ul><ul><li>A person who is honest always tells the truth, respects other people, obeys the law and pays taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Someone who is honest can always be trusted </li></ul><ul><li>Someone who is honest does not hide things from you </li></ul><ul><li>Someone who is honest can be trusted with valuables and money </li></ul><ul><li>etc. etc. </li></ul><ul><li>THE MEANING OF WORDS CAN BE CULTURALLY CONDITIONED </li></ul>
  13. 13. Defining the noun “bird” <ul><li>A bird is… </li></ul><ul><li>An animal with the body covered in/with feathers, with two wings and a beak, which is able to fly. Female birds lay eggs </li></ul><ul><li>An animal with feathers, two legs and two wings, which is able to fly. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT WHAT ABOUT PENGUINS AND OSTRICHS? </li></ul><ul><li>We conceive a general image, a mental PROTOTYPE based on our experience and containing the most distinctive characteristics of the class. Some members are less central than others. </li></ul>
  14. 14. “ BUTTERFLY” <ul><li>Butterflies live only one day </li></ul><ul><li>She is a butterfly when she dances </li></ul><ul><li>WORDS DENOTE OBJECTS AND CONCEPTS , BUT MAY HAVE EMOTIONAL OR STYLISTIC CONNOTATIONS </li></ul>
  15. 15. DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEXEME <ul><li>1. The computer is an electronic machine which is used for storing, organizing and finding different types of information </li></ul><ul><li>SOME WORDS HAVE ONLY ONE REFERENT OR MEANING (MONOREFERENTIAL) </li></ul><ul><li>2a A violent storm broke out </li></ul><ul><li>2b It was only a storm in a tea cup </li></ul><ul><li>2c His speech provoked a storm of criticism </li></ul><ul><li>SOME WORDS HAVE SEVERAL RELATED MEANINGS (POLYSEMOUS) </li></ul><ul><li>3a. I was walking along the bank of the river Cam </li></ul><ul><li>3b. I used to work at the Royal Bank of Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>3c The nearest bank is in Gower street </li></ul><ul><li>SOME WORDS HAVE DIFFERENT UNRELATED MEANINGS ( HOMONYMS) </li></ul><ul><li>THE NATURE OF LEXEMES AFFECTS THE ORGANISATION OF LEMMAS IN DICTIONARIES </li></ul>
  16. 16. Semantic links between words <ul><li>1 Freedom and liberty </li></ul><ul><li>(NEAR)-SYNONYMY </li></ul><ul><li>Black or white; fast or slow; brother or sister; married or single </li></ul><ul><li>ANTONYMY (or COMPLEMENTARITY) </li></ul><ul><li>3. flowers, roses, daffodils, violets, tulips, daisies </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERONYMY (SUPERORDINATES) and HYPONYMY ( SUBORDINATES) </li></ul><ul><li>4. To cook, roast, simmer, fry, bake, boil, barbecue… </li></ul><ul><li>SEMANTIC FIELD </li></ul>
  17. 17. Discuss the following examples <ul><li>1. I would like to win a post-graduate scholarship to do research (not * to make research) </li></ul><ul><li>2. How do you do? </li></ul><ul><li>3. The ups and downs of life ( not * the downs and ups) </li></ul><ul><li>4. The early bird catches the worm ( not * the early cat catches the mouse) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Torrential/heavy rain in Bangladesh ( not * strong rain) </li></ul><ul><li>6. He has spilled the beans ( not * spilled the peas) </li></ul><ul><li>“ WORDS KEEP COMPANY WITH OTHER WORDS” AND TEND TO CO-OCCUR IN PREFERRED OR FIXED COLLOCATIONS. </li></ul>
  18. 18. To sum up, lexis … <ul><li>is dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>refers to the external world </li></ul><ul><li>refers to mental concepts </li></ul><ul><li>has emotional and stylistic connotations </li></ul><ul><li>has one or several referents and meanings </li></ul><ul><li>relates to other words in the language </li></ul><ul><li>may co-occur with other words in fixed or semi-fixed patterns. </li></ul>
  20. 20. How many words are there in English? <ul><li>It is not easy to count them and there are different ways of doing it : </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic corpora </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers’ competence </li></ul>
  21. 21. S. JOHNSON’S DICTIONARY (1755), about 42,000 entries <ul><li>LEXICOGRAPHER. n.s. [? lixicographe , French.] A writer of dictionories; a harmless drudge, that busies himself in tracing the original, and detailing the signification of words. </li></ul><ul><li>Commentators and lexicographers acquainted with the Syriac language, have given these hints in their writings on scripture. Watt’s Improvement of the Mind. </li></ul>
