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  1. 1. Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods 6th Edition Chapter 11 Cooperative Learning and the Collaborative Process
  2. 2. Chapter Overview <ul><li>Outcomes of cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Components of a cooperative learning activity </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-student and student-student interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Task specialization and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a cooperative task structure in your classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Specifying the goal </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Structuring the task </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Teaching the collaborative process </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Monitoring group performance </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Debriefing </li></ul><ul><li>Team-oriented cooperative learning activities </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting the goals of cooperative learning in the culturally diverse classroom </li></ul>
  3. 3. Outcomes of Cooperation <ul><li>Critical thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving skills are of little use if they cannot be applied in cooperative interaction with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directed and cooperative learning share the complementary objectives of engaging students in the learning process and promoting higher (more complex) patterns of behavior. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cooperative learning can instill the following in your learners: <ul><li>Attitudes and values that guide the learner’s behavior outside of the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable forms of behavior that may not be modeled in the home. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative perspectives and viewpoints with which to think objectively. </li></ul><ul><li>An integrated identity that can reduce contradictory thoughts and actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher thought processes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Figure 11.1 Outcomes of cooperative learning Insert figure 11.1 here
  6. 6. Components of a Cooperative Learning Activity <ul><li>Planning for cooperative learning requires decisions pertaining to the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher-student interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-student interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task specialization and materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role expectations and responsibilities </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Teacher-student and Student-student Interaction <ul><li>The primary role of teacher-student interaction in cooperative learning is to promote independent thinking. The teacher’s goal is to help the group become more self-reflective and aware of its own performance. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary role of student-student interaction during cooperative learning is to encourage the active participation and interdependence of all members of all members of the class. An essential ingredient of cooperative learning is each learner’s desire to facilitate the task performance of fellow group members. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Task Specialization and Materials <ul><li>The primary goal of task specialization and learning materials during cooperative learning is to create an activity structure whose end product depends on the sharing, cooperation, and collaboration of individuals within groups. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary goal of assigning roles and responsibilities during cooperative learning is to facilitate the work of the group and to promote communication and sharing among its members. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher should divide labor among learners, and designate the roles to avoid uninvolved and passive participants. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Establishing a Cooperative Task Structure in Your Classroom <ul><li>Establishing a cooperative task structure involves five steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify the goal of the activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure the task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach the collaborative process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor group performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debrief. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Step 1: Specifying the Goal Identifying the Outcome <ul><li>The goal of a cooperative activity may take different forms such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written group reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher individual achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An oral performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An enumeration or listing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A critique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliographic research </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Step 1: Specifying the Goal Teacher Responsibilities <ul><li>The teacher has four responsibilities in specifying the goal of a cooperative activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrate the style, format, and length of the end product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place the goal in the context of past and future learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check for understanding of the goal and directions given for achieving it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set a tone of cooperation, as opposed to competition. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Step 2: Structuring the Task Teacher Decisions <ul><li>Structuring the cooperative learning task involves the following decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How large the groups will be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How group members will be selected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much time will be devoted to group work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What roles group members will be assigned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What incentives will be provided for individual and group work. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Step 2: Structuring the Task Group Composition <ul><li>Generally, the most efficient size for a group to reach the desired goal in the least amount of time is four to six members. </li></ul><ul><li>Unless a group task specifically calls for specialized abilities, groups should be formed heterogeneously — or with a representative sample of all learners in the class. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Step 2: Structuring the Task Selecting Group Members <ul><li>Methods for selecting group members include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Ask students to list peers with whom they would like to work. </li></ul><ul><li>Randomly assign students to groups </li></ul><ul><li>Choose matched opposites (e.g., minority/majority, boy/girl, with/without disabilities, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Share with students the process of choosing group members (e.g., the teacher selects first, then person selected chooses another, etc.). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Step 2: Structuring the Task Uninvolved Participants <ul><li>An actively uninvolved group member is one who talks about everything but the assigned goal of the group. A passively uninvolved group member is one who does not care about the work of the group and becomes silent. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods for discouraging active and passive uninvolvement include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Request a product requiring division of labor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form pairs that oversee each other’s work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chart group progress on individually assigned tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposefully limit group resources to promote sharing and personal contact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require a product that is contingent on previous stages that are the work of others. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Step 2: Structuring the Task Discouraging Uninvolvement <ul><li>Methods for discouraging active and passive uninvolvement include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Request a product requiring division of labor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form pairs that oversee each other’s work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chart group progress on individually assigned tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposefully limit group resources to promote sharing and personal contact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require a product that is contingent on previous stages that are the work of others. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Step 2: Structuring the Task Time and Labor <ul><li>Group work should entail 60% to 80% of the time devoted to a cooperative activity. The remainder being devoted to whole class discussion and debriefing. </li></ul><ul><li>Division of labor within a group can be accomplished with role assignments. The following are popular roles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observer/ troubleshooter </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Step 2: Structuring the Task Reinforcement Strategies <ul><li>Types of reinforcement strategies for cooperative learning activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual and group grades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonus points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tokens or privileges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group contingencies </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Step 3: Teaching and Evaluating the Collaborative Process <ul><li>Teaching the collaborative process involves showing learners how to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate their own ideas and feelings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make messages complete and specific. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make verbal and nonverbal messages congruent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convey respect and support. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess if the message was properly received. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase another's point of view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate meaning and understandings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively participate in a group and assume leadership. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Step 4: Monitoring Group Performance <ul><li>During the monitoring of group performance, the teacher’s role is to see that each group remains on track, to redirect group efforts when needed, and to provide emotional support and encouragement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One monitoring activity is to identify when a group needs assistance. A common need will be to repeat or remind the group of its goal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another monitoring activity is to redirect groups that have discussed themselves into a blind alley. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A third monitoring activity is to provide emotional support and encouragement to overwhelmed and frustrated group members. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Step 5: Debriefing <ul><li>During debriefing, there are several ways to gather feedback in a whole class discussion about the collaborative process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Openly talk about how the group functioned during the cooperative activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solicit suggestions for how the process could be improved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain the viewpoints of predesignated observers. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Figure 11.3 Checklist scale for rating collaborative skills of group members. Insert figure 11.3 here
  23. 23. Team-Oriented Cooperative Learning Activities <ul><li>Desirable outcomes have been documented for four popular team-oriented cooperative learning activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Student Teams—Achievement Division (STAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) </li></ul><ul><li>Jigsaw II </li></ul><ul><li>Team Assisted Individualization (TAI) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Table 11.1 Similarities and differences among cooperative learning activities. Insert table 11.1 here
  25. 25. Promoting the Goals of Cooperative Learning in the Culturally Diverse Classroom <ul><li>The success of a cooperative learning activity has been related to differences in learning styles and a need for structure. Field-dependent learners tend to need a more structured cooperative learning activity than field-independent learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Some researchers suggest that some cultural and ethnic groups tend to benefit more and adapt better to a task orientation that is less structured and more field dependent. </li></ul>