Means being able to control your country’s internal affairs and to keep other countries from butting in.
Geopolitics helps to determine a country’s relations & overall strength1. Territory Size – Large nations have certain advantages like containing important resources or having more diversified landWith larger size opportunity to have different soil/climate/terrain that will suit anything (creates diversified economy)2. Climate – weather has huge impact on country’s economy (talk about examples) Is there enough rainfall to produce own food? If not you must rely on other nations (huge issue!)3. Terrain – affects a nation’s security (talk about examples) Kuwait was easily invaded b/c it is a desert plain rather England is island & has high cliffs to prevent from attack4. Control of Strategic Resources – if there is a great world wide demand for a country’s resource it yields great power for that country (talk about examples) Oil producing countries are greatest example with significant power5. Population How might a population be influential on economy, gov’t, culture?
During Cold War, what was world like? Bipolar (only 2 major superpowers) who controlled most of world in some way or another (had major influence) but since Soviet collapse major changes have been occurring1. Multipolarity usually leads to fragmented world like in WWII but today countries rely on one another so much (ex. European Union & NAFTA), multipolar is when world power is divided among many nations
During Cold War, what was world like? Bipolar (only 2 major superpowers) who controlled most of world in some way or another (had major influence) but since Soviet collapse major changes have been occurring1. Multipolarity usually leads to fragmented world like in WWII but today countries rely on one another so much (ex. European Union & NAFTA), multipolar is when world power is divided among many nationsU.S. has strongest military in the world & one of the most diverse & wealthiest economies but other countries are catching up
3. In 1950 about 22 countries were democracies (31% of world’s population) but in 2000 120 countries were democracies (58% of population)With fall of communist gov’ts in eastern Europe it inspired people to seek own democratic movements, seeking opportunities to vote & hold elections Democratic nations think they should not go to war with one another (certain restraints like public opinion & checks & balances), usually seen as seeking more peaceful resolutions4. Free market- free trade, private ownership of factors of prod & business, less gov’t involvement allows countries to connect with one another & diversify economic opportunities in each nation5. Through the internet & new mass communication technologies countries are sharing economic & political ideologies therefore helping to pull the developing countries up to level of the developed (Internet will only speed up process of globalization)KEY TREND – with common interest in economic prosperity & democracy leaders will be more inclined to work together to solve problems instead of war over differing ideologies
Ex. Acquire nuclear programs = North Korea, Iran, Iraq
Strong economy = many jobs, high standard of living brings stability to nation (little unemployment & poverty so other nations want that!Economic stability brings political stabilityEx. Soviet Union has biggest nuclear arsenal but poor economy caused discontent & breakup
Ex. Japan (few natural resources but spent millions on Research & Development for microelectronics)-military (A bomb) importantSmall countries can compete with larger ones economically & militarily
Propaganda & media motivate citizens to support nation’s goals (ignite nationalism for sacrifice) ex. ‘s like 9/11 & Pearl Harbor (threats to security)Japan devastated after WWII but through resolve were able to build great nation/economy
. that normalize relations.Diplomatic recognition is extended to each other’s governments.
When problems can’t be solved by normal diplomats or ambassadors then summits may start
Isolationism – Examples – Do not want alliancesDo not want international agreementssupports non-interventionist in military policy & supports protectionism for economic policyNon-interventionism – Political rulers should avoid entangling alliances with other nations and avoid all wars not related to direct territorial self-defense. Protectionism – There should be legal barriers to control trade and cultural exchange with people in other states. Internationalism
Ex.’s of non-interventionists were George Washington & Jefferson, modern day Ron PaulU.S. interventionism has often resulted in sending American troops into other countries to protect U.S. interests.
UNI - Supporters believe that the U.S. should exercise its power without the limitations imposed by allies and international agreements.MULTI - Argues U.S. should work with other nations to solve global problems.Argues the use of military force is only legitimate if the international community supports it.
International Relations is thestudy of what? How countries __ ? __ to / with each other.
Guess the four key “C” words that go in the blank. How countries _ ? _ to/with each other. cooperate communicate compete conflict
Definitions of International Relations Text “The study of how countries relate to one another, how they work together, and how they conflict.” Glossary “The study of how states and other international actors interact with and relate to each other.”
There are 194sovereign states in the world today. What’s another word for state? State and country mean exactly the same thing.
What is a state / country? A recognized political unit with these characteristics:
Geopolitics: The influence of geography/demographics on politics – especially on foreign policy.
Geopolitical Factors: Aspects of geography/demographics that influence a nation’s foreign policy. Its size Its location Its climate Its population Its borders and terrain Its control of critical resources Its need for critical resources Its access to water Its neighbors (its proximity to allies and enemies) Its strategic interests around the globe
Our size Our location Our borders and terrain Our control of critical resources Our need for critical resources Our access to water Our proximity to allies and enemies Our strategic interests around the globe Give some examples of how these aspects of geography have influenced U.S. foreign policy – now or in the past:
Geopolitics involves the competition between states for : The control of strategically important territory. Access to resources. Influence throughout the world.
Thinking Geopolitically To think geopolitically, what questions should be asked before using military force against the country outlined in yellow on this map?
Thinking Geopolitically… What part of the world is this? Is this a strategically important part of the world? How far is this country from the U.S.? What is the value of this country/area in terms of natural resources, trade, bases, etc. to the U.S.? What are the natural barriers to invasion, such as seas or mountain ranges? Are the surrounding countries friends or enemies of this country? Would they support our invasion? Are the surrounding countries friends or enemies of the U.S.? What is the make-up of this country’s population? Will the people there welcome or hate us?
