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English grammar English grammar Document Transcript

  • English grammar is the body of rules that describe the structure of expressions in the English language.This includes the structure of words, phrases,clauses and sentences. A text that contains more than one [1]sentence is no longer in the realm of grammar, but is instead is in the realm of discourse.The grammar of a language is approached in two ways: descriptive grammar is based on analysis of textcorpora and describes grammatical structures thereof, whereas prescriptive grammar attempts to use theidentified rules of a given language as a tool to govern the linguistic behaviour of speakers. This articlepredominantly concerns itself with descriptive grammar.There are historical, social and regional variations of English. Divergences from the grammar describedhere occur in some dialects of English. This article describes a generalized present-day StandardEnglish, the form of speech found in types of public discourse including broadcasting, education,entertainment, government, and news reporting, including both formal and informal speech.Although British English, American English and Australian English have several lexical differences, thegrammatical differences are not as conspicuous, and will be mentioned only when appropriate.Grammar is divided into morphology, which describes the formation of words, and syntax, whichdescribes the construction of meaningful phrases, clauses, and sentences out of words. Contents [hide]1 Word classes and phrase classes o 1.1 Nouns  1.1.1 Noun phrases  1.1.1.1 Order of determiners o 1.2 Determiners o 1.3 Pronouns  1.3.1 Personal pronouns  1.3.2 Demonstrative pronouns  1.3.3 Relative pronouns o 1.4 Verbs  1.4.1 Regular and irregular lexical verbs  1.4.2 Auxiliary verbs  1.4.3 History of English verbs o 1.5 Adjectives  1.5.1 Adjective phrases o 1.6 Adverbs  1.6.1 Adverb placement
  •  1.6.2 Adverb phrases o 1.7 Prepositions  1.7.1 Prepositional phrases o 1.8 Conjunctions2 Clause syntax o 2.1 Verb phrases  2.1.1 Tense  2.1.2 Aspect  2.1.3 Voice  2.1.4 Mood o 2.2 Adjuncts o 2.3 Verb complementation  2.3.1 Transitive and intransitive verbs  2.3.2 Ergative verbs3 Sentence and clause patterns o 3.1 Clause types4 History of English grammars5 See also6 Notes and references7 Bibliography o 7.1 Grammar books o 7.2 Monographs8 External links[edit]Word classes and phrase classesEight major word classes are described here. Theseare: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and determiner. The first seven aretraditionally referred to as "parts of speech". There are minor word classes, such as interjections, but [2]these do not fit into the clause and sentence structure of English.Open and closed classes [2]Open word classes allow new members; closed word classes seldom do. Nouns such as "celebutante",(a celebrity who frequents the fashion circles)" and "mentee," (a person advised by a mentor) andadverbs such as "24/7" ("I am working on it 24/7") are relatively new words; nouns and adverbs are [2]therefore open classes. However, the pronoun, "their," as agender-neutral singular replacement for the"his or her" (as in: "Each new arrival should check in their luggage."), while in widespread conversational
  • use, has not gained complete acceptance in the more than forty years of its use; pronouns, in [2]consequence, form a closed class.Word classes and grammatical formsA word can sometimes belong to several word classes. The class version of a word is called a [3]"lexeme". For example, the word "run" is usually a verb, but it can also be a noun ("It is a ten mile run [3]to Tipperary."); these are two different lexemes. Further, the same lexeme may be inflected to expressdifferent grammatical categories: for example, as a verb lexeme, "run" has several forms such as "runs," [3]"ran," and "running." Words in one class can sometimes be derived from those in another and newwords be created. The noun "aerobics," for example, has recently given rise to the adjective "aerobicized" [3]("the aerobicized bodies of Beverly Hills celebutantes." )Phrase classesWords combine to form phrases which themselves can take on the attributes of a word class. These [3]classes are called phrase classes. The phrase: "The ancient pulse of germ and birth" is a nounphrase and functions as a noun in the sentence: "The ancient pulse of germ and birth was shrunken hardand dry." (Thomas Hardy, The Darkling Thrush) It is therefore anoun phrase. Other phrase classes [3]are: verb phrases, adjective phrases, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases, and determiner phrases.