Designing and Implementing e-Government Strategy Deepak Bhatia
E-government – brief introduction
E-government strategy – components
Case study – e-Bharat
What does all of this mean for the World Bank
Why e-government? “ Everyone else is doing it, so its probably important and useful” “ Its hype” “ We don’t want to fall behind all others” “ We think it will provide faster, more convenient government services” “ We think it will reduce costs for individuals and businesses to deal with government” ” We think it will reduce costs for government (reduced data entry costs, lower error rates)” “ We think it will improve democratic process” ” To reduce corruption and fight poverty” ” We need to reach out to a broader part of population” ” We think it’s a tool for transformation of public administration from bureaucracy to service provider”
So what is E-Government?
E-government is very simply about applying information and communication technology to all aspects of a government’s business where it makes sense to improve efficiency and effectiveness in the achievement of policy and program outcomes
So why an E-Government strategy?
To pursue real economic development goals not just “technology push”
To create the right policy and institutional frameworks from the start.
To maximize effectiveness of ICT initiatives within Government.
To manage the increasing costs of I&IT in government
To generate savings by applying I&IT in backend processes or other programmatic areas
To map path from pilot experiments to sustainable, scalable systems
To design technology architecture (infrastructure, data, standards) for the public sector
To integrate organizational silos and deliver citizen services through common channels.
Client-Oriented Service Applications Back-End Government Applications Connectivity & Data Processing infrastructure Financing Institutional Infrastructure for Service Delivery Human Resource Dev. Technology ECONOMY SERVICE EFFICIENCY TRANSPA-RENCY
Making a business case for E-Government Strategy
a. Defining worthwhile goals
b. Demonstrating financial feasibility and sustainability
d. Developing incentive scheme
Business Case: Goals
To extend the reach of government services
To promote equal access to government services
To increase constituency satisfaction with government services
in particular: to reduce transaction costs for citizens
Survey of citizens in Ontario indicated that citizens want – timeliness of response and right outcome (right information or completed transaction)
To reduce government costs
Incremental investment financing – Justified by public goods nature of outputs or market failures related to infrastructure-type investments. For example, it is clear that there will be no competition for providing training to public servants unless the government pays. The same about the CSC infrastructure; unless government is willing to provide some seed capital and selective operational subsidies the private sector will not deploy the centers needed.
Cost sharing with business _ through PPPs based on real user fees or shadow transaction fees.
Redirection of line ministry HRD and ITC budgets .
Savings accrued over time from BPR, automation and outsourcing of client interface. Important to note that in initial stages costs to government may not be reduced (multiple channels, significant uptake)
Business Case: Financial Feasibility
Individuals : skills upgrading, professional development, increased autonomy, international exposure
Departments : Increased budgetary control, organizational visibility, economic rewards, e.g. share of profits/savings, etc.
Business Case: Incentives
E-Government Strategy: Process (1)
Define vision and goals
Set up high level leadership task force
Ensure consistency with economic development priorities
Establish partnerships with private sector, where feasible
Design technical, data sharing, and service delivery infrastructure.
Prioritize projects (BPR first)
E-Government Strategy: Process (3)
Develop time-bound implementation plan
Secure stakeholder buy-in of implementation plan
Implementation the strategy in phases
Measure and publicize progress
Evaluate results and make course corrections.
Improvement in connectivity and data processing capacity
E-government management framework in place
Policy and regulatory framework in place
Geographical reach of government services
Business processes reengineered
Number of Government systems operating at service standards
E-Govt. Strategy: Measurement of results Note – illustrative examples – there are other measures of capabilitiy
Constituency satisfaction with government services (opinion surveys, citizen report cards)
Access by the poor and rural population
Client orientation in public service
Data sharing across information systems
transparency of government organization to service recipients
Business Case: Measurement of results
Example of e-government strategy NEGP - E-Bharat under preparation
NEGP’s goal is the provision of improved, more convenient government services countrywide through on-line delivery at local service centers.
NEGP is fully recognized as key part of national development plans.
Involves central and all state governments. Will be led centrally and implemented locally.
Will be implemented over an 8-year period (FY2006-2013) at a cost of roughly USD 4 billion.
