Object oriented methodologies


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Object oriented methodologies

  1. 1. Object oriented methodologies 1
  2. 2. Rumbaugh’s Object Modeling Technique (OMT)-A method for analysis, design and implementation by an object oriented technique.-fast and intuitive approach for identifying and modeling all objects making up a system.-Class attributes, methods, inheritance and association can be expressed easily.-Dynamic behavior of objects can be described using the OMT dynamic model.-Detailed specification of state transitions and their-descriptions within a system
  3. 3. Rumbaugh ET AL’s Object Modeling Technique: Four phases of OMT (can be performed iteratively)  Analysis: objects,dynamic and functional models  System Design: Basic architecture of the system.  Object Design: static, dynamic and functional models of objects.  Implementation: reusable, extendible and robust code.
  4. 4. Three different parts of OMT modeling An object model - object model & data dictionary A dynamic model - state diagrams & event flow diagrams A functional model - data flow & constraints
  5. 5. Object Model structure of objects in a system. Identity, relationships to other objects, attributes and operations. Object diagram
  6. 6. The OMT object model of a bank system. The boxes representclasses and the filled triangle represents specialization.Association between Account and Transaction is one to many;since one account can have many transactions, the filled circlerepresents many (zero or more). The relationship between Clientand Account classes is one to one: A client can have only oneaccount and account can belong to only one person (in this modeljoint accounts are not allowed).
  7. 7. Object Diagram Classes interconnected by association lines Classes- a set of individual objects Association lines- relationship among classes (i.e., objects of one class to objects of another class)
  8. 8. OMT Dynamic Model States, transitions, events and actions OMT state transition diagram-network of states and events
  9. 9. State transition diagram for the bank application userinterface. The round boxes represent states and thearrows represent transitions.
  10. 10. State transition diagram:
  11. 11. OMT Functional Model DFD- (Data Flow Diagram) Shows flow of data between different processes in a business. Simple and intuitive method for describing business processes without focusing on the details of computer systems.
  12. 12. Data Flow Diagram Four primary symbols Process- any function being performed Data Flow- Direction of data element movement Data Store – Location where data is stored External Entity-Source or Destination of a data element
  13. 13. The Booch Methodology Widely used OO method Uses the object paradigm Covers the design and analysis phase of an OO system Criticized for his large set of symbols
  14. 14. Diagrams of Booch method Class diagrams- describe roles and responsibilities of objects Object diagrams describe the desired behavior of the system in terms of scenarios State transition diagrams state of a class based on a stimulus Module diagrams to map out where each class & object should be declared Process diagrams to determine to which processor to allocate a process Interaction diagrams describes behavior of the system in terms of scenarios
  15. 15. Diagrams of Booch methodClass diagramsdescribe roles andresponsibilities ofobjectsObject diagramsdescribe the desiredbehavior of the system interms of scenarios
  16. 16. State transition diagramsstate of a class based on a stimulus
  17. 17. Process diagramsto determine to which processor toallocate a process
  18. 18. Module diagramsto map out whereeach class & objectshould be declared
  19. 19. Interaction diagramsdescribes behavior of thesystem in terms of scenarios
  20. 20. Booch method prescribes: Macro Development Process Micro Development Process
  21. 21. Macro Development Process Controlling framework for the micro process. Primary concern-technical management of the system.
  22. 22. Steps for macro developmentprocess1. Conceptualization2. Analysis & Development of the model3. Design or create the system architecture4. Evolution or implementation5. Maintenance
  23. 23. Object modeling using Booch notation. The arrowsrepresent specialization; for example, class Taurus issubclass of the class Ford.
  24. 24. An alarm class state transition diagram with Boochnotation. This diagram can capture the state of a classbased on a stimulus. For example, a stimulus causes theclass to perform some processing, followed by atransition to another state. In this case, the alarmsilenced state can be changed to alarm sounding stateand vice versa.
  25. 25. Micro Development Process Each macro process has its own micro development processSteps:- Identify classes & objects- Identify class & objects semantics- Identify class & object relationship- Identify class & objects interface and implementation
  26. 26. JACOBSON METHODOLOGIES Use Cases. Object Oriented Software Engineering. Object Oriented Business Engineering.
  27. 27. Use Cases Understanding system requirements Interaction between Users and Systems The use case description must contain  How and when the use case begins and ends.  The Interaction between the use case and its actors, including when the interaction occurs and what is exchanged.  How and when the use case will need data stored in the system.  Exception to the flow of events  How and when concepts of the problem domain are handled.
  28. 28. Some uses of a library. As you can see, these are externalviews of the library system from the actor such as amember. The simpler the use case, the more effective itwill be. It is unwise to capture all of the details right atthe start; you can do that later.
  29. 29. OOSE Object Oriented Software Engineering. Objectory is built around several different models: Use case model. The use-case model defines the outside (actors) and inside (use case) of the systems behavior. Domain object model. The objects of the “real” world are mapped into the domain object model. Analysis object model. The analysis object model presents how the source code (implementation) should be carried out and written. Implementation model. The implementation model represents the implementation of the system. Test model. The test model constitutes the test plans, specifications, and reports.
  30. 30. The use-case model is considered in every model andphase.
  31. 31. OOBE Object Oriented Business Engineering OOBE is object modeling at the enterprise level.  Analysis phase  Design and Implementation phase  Testing phase  E.g. Unit testing, integration and system testing.
  32. 32. PATTERNS It is an instructive information that captures the essential structure and insight of a successful family of proven solutions to a recurring problem that arises within a certain context and system of forces.