[edit]NounsNouns form the largest word class. According to Carter and McCarthy, they denote "classes andcategories of things in the world, including people, animals, inanimate things, places, events, qualities [3]and states." Consequently, the words "Mandela," "jaguar," "mansion," "volcano," "Timbuktoo,""blockade," "mercy," and "liquid" are all nouns. Nouns are not commonly identified by their form; however,some common suffixes such as "-age" ("shrinkage"), "-hood" ("sisterhood"), "-ism" ("journalism"), "-ist"("lyricist"), "-ment" ("adornment"), "-ship" ("companionship"), "-tude" ("latitude"), and so forth, are usually [3]identifiers of nouns. There are exceptions, of course: "assuage" and "disparage" are verbs; "augment" isa verb, "lament" and "worship" can be verbs. Nouns can also be created by conversion of verbs oradjectives. Examples include the nouns in: "a boring talk," "a five-week run," "the long caress," "the utterdisdain," and so forth.Number, gender, type, and syntactic features [4]Nouns have singular and plural forms. Many plural forms have -s or -es endings (dog/dogs,referee/referees, bush/bushes), but by no means all (woman/women, axis/axes, medium/media). Unlike [4]some other languages, in English, nouns do not have grammatical gender. However, many nouns canrefer to masculine or feminine animate objects (mother/father, tiger/tigress, alumnus/alumna, [4]male/female). Nouns can be classified semantically, i.e. by their meanings: common nouns ("sugar,""maple," "syrup," "wood"), proper nouns ("Cyrus," "China"), concrete nouns ("book," "laptop"), [4]and abstract nouns ("heat," "prejudice"). Alternatively, they can be distinguished grammatically: count [5]nouns ("clock," "city," "colour") and non-count nouns ("milk," "decor," "foliage").[edit]Noun phrasesMain article: English noun phraseNoun phrases are phrases that function grammatically as nouns within sentences. Nouns serve as [5]"heads," or main words of noun phrases. Nouns have several syntactic features that can aid in their [5]identification. Nouns (example: common noun "cat") may be
  • 1. modified by adjectives ("the beautiful Angora cat"), 2. preceded by determiners ("the beautiful Angora cat"), or [5] 3. pre-modified by other nouns ("the beautiful Angora cat").Within the noun phrase, determiners occur at the far left edge of the noun phrase before the noun headand before any other modifiers: DETERMINER + OTHER MODIFIERS + NOUN The head can have modifiers, a complement, or both. Modifiers which occur before the head are called "pre-modifiers", and those which occur after the [5] head ("who knows what fighting means") are called "post-modifiers". Pre-modifiers can be determiners ("The"), adjectives ("rough", "seamy-faced", "real raw-knuckle", or "burnt-out"), or other nouns ("College"). Complements occur after the head like post-modifiers, but are essential for completing the meaning [6] of the noun phrase in a way that modifiers are not. Examples of modifiers (heads are in boldface, modifiers are italicized) include: [7]  "The burnt-out ends of smoky days." [8]  "The rough, seamy-faced, raw-boned College Servitor ..." [9]  "The real raw-knuckle boys who know what fighting means, ..." Examples of complements (heads are in boldface, complements are italicized) include: [10] 1. "The burnt-out ends of smoky days." 2. "The suggestion that Mr. Touchett should invite me appeared to have come from Miss [11] Stackpole." [12] 3. "The ancient pulse of germ and birth was shrunken hard and dry." Within a sentence, a noun phrase can function as the grammatical subject or the object, as well as [6] other uses. Examples (the noun phrase is italicized, and the head boldfaced): [13] 1. Subject: "Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest." [14] 2. Object: "Dr. Pavlov ... delivered many long propaganda harangues ..." ) Noun phrases can be constructed with the determiner "the" and an adjective. Some examples are:  "The great and the good were present."  "Give to the poor." Noun phrases can be compound: [15] 1. "The idle spear and shield ..." More examples of noun phrases are: the balloon the big red balloo DET NOUN DET ADJ ADJ NOUN
  • many balloons many big red ball DET NOUN DET ADJ ADJ NOU all balloons all big red balloo DET NOUN DET ADJ ADJ NOUNThe distinctness of the determiner and adjective positions relative to each other and the noun head isdemonstrable in that adjectives may never precede determiners. Thus, the following areungrammatical English nouns phrases: *big the red balloon, *big red the balloon (as well as *bigmany red balloons, *big red many balloons, *big all red balloons, *big red all balloons).[edit]Order of determinersDeterminers can be divided into three subclasses according to their position with respect to eachother: predeteminers central determiners postdeterminersPredeterminers may precede central determiners but may not follow central determiners.Postdeterminers follow central determiners but may not precede them. Central determiners mustoccur after predeterminers and before postdeterminers. Thus, a central determiner e.g. the as in the red balloons DET ADJ NOUN can be preceded by a predeterminer e.g. all as in all the red balloons PREDET CENT.DET DET ADJ NOUN or the central determiner the can be followed by a postdeterminer e.g. many as in the many red balloons CENT.DET POSTDET DET ADJ NOUN A sequence of predeterminer + central determiner + postdeterminer is also possible as in all the many red balloons PREDET CENT.DET POSTDET DET ADJ NOUN