To be supported by proposed USD 1 billion Bank project in two phases
Example: NEGP - India’s e-Government strategy
India’s NEGP : Scope of Outputs
National GIS for planning
EDI (customs & foreigh trade)
Services to Business (G2B)
Common Services Centres: Single-window public service delivery points eventually reaching all the 600,000 villages in India
State Wide Area Network SWAN: fiber optic connectivity up to block level
Countrywide State Data Centers
All India Portal
National E-Governance Gateway
Food Distribution & other welfare programs
Passport, visa and immigration
Services to Citizens (G2C) Integrated State Central
India’s NEGP: Criteria for selection of MMPs
Measurably improved citizen/business service delivery
Ownership by line ministry/ state department
Acceptable BPR & change management plan
Solutions can be rolled out in 2-4 years
emphasis on poor & rural communities
Use of PPP solutions
India’s NEGP: Funding Sources
Existing ministry budgets (3% national guideline for IT)
Existing State funds
Additional Central Assistance (ACA) from the central government to the states.
External financing from the Bank and other donors, with harmonized administration procedures.
Private financing through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs)
To setup ICT- enabled CSCs in villages to deliver multiple services to the villagers
To deliver all possible G2C services through these CSCs
To promote public-private-partnerships (PPP) in ownership and operation of CSCs
To provide government subsidies calibrated to financial sustainability of CSCs
India’s NEGP: Strategy for CSC Infrastructure
India’s NEGP: Strategy for Capacity Building
Provide expert TA on project management and procurement
Support BPR plans of implementing departments
Finance extensive training program
Nurture stakeholder/domain networks
Levels of Capacity Needs- at State Level
Program Management Overall Governance Structure- at National level (proposed) Cabinet/ CCEA Project Committees Project Owners (Central Line Ministries / State Government) Sub-Program Committees Apex Committee Expenditure Finance Committee National e-Governance Advisory Board (Chairman MCIT) Project Approval Programme Monitoring NEGAP Strategy Setting Working Group (Chairman Secy DIT) Program Management Unit DIT Programme Secretariat
Proposed Institutional Framework – at State level State eGov Council (CM) State Apex Committee (CS) Departmental Committee SeMT DIT DeMT State Government
Sourcing Capacities - Options
Bid Process Management
Project Management 50% 50% (domain)
Project Development DeMT 50-70% 30-50% (tech + domain)
Program Management 25% 75%
Program Development Apex Committee SeMT 50% 50%
Leadership & Vision Council Source of Capacity Within Govt. Outside Task Role
Implications for the World Bank
But is our client interested?
Strategic intent of a Government is signaled by:
Formally expressed interest
Active planning: documents are available and have been discussed internally; ICT deployment is a part of PRSPs; e-readiness assessment done e.g. through an Infodev grant
Established government agency for ICT development
Strategy implementation already started
Bank ICT Assistance Strategy
Assistance must be country-specific depending on government commitment and country e-readiness.
Given high risk of ICT investments, a careful implementation strategy is a must
For laggard countries, target ‘low hanging fruit’ projects with high visibility, quick impact and easy implementation.
For more advanced countries—i.e. have already implemented pilots-- the Bank can help in scaling up those systems that best fit within the CAS
In the Bank , all types of public sector projects, have e-Gov in them Improve administration structure and processes, civil service performance, public expenditure management de-concentration , revenue collection and accountability mechanisms. E-Gov??? Really???
Institutional Reform and Capacity Building Projects
Enhance efficiency of the Government’s decision-making process for public procurement and Documentation flow. Trade facilitation and market access Lay groundwork for effective health sector policy making & monitoring
Administration Capacity Building Projects
Supports improving the legal & regulatory framework for public financial management and new Integrated IFMIS Civil Service Reform and Modernization
Why is this important for the Bank?
Conservatively more than 50% of our projects involve significant investments in ICT
Most ICT project components involve e-Government initiatives
Several countries envisioning comprehensive projects: e-Lanka, India’s e-Bharat, e-Vietnam, e-Ghana, e-Peru
Several regions working on an ICT strategy (SAR, EAP)
Most of our clients are investing in this area anyway, it is better the Bank has a strategy to manage that investment and get better/wider impact from it
Who provides this support?
