2. SEED GERMINATION: <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Germination is the process in which a seed or spore emerges from a period of dormancy. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm. </li></ul>
3. <ul><li>A SEED IS AN EMBRYO PLANT AND CONTAINS WITHIN ITSELF VIRTUALLY ALL THE MATERIALS AND ENERGY TO START OFF A NEW PLANT. THE SEED OF A HIGHER PLANT IS A SMALL PACKAGE PRODUCED IN A FRUIT OR CONE AFTER THE UNION OF MALE AND FEMALE SEX CELLS. </li></ul>
4. GERMINATION RATE:- IN AGRICULTURE AND GARDENING, THE GERMINATION RATE DESCRIBES HOW MANY SEEDS OF A PARTICULAR PLANT SPECIES, VARIETY OR SEED LOT ARE LIKELY TO GERMINATE. IT IS USUALLY EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE, E.G., AN 85% GERMINATION RATE INDICATES THAT ABOUT 85 OUT OF 100 SEEDS WILL PROBABLY GERMINATE UNDER PROPER CONDITIONS. THE GERMINATION RATE IS USEFUL FOR CALCULATING THE SEED REQUIREMENTS FOR A GIVEN AREA OR DESIRED NUMBER OF PLANTS.
6. (A) EXTERNAL FACTOR <ul><li>Also known as environment factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Most important factor affecting germination of seed are following: </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Aeration </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul>
7. <ul><li>WATER: WATER IS REQUIRED FOR GERMINATION. MATURE SEEDS ARE OFTEN EXTREMELY DRY AND NEED TO TAKE IN SIGNIFICANT AMOUNTS OF WATER, RELATIVE TO THE DRY WEIGHT OF THE SEED, BEFORE CELLULAR METABOLISM AND GROWTH CAN RESUME. MOST SEEDS NEED ENOUGH WATER TO MOISTEN THE SEEDS BUT NOT ENOUGH TO SOAK THEM. </li></ul>
8. <ul><li>THE UPTAKE OF WATER BY SEEDS IS CALLED IMBIBITION, WHICH LEADS TO THE SWELLING AND THE BREAKING OF THE SEED COAT. WHEN SEEDS ARE FORMED, MOST PLANTS STORE A FOOD RESERVE WITH THE SEED, SUCH AS STARCH, PROTEINS, OR OILS. THIS FOOD RESERVE PROVIDES NOURISHMENT TO THE GROWING EMBRYO. WHEN THE SEED IMBIBES WATER, HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES ARE ACTIVATED WHICH BREAK DOWN THESE STORED FOOD RESOURCES INTO METABOLICALLY USEFUL CHEMICALS. </li></ul>
9. AFTER THE SEEDLING EMERGES FROM THE SEED COAT AND STARTS GROWING ROOTS AND LEAVES, THE SEEDLING'S FOOD RESERVES ARE TYPICALLY EXHAUSTED; AT THIS POINT PHOTOSYNTHESIS PROVIDES THE ENERGY NEEDED FOR CONTINUED GROWTH AND THE SEEDLING NOW REQUIRES A CONTINUOUS SUPPLY OF WATER, NUTRIENTS, AND LIGHT.
10. OXYGEN: <ul><li>Oxygen is required by the germinating seed for metabolism. Oxygen is used in aerobic respiration, the main source of the seedling's energy until it grows leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen found in soil pores. </li></ul>
11. <ul><li>SOME SEEDS HAVE IMPERMEABLE SEED COATS THAT PREVENT OXYGEN FROM ENTERING THE SEED, CAUSING A TYPE OF PHYSICAL DORMANCY WHICH IS BROKEN WHEN THE SEED COAT IS WORN AWAY ENOUGH TO ALLOW GAS EXCHANGE AND WATER UPTAKE FROM THE ENVIRONMENT. </li></ul>
12. TEMPERATURE : <ul><li>Temperature affects cellular metabolic and growth rates. Seeds from different species and even seeds from the same plant germinate over a wide range of temperatures. Seeds often have a temperature range within which they will germinate, and they will not do so above or below this range. </li></ul>
13. MANY SEEDS GERMINATE AT TEMPERATURES SLIGHTLY ABOVE ROOM-TEMPERATURE 60-75 0 F (16-24 C), WHILE OTHERS GERMINATE JUST ABOVE FREEZING AND OTHERS GERMINATE ONLY IN RESPONSE TO ALTERNATIONS IN TEMPERATURE BETWEEN WARM AND COOL. SOME SEEDS GERMINATE WHEN THE SOIL IS COOL 28-40 0 F (-2 - 4 0 C), AND SOME WHEN THE SOIL IS WARM 76-90 0 F (24-32 0 C). SOME SEEDS REQUIRE EXPOSURE TO COLD TEMPERATURES (VERNALIZATION) TO BREAK DORMANCY.