  • However, there are several restrictions on combinatory possibilities. One general restriction is that only one determiner can occur in each of the three determiner positions. For example, the postdeterminers many and seven can occur in the followingmany smart childrenseven smart childrenthe many smart childrenthe seven smart children but both many and seven cannot occur in postdeterminer position rendering the following noun phrases ungrammatical: *many seven smart children, *seven many smart children, *the many seven smart children, *the seven many smart children. Additionally, there are often other lexical restrictions. For example, the predeterminer all can occur alone (as the sole determiner) or before a central determiner (e.g., all children, all the children, all these children, all my children); however, the predeterminer such can only occur alone or before a central determiner (e.g., such nuisance!, such a nuisance!). Predeterminers include words e.g. all, both, half, double, twice, three times, one-third, one- fifth, three-quarters, such, exclamative what. Examples with predeterminers preceding a central determiner:all the big balloonsboth his nice parentshalf a minutedouble the risktwice my agethree times my salaryone-third the costone-fifth the ratethree-quarters the diametersuch a big boywhat a clever suggestion Central determiners include words e.g. the, a/an, this, that, these, those,
  • every, each, enou gh, much, more, m ost, less, no, some , either, neither, w hich, what. Examples of central determiners preceding adjectival modified noun heads: the big balloon a big balloon this big balloon that big balloon these big balloons those big balloons every big balloon each big balloon no big balloon some big balloons either big balloonEnglish grammarFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from English grammer) English grammar series English grammar  Contraction  Disputes in English grammar  English compound  English honorifics  English personal pronouns
  •  English plural  English relative clauses  English verbs  English irregular verbs  English modal verb  Gender in English This box:  view  talk  editEnglish grammar is the body of rules that describe the structure of expressions in the English language. Thisincludes the structure of words, phrases,clauses and sentences. A text that contains more than one sentence isno longer in the realm of grammar, but is instead is in the realm of discourse.[1]The grammar of a language is approached in two ways: descriptive grammar is based on analysis of textcorpora and describes grammatical structures thereof, whereas prescriptive grammar attempts to use theidentified rules of a given language as a tool to govern the linguistic behaviour of speakers. This articlepredominantly concerns itself with descriptive grammar.There are historical, social and regional variations of English. Divergences from the grammar described hereoccur in some dialects of English. This article describes a generalized present-day Standard English, the formof speech found in types of public discourse including broadcasting, education, entertainment, government, andnews reporting, including both formal and informal speech. Although British English, AmericanEnglish and Australian English have several lexical differences, the grammatical differences are not asconspicuous, and will be mentioned only when appropriate.Grammar is divided into morphology, which describes the formation of words, and syntax, which describes theconstruction of meaningful phrases, clauses, and sentences out of words. Contents [hide]
  • 1 Word classes and phrase classes o 1.1 Nouns  1.1.1 Noun phrases  1.1.1.1 Order of determiners o 1.2 Determiners o 1.3 Pronouns  1.3.1 Personal pronouns  1.3.2 Demonstrative pronouns  1.3.3 Relative pronouns o 1.4 Verbs  1.4.1 Regular and irregular lexical verbs  1.4.2 Auxiliary verbs  1.4.3 History of English verbs o 1.5 Adjectives  1.5.1 Adjective phrases o 1.6 Adverbs  1.6.1 Adverb placement  1.6.2 Adverb phrases o 1.7 Prepositions  1.7.1 Prepositional phrases o 1.8 Conjunctions2 Clause syntax o 2.1 Verb phrases  2.1.1 Tense  2.1.2 Aspect  2.1.3 Voice  2.1.4 Mood o 2.2 Adjuncts o 2.3 Verb complementation  2.3.1 Transitive and intransitive verbs  2.3.2 Ergative verbs3 Sentence and clause patterns