“Underlying the behavior of nations is the concept of national interest” What question does this statement answer? Why do nations behave the way they do? DefiningNational Interest
What are National Interests? What is best for a particular country (TEXT) Anything that is good for or beneficial to a country.
A Country’s National Interests / Goals A Country’s Behavior (Its Foreign Policy)
Key Ideas About National Interest A country’s national interests change over time. Each country’s interests are unique, but all countries share these broad goals: State sovereignty Territorial integrity Military security Economic well-being
Citizens often disagree on what their country’s national interests are. National interests are ultimately defined by a country’s leaders. A country’s national interests will determine its foreign policy.
Developing Foreign Policy “In every nation, leaders develop a foreign policy --or a course of action--to pursue the national interests of their countries.”
What is Foreign Policy? “A course of action developed by a country’s leaders to pursue the national interests of that nation.” (Text) “The actions taken by a government in pursuit of a country’s global interests and goals.”
National Interests (Goals) Foreign Policy (Actions taken in pursuit of goals)
The Concept of Power in International Relations What is Power? Power refers to a nation’s ability to influence the actions of other nations. Why is Power Important? Powerful nations are more likely to reach their foreign policy goals than less powerful countries.
A country’s ability to carry out its foreign policy relies on its POWERS! 1. military power 2. economic power 3. geopolitical factors 4. technological power 5. national resolve
MILITARY POWER Having a strong enough military to deter (prevent) attack. Having the ability to project military power overseas.
A large diverse economy allows you to have a great influence in the world Have ability to trade worldwide Country contains strategic resources Have enough wealth to invest in foreign markets or buy foreign goods ECONOMIC POWER
GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS Countries gain power from things like…. Control of resources Terrain Size Location Population
With advanced technology countries believe they can compete with more powerful nations Ex.’s: better weapons, education, communication, etc. TECHNOLOGICAL POWER
Definition – when people share strong beliefs about national interests & a strong desire to achieve them STRONG NATIONAL RESOLVE
Represents the U.S. abroad and in international organizations.
Diplomacy may involve summits between heads of state. (Face to face talks) Bilateral summit Multilateral summit
Countries Without Diplomatic Relations with the United States: Bhutan Cuba Iran North Korea
Diplomacy may result in the signing of treaties.
Formal, written agreements between states (Bilateral or Multilateral)
Peace Treaty Commercial Treaty Arms Control Treaty
Political Tool: Alliances An alliance is a multilateral agreement among nations to protect each other in case of attack Based on idea of collective security –the idea that peace and security is best achieved by states acting together to confront aggression.
Our most important alliance? NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO meeting at NATO headquarters in Brussels, Belgium.
Political Tool: International & Regional Organizations The purpose of joining these organizations is to have a place to cooperatively address problems that affect all/most nations International Org. example: United Nations – wants to promote peace! Regional Org. example: European Union – wants to promote economic cooperation
Political Tool: Propaganda Nations use propaganda (one sided info) to gain support of its policies or to discredit the policies of others
Economic Tool: Trade Relations Countries usually create trade agreements to increase trade and cooperation worldwide (less restrictions!) Why do they do this? Other times, countries use trade (import) restrictions:
Sanctions Sanctions are actions meant to punish the targeted state for bad behavior. Economic Sanctions: Boycotts/embargoes - decision to abstain from buying certain goods or sometimes cutting off trade completely with another country Diplomatic Sanctions:
Economic & Military Tool: Foreign Aid 1. Economic aid – given in form of cash grants, loans, food, technology 2. Military aid – cash grants, weapons, training programs, military advisors
Military Options 1. Show of Strength – position armed forces around world to show power 2. Terrorism – commit acts of violence or destruction to gain attention for political causes 3. Limited Military Response – short term actions to force another nation to back down from dispute 4. War – last resort military action Military Tool: Use of Force
What’s important to remember about applying these tools?
-The best solution provides the best outcome with as little consequences
CONFLICTING FOREIGN POLICY APPROACHES
Approaches to Foreign Policy Isolationism Internationalism Policy of isolating one’s nation from the affairs of others Means avoiding alliances with other states and following a policy of strict neutrality . Supporter of sovereignty Policy of active involvement in world affairs. A policy of economic and/or political cooperation with other nations in an attempt to gain benefits for all
Was Washington an Isolationist or Interventionist?
Appeasement Taken to the extreme, a policy of trying to avoid war may result in appeasement -- a policy of buying off an aggressor by giving in to its demands.
Interventionism Non-Interventionism Policy of a nation to intervene into another nation’s affairs Interventionists was to use military force, or the threat of force, to interfere in another nation’s affairs. Why would a nation ever want to intervene into someone else’s problems? Policy that a nation will avoid alliances and all wars (unless self-defense situations arise) Why would a nation use this policy? Approaches to Foreign Policy
Approaches to Foreign Policy Unilateralism Multilateralism A policy of acting alone –without consulting allies. What’s the problem with this policy? A policy of acting together with other nations. What’s the problem with this policy?
Approaches to Foreign Policy Realism Idealism Argues that a country’s foreign policy should promote its own national interests. Based on the more pessimisticbelief that states always act in their own interest. states are motivated by the desire for economic & military power rather than ideals or ethics “World peace” impossible because states will always have opposing interests that lead to competition and conflict. = This means states look out for themselves! Argues that a country’s foreign policy should reflect and promote moral values and ideals:
Based on the optimisticbelief that states can learn to live and work together in peace and harmony.
states should abandon the use of force and encourage cooperation of societies
=This means states look out for others, besides themselves!