14. SEEDS IN A DORMANT STATE WILL NOT GERMINATE EVEN IF CONDITIONS ARE FAVORABLE. SEEDS THAT ARE DEPENDENT ON TEMPERATURE TO END DORMANCY HAVE A TYPE OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DORMANCY. FOR EXAMPLE, SEEDS REQUIRING THE COLD OF WINTER ARE INHIBITED FROM GERMINATING UNTIL THEY TAKE IN WATER IN THE FALL AND EXPERIENCE COOLER TEMPERATURES. FOUR DEGREES C IS COOL ENOUGH TO END DORMANCY FOR MOST COOL DORMANT SEEDS, BUT SOME GROUPS, ESPECIALLY WITHIN THE FAMILY RANUNCULACEAE AND OTHERS, NEED CONDITIONS COOLER THAN -5 0 C.
15. LIGHT OR DARKNESS: <ul><li>Light or darkness can be an environmental trigger for germination and is a type of physiological dormancy. Most seeds are not affected by light or darkness, but many seeds, including species found in forest settings, will not germinate until an opening in the canopy allows sufficient light for growth of the seedling. </li></ul>
16. ENVIRONMENT CONTROL ON GERMINATION: <ul><li>we are use many method of environment control as following: </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature : Most seeds germinate best at warm (70°F) temperatures. Temperatures used in the catalog are: Cold (34 - 45°F), Cool (50 - 65°F), Warm (65 - 80°F) and Very Warm (80 - 100°F). </li></ul>
17. <ul><li>Light/Dark : Some seeds need light to germinate; others need darkness, and light prevents sprouting. If light is required, sow on the surface; if darkness is needed, cover seed well. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide : CO 2 reduces the percentage of germination. However, CO 2 high concentration, promotes germination in Xanthium , Lactuca and Trifolium. </li></ul>
18. <ul><li>Gibberellic Acid-3 (Ga-3) : GA-3 is a naturally occurring plant growth regulator. Presoaking seeds in GA-3 will often cause rapid germination of many highly dormant. </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Water Soak : The seeds are placed in a cup and not quite boiling (200°F) water is poured on them and allowed to cool & the seeds to swell. water for 10 seconds to 3 minutes. </li></ul>
19. <ul><li>Dry Heat : The seeds are baked dry in an oven at 140° to 220°F for 4 - 10 hours, or are microwaved for 30 seconds to 4 minutes . </li></ul><ul><li>Warm Moist Treatment: Many seeds need 1- 4 months of warm moist treatment, followed by cold treatment to sprout. In some, the root sprouts during the warm period, but the shoot does not sprout until after a cold period </li></ul>
20. <ul><li>Smoke Treatment : Smoke treatment often helps germination of plants from fire-prone environments, particularly Mediterranean-climate plants . </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Seeds-Chipping : Hard seed coats which prevent moisture being absorbed by the seed. All that is needed is for the outer surface to be scratched or abraided to allow water to pass through. </li></ul>
21. <ul><li>Hard Seeds-Soaking : Soaking is beneficial in two ways; it can soften a hard seed coat and also leach out any chemical inhibitors in the seed which may prevent germination. 24 hours in water which starts off hand hot is usually sufficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Stratification (cold treatment) : artificially stimulated by placing the moistened seed in a refrigerator for a certain period of time (usually 3- 5 weeks at around 41 0 F). </li></ul>