ISG – e-government practice – applications, e-government strategies
GICT – telecom, policy, infrastructure, e-agenda
Legal - legal frameworks
WBI – client training, distance learning
Regional units – AFTQK, ECSPE
Sectors – for domain knowledge especially PREM
A country’s e-government strategy will need to be calibrated to the country's situation in terms of
PC & Internet penetration, (adequate technological infrastructure)
software development capabilities available locally,
literacy levels (both conventional & IT),
economic level (ability to pay),
languages prevalent, etc.
preparedness and commitment of political, administrative and technical leadership.
E-Govt is a multi year commitment. Even if technology can be rapidly implemented organizational change takes time and use patterns change even more slowly.
E-Government offers tremendous opportunities for improving service delivery, efficiency and transparency in government
High risk of e-government projects require careful design
Client countries increasingly require this type of assistance from the World Bank
Finally – while e-Govt is important it is a means to an end, and not an end in and of itself (its about the ‘g’ and not the ‘e’)
Credits – Contributors and Reviewers
Government of India - DIT
Tenzin Dolma Norbhu
E-Government: Lessons of experience
E-Government cannot perform as a substitute for governance reform
E-Government must address the rural urban divide
Manage expectations: e-government is not a magic bullet
Translating promises to benefits involves difficult organizational changes.
There is no “one size fits all” strategy: the context needs to be understood
Balance top direction and bottom up initiative
Avoid large failures; deliver early results
E-Government: Lessons of experience
Identify priority interventions that are capable of exploring a country’s competitive advantage, delivering cross-cutting positive impacts
Promote partnerships between government, private sector, civil society and donors
Avoid technology focus: ensure complementary investment; skills, organizational innovation and incentives are crucial for making technology work
Emphasize training and capacity building
Country Experiences: UK
Focus on improving government services for citizens
Priority on ‘high impact’ areas -
Take-up of services must be the key driver of investment and the key performance indicator.
Create competitive pressure
Open up electronic delivery of government services to the private and voluntary sectors.
Do not make exclusive contracts for front-end delivery Ð avoid private sector monopolies.
Let electronic delivery compete with traditional delivery inside government.
Make the Internet the backbone to ESD, but allow multiple entry routes.
Reward innovation, accept some failure
Get going quickly, and keep learning from mistakes.
Set ambitious goals, informed by citizen preferences.
Begin with prototypes that can be built quickly and tested.
Quickly scale up successful prototypes for launch.
Be ruthless in weeding out unsuccessful government e-venture
Push for efficiency savings
Wherever possible ESD should substitute rather than complement traditional delivery.
Determine the trade-off between trust and income (e.g. advertising) for each service.
Country Experiences - Australia
Agency e-government programs are more likely to be successful when:
Executive-level support has been obtained from the CEO and senior agency staff
Agency staff are committed to the broader concepts of e-government
Recognition exists that people wish to deal with government through a variety of channels, and service delivery strategies are tailored accordingly
Potential awareness is heightened by promoting availability of online programs to people
Legislation and authentication issues have been resolved
Confidence has been raised through electronic signatures
Models for effective inter-agency collaboration have been built and proven
Momentum is maintained through better integration of enterprise, work, information, application and technology architectures with and among agencies
Country Experiences - Canada
Canada regularly surveys citizens and businesses about their attitudes and needs--more so than any other country.
Canada also actively markets its E-government services. It advertises on TV and radio, ad in airline magazines and newspapers to get citizens to use its portal
Canada, like many nations, has a national CIO, given the necessary muscle to drive standards and create a common E-government offering
Country Experiences - Singapore
To pull down silos, you need a big stick
Vision of "many agencies, one government" became mantra
The Ministry of Finance was sole authority in approving funding for e-government projects
IDA managed central IT and telecom infrastructure and defined national policy, standards and procedures
All e-services followed same security, electronic payment and data exchange mechanisms, by regulatory and policy mandate
While Internet technology was an enabler, people made it happen, through strong e-leadership Deputy prime minister launched the plan in 2000 "to be a leading e-government to better serve the nation in the digital economy."