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  • 1. AS MEDIA STUDIES KEY TERMS Camera Angle, Shot, Movement & Position. • Establishing shot - a shot usually involving a distant framing, that shows the spatial relations among the important figures, objects and setting in a scene. • Master shot - a shot that establishes spatial relationships between objects and defines the setting. Returned to whenever spatial relationships need to be re- established/confirmed. • Close-up (& variations) - a framing in which the scale of the object shown is relatively large; most commonly a person’s head seen from the neck up, or an object of a comparable size that fills most of the screen. • Long shot - a framing in which the scale of the object shown is small, a standing figure would appear nearly the height of the screen. • Wide shot - a shot covering a wide angle. • High angle - the position of the frame in relation to the subject shows it above it, looking down. • Low angle - As above, looking up. • Aerial shot - a moving shot from above looking down. • Point of view - a shot taken with the camera placed approximately where the character’s eyes would be, showing what the character would see; usually cut in before or after a shot of the character looking. • Two-shot - two figures within the frame. • Pan - a camera movement with the camera body turning to the right or left. On screen it produces horizontal movements. • Crane - a change in framing accomplished by having the camera above the ground & moving through the air in any direction. • Tilt - a camera movement with the camera body swivelling upward or downward on a stationary support. It produces a mobile framing that scans the space vertically. • Tracking shot - a mobile framing that travels through space forward, backward, or laterally. • Dolly - a camera support with wheels, used in making tracking shots. • Zoom/reverse zoom - a close up rapidly from a long shot to a close up, and vice versa. The mobile frame doe not alter the aspects or positions of the objects filmed.
  • 2. • Framing - the use of the edges of the film frame to select and to compose what will be visible onscreen. • Composition - the arrangement within the frame. • Hand-held - the use of the camera operator’s body as a camera support, either holding it by hand or using a harness. • Steadicam - a gyroscopically balanced body rig patented by Steadicam which a camera can be attached to, to generate smooth hand-held shots. • Aerial shot - a moving shot from above looking down. Editing • Editing - 1. In film making, the task of selecting and joining camera takes. 2. In the finished film, the set of techniques that govern the relations among shots. • Cut - 1. In film making, the joining of two strips of film together with a splice. 2. In the finished film, an instantaneous change from one framing to another. • Fade - 1. Fade-in: A dark screen that gradually brightens as a shot appears. 2. Fade-out: A shot gradually darkens as the screen goes black. Occasionally fade- outs brighten to pure white or to a colour. • Wipe - a transition between shots in which a line passes across the screen, eliminating the first shot as it goes and replaces it with the next one. • Shot/reverse shot - two or more shots edited together that alternate characters, typically in a conversation situation. Over the shoulder frames are common in shot/reverse shot editing. • Dissolve - a transition between two shots during which the first image gradually disappears while the second image gradually appears • Long take - a shot that continues for an unusually lengthy time before the transition to the next shot. • Shot/reverse shot - two or more shots edited together that alternate characters, typically in a conversation situation. Over the shoulder framings are common in shot/reverse shot editing. • Montage – developed by Russian film makers of the 1920s – one shot,image, sequence juxtaposed with another will create meaning for an audience • Superimposition - the exposure of more than one image on the same film strip. SOUND • Synchronous sound - sound that is matched temporally with the movements occurring in the images, as when dialogue corresponds to lip movements.
  • 3. • Asynchronous sound - sound that is not matched temporally with the movements occurring in the image. • Diegetic sound – any sound that has an onscreen source belonging to the action. • Non-diegetic – any sound that does not have an onscreen source & characters do NOT hear it e.g. some voiceovers, music. • Theme music/tune - a recurrent melody in the film. • Incidental music - music used as a background to the action unfolding on the image track in a film. • Sound effects - sounds other than dialogue or music made artificially. • Ambient sound - buzz and/or surrounding sounds. • Dialogue - speech. • Voiceover - narration in a film not accompanied by a synchronised image of the speaker forming the words. • Direct address - when characters speak directly to the camera i.e. the audience. • Sound bridges – any sound/s that continue from one shot to another. Sound bridges help create a smooth transition from one shot to another, to reduce the disruptive tendencies of editing. In this way the sound is said to be enhancing the continuity of the film. • Parallel sound – sound that complements the image track. Sound & image seem to reflect each other. • Contrapuntal sound – sound that does not complement or fit with the image track. MISE-EN-SCENE • Mise-en-scene - all of the elements placed in front of the camera to be photographed; the settings and props, lighting, costume, make-up and figure behaviour. • Location - the particular place and time created in the frame. • Set - the surroundings where the action will unfold; usually the stage, including integral design features. • Studio/set design - the overall design concept present in the frame, relating to the set. • Costume - a style or fashion of dress, especially that of a particular place, time or class. Also hair and make-up.
  • 4. • Properties - (props) movable objects used in the construction of the mise-en- scene. • Positioning – of characters and objects within the frame. • Body language – how characters bodies are positioned and their facial expressions. • Production design period/era - utilised to create characteristics within a mise- en-scene reflective of a certain historical period. • Colour design - the style & combination of colours used in generating the mise- en-scene. • Lighting – e.g. High key lighting: illumination that creates comparatively little contrast between the light and dark areas of the shot. Shadows are fairly transparent and brightened by fill light. Low key lighting: illumination that creates strong contrast between light and dark areas of the shot, with deep shadows and little fill light. LIGHTING • Attached shadows (shading) – e.g. the shadows on an actors face if they are illuminated by candle light. • Cast shadow – the shadow cast on a surface by an object placed in front of a light source. • “Hard” light - creates sharp shadows (Chiaroscuro/Low Key) • “Soft” light - creates less of a contrast between light and dark. (High Key) • Frontal lighting – eliminates shadows • Side lighting – shadow from the side • Back lighting – silhouettes (or eliminates shadows when used with other lights) • Under lighting – shadow from below • Top lighting – shadow from above