  23. 23. OED Features <ul><li>The project started in the second half of the 19th century </li></ul><ul><li>It covers English since the 14th century </li></ul><ul><li>The second print edition in 20 volumes + 4 additions has 616,500 headwords and derived words and phrases </li></ul><ul><li>A CdROM and an online version, which is regularly updated, are also available. </li></ul>
  24. 24. OED: a selection from the entry for “spaghetti” <ul><li>[It., pl. of spaghetto thin string, twine.]  </li></ul><ul><li>     1. a. A variety of pasta made in long thin strings. Occas., a dish of spaghetti. </li></ul><ul><li>1888 MRS. BEETON Bk. Househ. Managem. §2952 Maccheroni, or Spaghetti, a smaller kind of macaroni,..generally follows the soup . </li></ul><ul><li>     2. An Italian: usu. contemptuous. slang. </li></ul><ul><li>1931 ‘D. STIFF’ Milk & Honey Route iii. 38 Italian hobos are equally rare. They are the ‘wops’ or ‘spaghettis’. </li></ul><ul><li>     3. Complex roadways forming a multi-level junction, esp. on a motorway. colloq </li></ul><ul><li>1966 Guardian 4 June 14/2 Details of one of the biggest pieces of motorway spaghetti so far designed in Britain were published... </li></ul>
  25. 25. MERRIAM-WEBSTER’S : the American counterpart to OED
  26. 26. The Webster’s <ul><li>It covers American English since the 18th century </li></ul><ul><li>Its 1963 edition contains c. 114,000 word families (a headword accompanied by its inflected and derived forms) </li></ul><ul><li>It is regularly updated. There are several print editions and an online edition, which is freely available </li></ul>
  27. 27. OTHER TYPES OF DICTIONARY <ul><li>in SIZE (college dictionaries, desk dictionaries, pocket dictionaries) </li></ul><ul><li>in ADDRESSEES for EFL learners (from 60,000 to 80,000 entries), or for native speakers </li></ul><ul><li>in CONTENTS ( general or specialised, varieties of English) </li></ul><ul><li>in NUMBER OF LANGUAGES ( monolingual, bilingual, multilingual) </li></ul><ul><li>In FORMAT ( paper, CD-ROM, online) </li></ul>
  28. 28. THE COLLINS COBUILD Learner’s Dictionary <ul><li>Monolingual general Learners’ Dictionaries usually contain: </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling variants </li></ul><ul><li>IPA p honetic transcription </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical and syntactic information </li></ul><ul><li>Information on frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions of various senses </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of usage </li></ul><ul><li>Sense relations, e.g. antonymy </li></ul><ul><li>Register labels (e.g formal, slang) </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent lexical collocations </li></ul><ul><li>Usage notes </li></ul><ul><li>Typical learner errors </li></ul><ul><li>Use of colours, symbols and figures </li></ul><ul><li>Special sections </li></ul>
  29. 29. ELECTRONIC CORPORA <ul><li>Corpora are collections of text in electronic form that are meant to represent a language, or a register of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Several corpora are available for English that can be analysed through specific software in terms of frequency and use of words in context. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. The British National Corpus (BNC) </li></ul>
  30. 30. WHAT ARE THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED WORDS IN ENGLISH ? <ul><li>From” The British National Corpus, BNC” </li></ul><ul><li>the determiner </li></ul><ul><li>of preposition </li></ul><ul><li>and conjunction </li></ul><ul><li>a determiner </li></ul><ul><li>in preposition </li></ul><ul><li>to infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>it pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>is verb </li></ul><ul><li>to preposition </li></ul><ul><li>was verb </li></ul><ul><li>I pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>for preposition </li></ul><ul><li>that conjunction </li></ul><ul><li>you pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>he pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>be verb </li></ul><ul><li>with preposition </li></ul><ul><li>on preposition </li></ul><ul><li>at preposition </li></ul><ul><li>by preposition </li></ul><ul><li>GRAMMATICAL WORDS ARE THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED </li></ul>