  • o 3.1 Clause types4 History of English grammars5 See also6 Notes and references7 Bibliography o 7.1 Grammar books o 7.2 Monographs8 External links[edit]Word classes and phrase classesEight major word classes are described here. Theseare: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and determiner. The first seven aretraditionally referred to as "parts of speech". There are minor word classes, such as interjections, but these donot fit into the clause and sentence structure of English.[2]Open and closed classesOpen word classes allow new members; closed word classes seldom do.[2] Nouns such as "celebutante", (acelebrity who frequents the fashion circles)" and "mentee," (a person advised by a mentor) and adverbs suchas "24/7" ("I am working on it 24/7") are relatively new words; nouns and adverbs are therefore openclasses.[2] However, the pronoun, "their," as agender-neutral singular replacement for the "his or her" (as in:"Each new arrival should check in their luggage."), while in widespread conversational use, has not gainedcomplete acceptance in the more than forty years of its use; pronouns, in consequence, form a closed class.[2]Word classes and grammatical formsA word can sometimes belong to several word classes. The class version of a word is called a "lexeme".[3] Forexample, the word "run" is usually a verb, but it can also be a noun ("It is a ten mile run to Tipperary."); theseare two different lexemes.[3] Further, the same lexeme may be inflected to express different grammaticalcategories: for example, as a verb lexeme, "run" has several forms such as "runs," "ran," and"running."[3] Words in one class can sometimes be derived from those in another and new words be created.The noun "aerobics," for example, has recently given rise to the adjective "aerobicized" ("the aerobicizedbodies of Beverly Hills celebutantes."[3])Phrase classesWords combine to form phrases which themselves can take on the attributes of a word class. These classesare called phrase classes.[3] The phrase: "The ancient pulse of germ and birth" is a noun phrase and functionsas a noun in the sentence: "The ancient pulse of germ and birth was shrunken hard and dry." (Thomas
  • Hardy, The Darkling Thrush) It is therefore anoun phrase. Other phrase classes are: verb phrases, adjectivephrases, adverb phrases, prepositional phrases, and determiner phrases.[3][edit]NounsNouns form the largest word class. According to Carter and McCarthy, they denote "classes and categories ofthings in the world, including people, animals, inanimate things, places, events, qualities andstates."[3] Consequently, the words "Mandela," "jaguar," "mansion," "volcano," "Timbuktoo," "blockade,""mercy," and "liquid" are all nouns. Nouns are not commonly identified by their form; however, somecommon suffixes such as "-age" ("shrinkage"), "-hood" ("sisterhood"), "-ism" ("journalism"), "-ist" ("lyricist"), "-ment" ("adornment"), "-ship" ("companionship"), "-tude" ("latitude"), and so forth, are usually identifiers ofnouns.[3] There are exceptions, of course: "assuage" and "disparage" are verbs; "augment" is a verb, "lament"and "worship" can be verbs. Nouns can also be created by conversion of verbs or adjectives. Examples includethe nouns in: "a boring talk," "a five-week run," "the long caress," "the utter disdain," and so forth.Number, gender, type, and syntactic featuresNouns have singular and plural forms.[4] Many plural forms have -s or -es endings (dog/dogs, referee/referees,bush/bushes), but by no means all (woman/women, axis/axes, medium/media). Unlike some other languages,in English, nouns do not have grammatical gender.[4] However, many nouns can refer to masculine or feminineanimate objects (mother/father, tiger/tigress, alumnus/alumna, male/female).[4] Nouns can be classifiedsemantically, i.e. by their meanings: common nouns ("sugar," "maple," "syrup," "wood"), proper nouns ("Cyrus,""China"), concrete nouns ("book," "laptop"), and abstract nouns ("heat," "prejudice").[4] Alternatively, they canbe distinguished grammatically: count nouns ("clock," "city," "colour") and non-count nouns ("milk," "decor,""foliage").[5][edit]Noun phrasesMain article: English noun phraseNoun phrases are phrases that function grammatically as nouns within sentences. Nouns serve as "heads," ormain words of noun phrases.[5] Nouns have several syntactic features that can aid in theiridentification.[5] Nouns (example: common noun "cat") may be 1. modified by adjectives ("the beautiful Angora cat"), 2. preceded by determiners ("the beautiful Angora cat"), or 3. pre-modified by other nouns ("the beautiful Angora cat").[5]Within the noun phrase, determiners occur at the far left edge of the noun phrase before the noun head andbefore any other modifiers:
