Unit #5 Terrorism Student VerisionPresentation Transcript
International Terrorism And the War Against It Credit to Mr. Price
Intro to Terrorism
What thoughts and emotions do thesephotographs evoke?
What is Terrorism? Terrorism is violence …
…that is deliberate
... that is politically motivated.. ... that targets civilians (or noncombatants).
… that’s carried out by subnationalgroups. ... that’s aimed at a wide audience. ... that’s meant to create a state of fear. ... that’s usually directed against some hated government.
one’s own government.
a foreign government.
a foreign supporter of
one’s own government.
Definitions of Terrorism : “Premeditated and politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncom- batant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. -U.S. State Department
“The deliberate use of violence against civilians for political or religious ends.” -Council of Foreign Relations
“Illegal attacks and threats against people or property by a group for the purpose of weakening a hated political authority. - IR text
There is no universally accepted definition of terrorism. Why not? UN tried to draft definition of terrorism in 2002, but failed because of disagreements over which groups should be treated as terrorists. Some would exempt “national liberation movements” or those “resisting occupation.” “One Man’s Terrorist is Another Man’s Freedom Fighter””
International Terrorism What is it? When the victims, targets, terrorists, means, or location of the terrorist attack involve more than one country.
Number of International Terrorist Attacks 1990-2006
Locations of Worst Attacks
State-sponsored Terrorism When governments use or support terrorism as an instrument of their foreign policy. How?
Providing weapons or
Providing a safe haven.
State-sponsored Terrorism U.S. State Department’s terrorism blacklist:
* Most active state sponsors today:
Rise of Islamic Terrorist Groups Since late 1990s more deadly terrorist attacks. Political goals less clear.
Inflicting greatest possible
number of casualties seems to be the primary goal.
Linked to rise of Islamic terrorist groups.
Deaths Due to Terrorism / Suicide Bombings 1998-2007
Islamic Terrorism The terrorists we face today are Islamic extremists.
View themselves as fighting
jihad (“holy war”)against the enemies of Islam.
Difficult to deter. Why?
Islamic Fundamentalism“Islamic Extremism” or “Radical Islam”
Beliefs / Goals of Islamic Fundamentalism 1. Wants to return to a strict, conservative, “pure” Islam as practiced in the 7th century by the Prophet Mohammad. 2. Rejects Western ideas and practices. Wants to rid Muslim world of all Western influences. Views Western culture as corrupting, immoral, and materialistic. 3. Wants to establish Islamic governments based on Islamic law (Shari’a) throughout the Muslim world.
4. Goal is to overthrow all secular, pro-Western governments and replace them with Islamic dictatorships.
5. Opposed to democracy because it puts the will of the people and man-made law ahead of God’s commandments.
6. Views all Jews and Christians as infidels (“non-believers”) and as enemies of Islam. Calls for the destruction of Israel.
The Rise of al Qaeda
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, 1979
Soviet Union invaded
Afghanistan in 1979.
warriors”) from all over Islamic world fought jihad against Soviets.
CIA funded, trained, and
armed the mujahedeen. Soviets defeated in 1989.
Osama bin Laden Wealthy Saudi who raised money to train and arm mujahedeen.
Led Arab fighters in battles
against Soviets. These Arabs were the start of al Qaeda (“The Base”)
Bin Laden’s Path From Afghanistan to 9-11 1989 - Returns to Saudi Arabia after Soviets are defeated. 1990 - Turns against Saudi government and U.S. when U.S. troops are based in Saudi Arabia during Persian Gulf War. 1991 - Expelled from Saudi Arabia. Flees to Sudan. 1996 - Expelled from Sudan. Offered sanctuary in Afghanistan by the Taliban. Sets up terrorist training camps for al Qaeda.
1998 - Proclaims jihad against Americans and Jews. Issues fatwa saying it was the duty of every Muslim “to kill Americans.”
Why Did bin Laden Target the U.S. ?
1. Believes U.S. wants to control
2. U.S. support of Israel, which
murders Palestinians and robs them of their lands.
3. U.S. support for corrupt and
repressive governments in in Muslim countries like Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan.
4. America’s military presence
in Saudi Arab defiles Muslim’s holy land.
Wanted: Dead or Alive
Where is bin Laden?
Al Qaeda: Targeting the U.S. 1998 U.S. embassies bombed in Kenya and Tanzania. 2000 Bombing of U.S.S. Cole in Yemen killed 17 sailors.
Al Qaeda: A Global Terrorist Network
Major Terrorist Attacks Since 9-11 London 2005 Madrid 2004 Mumbai 2008 Bali 2002
September 11, 2001
The Significance of 9-11
Changed the focus of U.S.
foreign policy overnight.
The “war on terrorism”
became the central concern of the Bush administration.
There was no “war on terror-
ism before 9-11.
The War on Terrorism
Bush’s Response Characterized attacks as “more than acts of terror, they were acts of war”. “We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them.” Viewed war on terrorism with “moral clarity” - as a war between good and evil. Bush's speech to nation on 9-11 Bush speech to Congress on 9-20
Bush’s Response “Every nation, in every region, now has a decision to make: Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.” Recruited worldwide coalition to fight a “war on terrorism.”
Worldwide Support for U.S. Strong support from U.S. allies.
NATO invoked Article 5
of its charter for the first and only time!
National Security Strategy 2002
The Bush Doctrine, a new
strategy for fighting terrorism, was first spelled out in this document. Identified greatest threat facing the U.S. and the world today: Terrorist networks with global reach coexisting with rogue states possessing WMD. Warned that terrorists might soon acquire these WMD and use them against the U.S.
The Bush Doctrine Doctrine asserted that U.S. must defend itself by acting preemptivelyagainst these terrorists and rogue states – before they can use WMD against us.
Asserted right to act against
“emerging” threats “before they are fully formed” -- not just immediate threats Controversial interpretation of the tradition right to self- defense. Why?
Preemption vs. Prevention Sounded more like preventive war, not preemption. What’s the difference? Preemption involves the use of force to stop an imminent threat. Prevention involves the use of force to stop potential or future threats.