  31. 31. FREQUENCY OF LEXICAL WORDS ( based on the BNC) <ul><li>The 10 most frequent nouns are: time, year, people, way, man, day, thing, child, Mr, government. </li></ul><ul><li>The most commonly mentioned animal is the horse , closely followed by dog </li></ul><ul><li>The 10 most frequent adjectives are: other, good, new, old, great, high, small, different, large, local. </li></ul><ul><li>The most frequently mentioned colours are black, white, red and green . The order coincides with the hierarchy of colours which scholars have observed in many languages. </li></ul><ul><li>The top ten frequency adverbs are: never, always, often, ever, sometimes, usually, once, generally, hardly, no longer </li></ul><ul><li>rarer nouns are: fax, ribbon, ant, colitis, wheat, spelling, holly, monarch, voltage, morale </li></ul><ul><li>Rarer adjectives ; rude, faithful, ministerial, innovative, controlled, conceptual, unwilling, civic, meaningful disturbing </li></ul>
  32. 32. HOW MANY WORDS DO NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH KNOW? <ul><li>It depends on variables such as age and education and use (receptive or productive): </li></ul><ul><li>According to research </li></ul><ul><li>A two-year old child: very limited vocabulary but growing at great speed </li></ul><ul><li>An English university student : 20,000 word families </li></ul><ul><li>An adult educated speaker : 50,000 lexemes </li></ul><ul><li>CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF ITALIAN: </li></ul><ul><li>“ CERULEO” ,“CETACEI” ,“OTITE” </li></ul><ul><li>“ ILLUMINISMO” </li></ul>
  33. 33. The mixed nature of PDE lexis: Germanic versus romance words <ul><li>- a core (c. 40%) of high-frequency Germanic words usually short and used to refer to common “things”, actions and concepts (e.g. man, woman, day, child, bread, to go, to get, phrasal verbs) </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>- a wider component (c. 60%), of less frequent words of classical or romance origin usually longer and used in specialised or formal contexts (e.g. encyclopaedia, tonsillectomy, parliament, infrastructure) </li></ul>
  34. 34. GERMANIC /ROMANCE NEAR-SYNONYMS <ul><li>Discover e.g. Columbus discovered a new continent </li></ul><ul><li>Find out e.g. Her parents found out that she had a boyfriend </li></ul><ul><li>Continue e.g. The treatment has to be continued for 4 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Go on e.g. We can’t go on like this any longer </li></ul><ul><li>Pig / cow = the living animal </li></ul><ul><li>Pork/ beef = the meat you eat </li></ul><ul><li>regal, royal e.g. royal family, regal powers </li></ul><ul><li>Kingly e.g. kingly manner </li></ul>
  35. 35. “ GOOD” AND “FALSE FRIENDS” WITH ITALIAN <ul><li>Similarity may help at times </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. problem, result, company, million, community </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity may be misleading at other times, </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. actually, eventually, argument, factory, educated, lecture, library, magazine, major, agenda </li></ul>
  36. 36. English loans in Italian and other European languages <ul><li>From a “borrowing language” English has become a “donor language”. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>In present-day Italian there are many different types of anglicisms and people have different attitudes to this phenomenon. What is happening in other languages? </li></ul><ul><li>Comment on the following anglicisms in Italian. Do they have an Italian counterpart? </li></ul><ul><li>film, mission, management, welfare, governance, briefing, week-end, pub, scannerizzare /”scannare”, mouse, computer, talk-show, report, devolution, boom, impeachment, ghostwriter </li></ul>
  37. 37. Variation in English <ul><li>1. USER-RELATED VARIATION </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. geographical area (GB, USA etc), age, education </li></ul><ul><li>2. USE-RELATED VARIATION, or REGISTER MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>2.1. what is talked about (FIELD or TOPIC) </li></ul><ul><li>2.2. the MEDIUM used ( e.g. spoken /written, electronic language) </li></ul><ul><li>2.3. the relationship between speakers/writers , e.g. formal, informal (PERSONAL TENOR) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Some lexical differences between BrE and AmE <ul><li>1. He lives in a lovely apartmen t in New York </li></ul><ul><li>AmE / flat BrE </li></ul><ul><li>2 . The autumn term will start in September </li></ul><ul><li>Br.E / fall AmE </li></ul><ul><li>3. Where can I find a gas station? </li></ul><ul><li>AmE / petrol (BrE) </li></ul><ul><li>4. 11/9/2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Br E / 9/11/2001 AmE </li></ul>
  39. 39. Register variation <ul><li>1.1 Tonsillectomy is needed </li></ul><ul><li>1.2. Doctor “ I have to remove/to take your tonsils out </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 Influenza A/H1N1 broke out in Mexico last year </li></ul><ul><li>2.2. Swine flu broke out in Mexico last year </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 These are my children </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 These are my kids </li></ul><ul><li>3.3. This is my offspring </li></ul>
