Performance Appraisal By Shazia kazmiOnce the employees has been selected, trained and motivated, he is thenapprised for his performance. Performance appraisal is the step where themanagement finds out how effective it has been hiring and placing employees. Ifany problem is identified, steps are taken to communicate with the employeesand to remedy them. So “so a performance appraisal is a process of evaluatingan employees performance of a job in terms of its requirement “Several methods and techniques of appraisal are available for measurement ofthe performance of the employee. The methods and scales differ for obviousreason. First they differ in sources of traits and qualities to be apprised. Thequality may differ because of difference in job requirements. Second they differbecause of different kinds of workers who are being rated .third the variation maybe caused by the degree of precision attempted in an evaluation. Finally theydiffer because of the method used to obtain weighting for various traits.The performance appraisal method is divided into three categories these are:1. Trait-based method2. Behavioral method3. Comparative method4. Result oriented methodThe part concerned mostly is the comparative methods:There are so many methods which are include in comparative method but the mostimportant and most popular are:1. Straight ranking method2. Grading method3. Graphing rating method4. Forced choice description method5. Forced distribution methods6. Check list method7. Critical incident method8. Free from easy method 1. Straight ranking method:It is the oldest and simplest method of performance appraisal, by which the manand his performance are considered as an entity by the rater. No attempted is tomade to fractionalize the rate; the whole man compared with the whole man; thatis the ranking of a man in a work group is done against that of another. Therelative position of each man is tasted in terms of his numerical rank.Limitation-
this is the simplest method of separating the most efficient from the least efficientand relatively easy to develop and use. But the greatest limitation of his methodis the,In practice it is very difficult to compare a single individual with human beingshaving various behavior traits,The method only tell us how a man stands in relation to theothers in the group but does not indicate how much better or worse he is than anotherIt is difficult task when large number of person are rated,It does not eliminate snapjudgment. 2. Grading method-Under this system, the rater consider certain feature and marks them accordinglyto the scale, train categories of worth are first established and carefully defined.The selected feature may be analytical ability, cooperativeness, dependability,self-expression, job knowledge, leadership, etc they may beA- out standing B-very good C-average D-fair E-poorThese are used in the selection of candidates by the public service commissionLimitation- in this method we can’t get the actual performance of the employee. for exampleif consider that those employee who got 50 to 60 point is in average then the whogot 50 point may be de motivated and who got 51 point may be happy with thatappraisal . 3.Graphic Rating MethodThis is the most commonly used method of performance appraisal. Under it aprinted form one for each person to be rated. The factors which are including inthis method are employee characteristics and employee contribution. Inemployee characteristics are included are leadership, attitude, enthusiasm,locality creative ability, analytical ability, co-ordination. In the employeecontribution are include the quantity and quality of work, the responsibilityassumed, specific goal achieved, regularity of attendance. These traits thenevaluated on continuous scale where in the rather place a mark somewherealong a continuumLimitation-However this method also not free from limitationThe rating is generally subjective often the rating cluster on the high side when thismethod is used,Another severe limitation is that it assume that each characteristics is equally importantfor all jobs 4. Forced choice description methodit attempts to correct a rater tendency to give consistently high or low rating to allthe employees under this method the rating elements are several sets of pairphrases or adjective relating to job proficiency and personal qualification the
following statement are illustrative of the type of statement that are usedOrganize the work wellLacks the ability to make people feel at easeHas a cool even temperamentIs punctual and carefulIs a hard worker and co-operativeLimitation-Trained technicians are required prepare sets of series for each occupational groupMost of the raters become irritated with the test because they are not being trustedThe result of evaluation don’t prove useful for training purposes because the rateris ignorant of how he is evaluating the individual. 