  • DETERMINER + OTHER MODIFIERS + NOUNThe head can have modifiers, a complement, or both.Modifiers which occur before the head are called "pre-modifiers", and those which occur after the head("who knows what fighting means") are called "post-modifiers".[5] Pre-modifiers can be determiners("The"), adjectives ("rough", "seamy-faced", "real raw-knuckle", or "burnt-out"), or other nouns ("College").Complements occur after the head like post-modifiers, but are essential for completing the meaning of thenoun phrase in a way that modifiers are not.[6]Examples of modifiers (heads are in boldface, modifiers are italicized) include: "The burnt-out ends of smoky days."[7] "The rough, seamy-faced, raw-boned College Servitor ..."[8] "The real raw-knuckle boys who know what fighting means, ..."[9]Examples of complements (heads are in boldface, complements are italicized) include: 1. "The burnt-out ends of smoky days."[10] 2. "The suggestion that Mr. Touchett should invite me appeared to have come from Miss Stackpole."[11] 3. "The ancient pulse of germ and birth was shrunken hard and dry."[12]Within a sentence, a noun phrase can function as the grammatical subject or the object, as well as otheruses.[6] Examples (the noun phrase is italicized, and the head boldfaced): 1. Subject: "Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest."[13] 2. Object: "Dr. Pavlov ... delivered many long propaganda harangues ..."[14])Noun phrases can be constructed with the determiner "the" and an adjective. Some examples are: "The great and the good were present." "Give to the poor."Noun phrases can be compound: 1. "The idle spear and shield ..."[15]More examples of noun phrases are: the balloon the big
  • DET NOUN DET ADJ many balloons many b DET NOUN DET A all balloons all big DET NOUN DET ADJThe distinctness of the determiner and adjective positions relative to each other and the noun head isdemonstrable in that adjectives may never precede determiners. Thus, the following are ungrammaticalEnglish nouns phrases: *big the red balloon, *big red the balloon (as well as *big many red balloons, *bigred many balloons, *big all red balloons, *big red all balloons).[edit]Order of determinersDeterminers can be divided into three subclasses according to their position with respect to each other: predeteminers central determiners postdeterminersPredeterminers may precede central determiners but may not follow central determiners. Postdeterminersfollow central determiners but may not precede them. Central determiners must occur after predeterminersand before postdeterminers. Thus, a central determiner e.g. the as in the red balloons DET ADJ NOUN can be preceded by a predeterminer e.g. all as in all the red balloons PREDET CENT.DET DET ADJ NOUN or the central determiner the can be followed by a postdeterminer e.g. many as in
  • the many red balloonsCENT.DET POSTDET DET ADJ NOUN A sequence of predeterminer + central determiner + postdeterminer is also possible as inall the many red balloonsPREDET CENT.DET POSTDET DET ADJ NOUN However, there are several restrictions on combinatory possibilities. One general restriction is that only one determiner can occur in each of the three determiner positions. For example, the postdeterminers many and seven can occur in the followingmany smart childrenseven smart childrenthe many smart childrenthe seven smart children but both many and seven cannot occur in postdeterminer position rendering the following noun phrases ungrammatical: *many seven smart children, *seven many smart children, *the many seven smart children, *the seven many smart children. Additionally, there are often other lexical restrictions. For example, the predeterminer all can occur alone (as the sole determiner) or before a central determiner (e.g., all children, all the children, all these children, all my children); however, the predeterminer such can only occur alone or before a central determiner (e.g., such nuisance!, such a nuisance!). Predeterminers include words e.g. all, both, half, double, twice, three times, one-third, one-fifth, three-quarters, such, exclamative what. Examples with predeterminers preceding a central determiner:all the big balloonsboth his nice parentshalf a minute
  • double the risktwice my agethree times my salaryone-third the costone-fifth the ratethree-quarters the diametersuch a big boywhat a clever suggestion Central determiners include words e.g. the, a/an, this, t hat, these, those, e very, each, enough, much, more, most, less, no, some, eith er, neither, which, what. Examples of central determiners preceding adjectival modified noun heads:the big balloona big balloonthis big balloonthat big balloonthese big balloonsthose big balloonsevery big ballooneach big balloonno big balloonsome big balloonseither big balloon
  • [ my stepmother’s ] friendly childrenboth [ my stepmother’s ] friendly children[ my stepmother’s ] many friendly childrenall [ my stepmother’s ] many friendly children
  • [ my stepmother’s ] friendly childrenboth [ my stepmother’s ] friendly children[ my stepmother’s ] many friendly childrenall [ my stepmother’s ] many friendly children