Teaching learning strategy


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Teaching learning strategy

  1. 1. Teaching Learning Strategy Teaching Grammar Lecturer: Yudhi Arifani, M. Pd. By : Erina Rusdyan Sari (09431019) Purnama Ratna Sari Dewi (09431023) Nur Indah Sucahyani (09431029) ENGLISH DEPARTMENTFACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING EDUCATION MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF GRESIK 2012
  2. 2. Introduction Grammar is the system of a language. People sometimes describe grammar as the "rules"of a language, but in fact no language has rules. If we use the word "rules", we suggest thatsomebody created the rules first and then spoke the language, like a new game. But languagesdid not start like that. Languages started by people making sounds which evolved into words,phrases and sentences. No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time.What we call "grammar" is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time. There are thosewho argue that there is no place for a formal focus on grammar in the communicative classroomof today. We do not share this view. In this paper, we will argue that grammar has a central andfundamental place in the curriculum. However, this does not mean we are arguing for a return to"traditional" ways of teaching grammar. In our first material, we will explain what it means tolook at grammar as a tool for communication rather than as a body of content to be memorized.We will then give practical examples of how teachers can implement these ideas in theirclassrooms. Actually, grammatical structures not only have FORM, they are also used to expressMEANING in context-approriate USE. So, a sentence has correct meaning by using thegrammatical. By the grammatical we can know when the the event happen, in the past, future, orpresent.
  3. 3. DiscussionWe can see the grammatical From principles to pedagogy  Teach grammar as an extremely flexible resource for making meaning.  As far as possible, integrate the teaching of grammar with the teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary.  Help learners see relationships between form and meaning.  Teach students how to use grammar to make appropriate choices and express their own personal meanings.A. Approaches and procedures for teaching grammar 1. Deductive ApproachA deductive approach is derived from the notion that deductive reasoning works from the generalto the specific. In this case, rules, principles, concepts, or theories are presented first, andthen their applications are treated. In conclusion, when we use deduction, we reason fromgeneral to specific principles. The deductive approach maintains that a teacher teachesgrammar by presenting grammatical rules, and then examples of sentences are presented.Once learners understand rules, they are told to apply the rules given to various examples ofsentences. Giving the grammatical rules means no more than directing learners’ attention to theproblem discussed. learners be in control during practice and have less fear of drawing anincorrect conclusion related to how the target language is functioning. To sum up, thedeductive approach commences with the presentation of a rule taught and then is followed byexamples in which the rule is applied. In this regard, learners are expected to engage with itthrough the study and manipulation of examples.
  4. 4. 2. Inductive ApproachAn inductive approach comes from inductive reasoning stating that a reasoningProgression proceeds from particulars (that is, observations, measurements, or data) togeneralities (for example, rules, laws, concepts or theories). In short, when we useinduction, we observe a number of specific instances and from them infer a generalprinciple or concept. In the case of pedagogical grammar, most experts argue that theinductive approach can also be called rule-discovery learning. It suggests that ateacher teach grammar starting with presenting some examples of sentences. In thissense, learners understand grammatical rules from the examples. The presentation ofgrammatical rules can be spoken or written. that the inductive approach tries to utilizethe very strong reward value of bringing order, clarity and meaning to experiences.This approach involves learners’ participating actively in their own instruction. Inaddition, the approach encourages a learner to develop her/his own mental set of strategiesfor dealing with tasks. In other words, this approach attempts to highlight grammatical
  5. 5. rules implicitly in which the learners are encouraged to conclude the rules given by the teacher. Similar to the deductive approach, the inductive approach offers advantages and disadvantages as seen in the Table 2 below.B. Goals and Techniques for Teaching Grammar The goal of grammar instruction is to enable students to carry out their communication purposes. This goal has three implications: 1. Students need overt instruction that connects grammar points with larger communication contexts. 2. Students do not need to master every aspect of each grammar point, only those that relevant to the immediate communication task. 3. Error correction is not always the instructors first responsibility.
  6. 6. 1). Overt Grammar Instruction  Teach the grammar point in the target language or the students first language or both. The goal is to facilitate understanding.  Limit the time you devote to grammar explanations to 10 minutes, especially for lower level students whose ability to sustain attention can be limited.  Present grammar points in written and oral ways to address the needs of students with different learning styles.  Be sure the examples are accurate and appropriate. They must present the language appropriately, be culturally appropriate for the setting in which they are used, and be to the point of the lesson.  Use the examples as teaching tools. Focus examples on a particular theme or topic so that students have more contact with specific information and vocabulary. 2). Relevance of Grammar Instruction In the communicative competence model, the purpose of learning grammar is to learn thelanguage of which the grammar is a part. Instructors therefore teach grammar forms andstructures in relation to meaning and use for the specific communication tasks that students needto complete. The example There are some examples depend on the steps of teaching grammatical TABLE 3. Step One: Noticing Model Sentences
  7. 7. TABLE 4. Step Two: Functions and Exmples of the present perfect tense TABLE 5. Step Three, Exercise 1: Written Question Input
  8. 8. TABLE 6. Step Three, Exercise 2: Correct Verb form completionTABLE 7. Step Three, Exercise 3: Tense-based Sentense Tranformation
  9. 9. ConclusionTo conclude we can say that we cannot ignore grammar in language. Because it directlyinfluence the effectiveness and meaning. Language and grammar both goes side by side wecannot separate one from another and we should teach grammar combining it with the languagein a communicative way. We can teach grammatical in the some ways depend on the step ofteaching grammar such as : 1. Noticing model sentence,2. Function and example of tenses of thesentence, 3. Written question input, 4. Correct verb form completion, 5. Tenses based sentencestransformation. Teaching grammar can be applied by deductive and inductive strategy.
  10. 10. ReferencesA 21st century grammar bridge. [original title: Teaching grammar: turning words into deeds.]The Secondary English Magazine, 7(5), 2004, 24-6.William Somerset Maugham,. 1938.The Summing Up.Javed, Iqbal.2012.How to Teach Grammar.online.http://www.slideshare.net/JavedIqbal15/how-to-teach-grammar-12313152,diakses 15 April 2012.Irina,K.2009.Teaching Grammar-The Role of Teaching Grammar.http://www.slideshare.net/Ottamay/teaching-grammar-1279836.diakses 14 April 2012