  40. 40. CORE / BASIC VOCABULARY <ul><li>Choose the most neutral and general lexeme to refer to someone “who has very little fat on his/her body”and, with the help of dictionaries, identify the differences in meaning: </li></ul><ul><li>emaciated, skinny, slender, lean, slim, thin </li></ul>
  41. 41. Frequency lists <ul><li>What is a frequency list: it is a list of words but unlike in a dictionary </li></ul>
  42. 42. Adjective thin <ul><li>(16) S: (adj) thin (of relatively small extent from one surface to the opposite or in cross section) &quot;thin wire&quot;; &quot;a thin chiffon blouse&quot;; &quot;a thin book&quot;; &quot;a thin layer of paint&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(15) S: (adj) thin , lean (lacking excess flesh) &quot;you can't be too rich or too thin&quot;; &quot;Yon Cassius has a lean and hungry look&quot;-Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>(7) S: (adj) slender , thin (very narrow) &quot;a thin line across the page&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(2) S: (adj) sparse , thin (not dense) &quot;a thin beard&quot;; &quot;trees were sparse&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(1) S: (adj) thin (relatively thin in consistency or low in density; not viscous) &quot;air is thin at high altitudes&quot;; &quot;a thin soup&quot;; &quot;skimmed milk is much thinner than whole milk&quot;; &quot;thin oil&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>S: (adj) thin ((of sound) lacking resonance or volume) &quot;a thin feeble cry&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>S: (adj) thin (lacking spirit or sincere effort) &quot;a thin smile&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>S: (adj) flimsy , fragile , slight , tenuous , thin (lacking substance or significance) &quot;slight evidence&quot;; &quot;a tenuous argument&quot;; &quot;a thin plot&quot;; a fragile claim to fame&quot; </li></ul>
  43. 45. Types of “prefabricated language” <ul><li>SOCIAL ROUTINES ( OR PRAGMATIC IDIOMS) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I’m looking forward to hearing from you, Can I help you? </li></ul><ul><li>DISCOURSE ORGANISERS </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. in other words, to sum up, for example, e.g.( exempli gratia), .i.e (id est) </li></ul><ul><li>IDIOMS </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. to beat about the bush, to kill two birds with one stone, </li></ul><ul><li>BINOMIALS </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. to and fro, pros and cons, bed and breakfast </li></ul><ul><li>PROVERBS </li></ul><ul><li>e.g A friend in need is a friend indeed, Garbage in. garbage out </li></ul><ul><li>SIMILE </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. As ugly as sin, as happy as a lark </li></ul><ul><li>SLOGANS AND FAMOUS QUOTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>e.g Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country ( J. F. Kennedy) </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, we can (B. Obama) </li></ul>
  44. 47. LEXICAL COLLOCATIONS: A PERVASIVE FEATURE OF ENGLISH AND A MAJOR DIFFICULTY FOR LEARNERS <ul><li>Napravi mi usluga </li></ul><ul><li>Do me a favour </li></ul><ul><li>Napravi mi torta </li></ul><ul><li>Make me a cake </li></ul>
  45. 49. A lexical collocation is… <ul><li>… when two lexemes belonging to two different word classes tend to co-occur for reasons other than grammatical ones </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. to take up/start/pursue a career </li></ul><ul><li>* to make career </li></ul>
  46. 51. Communicative competence <ul><li>Match the situations to expressions as in the model : </li></ul><ul><li>1.You meet a friend Hi! </li></ul><ul><li>2.You have done smth wrong </li></ul><ul><li>3.It’s time to go home </li></ul><ul><li>4. You meet your teacher </li></ul><ul><li> are having a wonderful time </li></ul><ul><li>6.Somebody has done smth wrong to you </li></ul><ul><li>7.You are bying an icecream </li></ul><ul><li>8.You don’t like what you are eating. </li></ul><ul><li>  a. I’m sorry </li></ul><ul><li>b. Thank you very much </li></ul><ul><li>c. Yippee! </li></ul><ul><li>d. I’ll see you tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>e. This is not fair </li></ul><ul><li>f. This is fun! </li></ul><ul><li>g. So sorry </li></ul><ul><li>h. Thanks </li></ul><ul><li>i. Hi! </li></ul><ul><li>j. Good morning </li></ul><ul><li>k. How are you doing </li></ul><ul><li>l. yummy </li></ul>