Form 5 calxina luisa idiotic

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  • 1. Form 5: Chapter 2 – Locomotion and Support 2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals Locomotion in an animal with an endoskeleton (fish)1. Why can a fish swim in a viscous and dense environment:a) body wight is supported by water to overcome gravity. b) sleek and streamlined body to overcome resistance.c) overlapping scales on the body of a fish face backwards to overcome resistance.d) covered by slimy coating to minimize frictional drag and maintains a smooth flow of water.2. Vertebral column of the fish is moved from side to side by the contraction andrelaxation of myotomes. Prepared by: Mr. Gerard Selvaraj 12
  • 2. Form 5: Chapter 2 – Locomotion and Support 2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals 3. Myotomes – W shaped muscle blocks that make up each side of the body of a fish andcarry out opposite action.4. Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation pass down the myotomes on either side of the body from the head to the tail.5. These cause different parts of the body to be swept from side to side pushing water backwards and sideways and the body forwards.6. Tendency for a fish to become unstable in water during movement, leading to:-a) yawing – sideways movement b) pitching – vertical plane movementc) rolling – transverse plane movement7. Movements are countered by fins. Caudal fin provides thrust and controls the fish’sdirection.8. These movements are countered by:-a) yawing – resisted by the median (dorsal and ventral) fin b) rolling – resisted by median finc) Pitching – resisted by paired
  • 3. pelvic fin and pectoral fin which acts as brakes andrudders.9. Bony fish have swim bladders to help them maintain buoyancy in the water.10. The swim bladder is a sac inside the abdomen that contains gas.11. Controlling the amount of gas in the swim bladder, a fish can change its buoyancy sothat it has the same relative density as the surrounding water. Prepared by: Mr. Gerard Selvaraj 13