5. Forced distribution methodThis system is used to eliminate or minimize rater’s bias so that all the personnelmay not be placed at the higher end or lower end of the scale. It requires therater to apprise an employee according to a predetermined distribution scaleunder this system it is performance and promo ability. For this purpose a fivepoint performance scale is used with out any descriptive statement. Employeesare placed between the two extreme good or bad job performances. For ex 10%given to outstanding, 20% given to good and 40% given to satisfactory.Limitation-This method use in wage administration leads to low morale and low productive 6. Checklist methodUnder this method the rater does not evaluate employee performance; hesupplies report about it and the final rating is done by personnel department. Aseries of question are presented concerning an employee to his behavior. Therater then checks to indicate if the answer to a question about an employee ispositive or negative. The value of each question may be weighed equally orcertain question may be weighed more heavily then others.ExampleIs the employee really interested in job? Yes/noIs he regular on his job? Yes /noIs he equipment maintain in order? Yes /noDoes he ever make mistake? Yes/noDoes he follow instruction properly? Yes/noLimitation-This method suffers from bias on the part of the rater because he can distinguishpositive or negative questionProcess can be expensive and time consumingSeparate checklist must be developed
7. Free essay methodUnder this method the supervisor makes a free form, open ended appraisal of anemployee in his own words and put down its impression about the employee. Hetakes note of these factorsRelation with fellow supervisorGeneral organization and planning abilityJob knowledge and potentialEmployee characteristics and attitudeProduction, quality, and cost controlPhysical condition andDevelopment needsLimitation-It contains a subjective evaluation of the reported behavior of an individual mayeffect such employment decision as promotion, lay-off. Etc.Some appraisal may not write a descriptive reportThe appraisal may be loaded with flowery language about the quality of rate thenthe actual evaluation 8. Critical incident methodThe essence of this system is that it attempts to measure workers performance interms of certain events and episode that occur in the performance rates job.These events are known as critical incident method. The supervisor keeps awritten record of the event that can easily recalled and used at the time ofperformance appraisalLimitationNegative incident are generally more noticeable than positive onesThe supervisor may be put off and easily forgottenVery close supervision may be required and it may not be like by the employeePerformance Appraisal ProcessWhat is Performance Appraisal?A performance appraisal is a review and discussion of an employees performance ofassigned duties and responsibilities. The appraisal is based on results obtained by theemployee in his/her job, not on the employees personality characteristics. The appraisal
measures skills and accomplishments with reasonable accuracy and uniformity. Itprovides a way to help identify areas for performance enhancement and to help promoteprofessional growth. It should not, however, be considered the supervisors onlycommunication tool. Open lines of communication throughout the year help to makeeffective working relationships.Each employee is entitled to a thoughtful and careful appraisal. The success of theprocess depends on the supervisors willingness to complete a constructive and objectiveappraisal and on the employees willingness to respond to constructive suggestions and towork with the supervisor to reach future goals.Why Appraise Performance?Periodic reviews help supervisors gain a better understanding of each employeesabilities. The goal of the review process is to recognize achievement, to evaluate jobprogress, and then to design training for the further development of skills and strengths.A careful review will stimulate employees interest and improve job performance. Thereview provides the employee, the supervisor, the Vice President, and Human Resourcesa critical, formal feedback mechanism on an annual basis, however these discussionsshould not be restricted solely to a formal annual review.A Pay-for-Performance StructureAnnually, the appropriate supervisor evaluates each employees performance. In the casewhere an employee has changed jobs part-way through the appraisal period, both of theemployees supervisors during the appraisal period should submit an appraisal of theemployees performance. During the performance evaluation process, the most recent jobdescription on file with Human Resources will be reviewed and updated if necessary, byboth the employee and the supervisor.Employees are reviewed for a salary increase, annually, effective July 1st. The amount ofthe salary increase pool of funds is recommended by the administration and approved bythe Board of Trustees. The method for allocating funds is based on rewarding meritoriousperformance. Merit increases will be awarded on a pay-for-performance basis and arebased on individual performance. When used as intended, a pay-for-performancestructure achieves the goal of rewarding truly top performers with merit increases thatmatch their achievements and contributions.