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  1. 1. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: TQMOrigins, Evolution & key elements
  2. 2. What is Quality?Quality is “fitness for use” (Joseph Juran)Quality is “conformance to requirements” (Philip B. Crosby)Quality of a product or services is its ability to satisfythe needs and expectations of the customer
  3. 3. Evolution of Quality ManagementInspection Salvage, sorting, grading, blending, corrective actions, identify sources of non-conformance Develop quality manual, process performanceQuality data, self-inspection, product testing, basicControl quality planning, use of basic statistics, paperwork control. Quality systems development, advanced qualityQuality planning, comprehensive quality manuals, use ofAssurance quality costs, involvement of non-production operations, failure mode and effects analysis, SPC. TQM Policy deployment, involve supplier & customers, involve all operations, process management, performance measurement, teamwork, employee involvement.
  4. 4. Deming’s view of a production as a system Receipt & test of Design & Consumer materials redesign ResearchSuppliers, Production,materials & assembly, Distribution Consumersequipment inspection Test of processes, machines, methods, cost
  5. 5. Deming’s Chain Reaction Improve Quality Provide jobs and Cost decreases because more jobs of less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, snags, better use ofStay in business machine time and materials Productivity improves Capture the market with better quality and lower price
  6. 6. What is TQM? Concern for Constant drive Management employee for continuous by Fact involvement and improvement and development learning. Organisation Passion to deliver response Result Focus customer value / ability excellence Partnership Actions not just perspective words (internal / Process(implementation) external) Management
  7. 7. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TQMApproach Management Led Scope Company Wide Scale Everyone is responsible for QualityPhilosophy Prevention not DetectionStandard Right First Time Control Cost of Quality Theme On going Improvement
  8. 8. The Deming Cycle or PDCA Cycle PLAN Plan a change to the process. Predict the effect this change will have and plan how the effects will be measured ACT DOAdopt the change as a Implement the change onpermanent modification a small scale and measureto the process, or the effectsabandon it. CHECK Study the results to learn what effect the change had, if any.
  9. 9. Deming’s System of Profound KnowledgeAppreciation for Knowledge system about variation Theory about Knowledge of knowledge psychology
  10. 10. LEARNING AND TQM Learning Process Improvement Quality Improvement Customer Shareholder EmployeeSatisfaction Satisfaction Satisfaction
  11. 11. Philip Crosby’s Four AbsolutesWhat is Quality? Definition : Conformance to requirementsWhat system is needed System of quality isto cause quality? preventionWhat performance Performance Standard :standard should be Zero Defectsused?What measurement Measurement : Price of non-system is required? conformance (PON)
  12. 12. Crosby’s Successful CompanyCharacteristics of the Eternally SuccessfulOrganisationPeople do things right routinelyGrowth is profitable and steadyCustomer needs are anticipatedChange is planned and managedPeople are proud to work there
  13. 13. Joseph M. Juran’s Quality TrilogyQuality Planning Quality Control QualityEstablish quality goals Prove the process can Improvement produce under Seek to optimise theIdentify customer needs operating conditions process via tools ofTranslate needs into our diagnosis Transfer process tolanguage operationDevelop a product forthese needsOptimise productfeatures for these needs
  14. 14. Juran’s Quality Planning Road Map1) Identify who are the customers2) Determine the customer’s needs3) Translate the needs into our language4) Develop a product to meet those needs5) Optimise a product so as to meets our needs as well as the customer’s.6) Develop a process which is able to produce the product7) Optimise the process8) Prove the process can make the product under operating conditions
  15. 15. Joseph M.Juran and the Cost Of Quality2 types of costs:Unavoidable Costs: preventing defects (inspection,sampling, sorting, QC)Avoidable Costs: defects and product failures(scrapped materials, labour for re-work, complaintprocessing, losses from unhappy customers “Gold in the Mine”
  16. 16. Joseph M.Juran and the Cost Of QualityCosts Total Unavoidable Costs costs Avoidable costs 100% defective Point of “Enough quality”
  17. 17. FOUR KEY PRINCIPLES •Measure quality so you can affect it •Focus on a moving customer •Involve every employee •Think long term - Act short term