  33. 33. Good Pattern will do thefollowing It solves a problem. It is a proven concept. The Solution is not obvious. It describes a relationship. The pattern has a significant human component.
  34. 34. Patterns Patterns Generative Patterns Non Generative Patterns(describe recurring phenomena (describe recurring phenomena with saying how to without saying how to reproduce them) reproduce them)
  35. 35. Patterns Template Essential Components should be clearly recognizable on reading a pattern:  Name  Problem  Context  Forces  Solution  Examples  Resulting context  Rationale  Related Patterns  Known uses
  36. 36. Frameworks Way of delivering application development patterns to support best practice sharing during application development. Can be viewed as the implementation of a system of design patterns.
  37. 37. Benefits of Frameworks Reusability Modularity Extensibility Inversion of Control
  38. 38. Difference between Patterns andFrameworks Design patterns are more abstract than frameworks. Design patterns are smaller architectural elements than frameworks. Design patterns are less specialized than frameworks.
  39. 39. Model An abstract representation of a system. Types of model 1. Use case model 2. Domain model 3. Analysis object model 4. Implementation model 5. Test model
  40. 40. Model Types of model 1. Use case model  defines the outside (actors) & inside (use case) of the system’s behavior. 2. Domain model  maps real world object into the domain object model. 3. Analysis object model  how source code should be carried out & written. 4. Implementation model represents the implementation of the system. 5. Test model  test plans, specifications & reports.
  41. 41. Model  Model is an iterative process.  It can represent static or dynamic situations.  Model Static DynamicProvides a system’s Represents a system’s behaviorsparameters at rest or at a that, taken together, reflect itsspecific point in time. behavior over time.(e.g.) class diagram (e.g.) interaction & activity diagrams
  42. 42. Why modeling Blue print Clarity Familiarity Maintenance Simplification
  43. 43. Advantages of modeling Easy to express complex ideas Reduce complexity Enhance & reinforce learning and training Low cost Easy to change the model
  44. 44. What is Unified ModelingLanguage (UML)? The UML is a graphical / standard language for visualizing, specifying, constructing & documenting the artifacts of a software system.
  45. 45. History of UML 1980 – 1990  Many different methodologies 1. Booch method by Grady Booch 2. Object Modeling Technique (OMT) by Jim Rumbaugh 3. Object Oriented Software Engineering (OOSE) by Ivar Jacobson Each method had its strengths & weaknesses. 1. Booch was great in design 2. OMT & OOSE were great in analysis
  46. 46. History of UML 1997) UML 1.0 (January UML 1.1 (November 1997) UML 1.3 (Current Minor revision 1999) UML 1.4 (Planned Minor revision 2000) UML 2.0 (Planned Major revision 2004)
  47. 47. UML Concepts  UML can be used to support your entire life cycle. 1. The interaction of your application with the outside world (use case diagram) 2. Visualize object interaction (sequence & collaboration diagrams) 3. The structure of your system (class diagram) 4. View the system architecture by looking at the defined package. 5. The components in your system (component diagram)
  48. 48. What are Diagrams ? Graphical presentation of model elements. A diagram is a graphical means to view a system’s parts
  49. 49. UML Diagrams 8 diagrams You will model the following 5 diagrams only: 1. Use case diagram 2. Activity diagram 3. Sequence diagram Interaction 4. Collaboration diagram diagram 5. Class diagram The other UML diagrams that can be modeled in Rose are: 1. State chart diagram 2. Component diagram 3. Deployment diagram
  50. 50. Behavior Diagram Interaction Sequence diagram diagram behavior Collaboration diagram diagram State chart diagram Activity diagram
  51. 51. UML Diagrams 1. Class diagram 2. Use case diagram 3. Activity diagram 4. Sequence diagram 5. Collaboration diagram 6. State chart diagram 7. Component diagram 8. Deployment diagram
  52. 52. 1. Class diagram Class  a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations & relationships. It represented by a compartmentalized rectangle. It shows the structure of your software. 3 compartments 1. Top 2. Middle 3. Bottom
  53. 53. 1. Class diagram 1. Top  shows class name 2. Middle  shows class attributes 3. Bottom  shows class operation
  54. 54. 1. Class diagram 1. Attributes  defines the characteristics or structure of a class.  displayed in the middle of the compartmentalized rectangle.Attributes
  55. 55. 1. Class diagram 2. Operation  the service provided by the class.  displayed in the bottom of the compartmentalized rectangle.Operations
  56. 56. 2.Use case diagram It shows a set of use cases and actors and their relationships. Address the static view of a system. Actor  user (or) someone / something outside the system that interacts with the system (it must be a noun) & it is represented by a stickman. ……contd
  57. 57. 2.Use case diagram Use case  a sequences of actions (it must be a verb) & it is represented by an oval. Relationship illustrates a connection among model elements. Unidirectional Bi-directional It is created to visualize the interaction of your system with the outside world. (e.g.) ATM ……contd
  59. 59. 2. Use case diagram (Pay roll) Actors  employee & account Use case  count leave, disburse salary, check loans, calculate PF, prepare IT returns, calculate HRA & check salary
  60. 60. Count leaveCustomer Disburse salary Check loans Calculate HRA Calculate PF Check salary Prepare IT returns
  61. 61. 3.Activity Diagram It shows the flow of events with our system & what is going on inside a use case. We draw the activity diagram for each & every use case. Login (use case) – (e.g.) ATM It is showing flow of control from activity to activity.
  62. 62. 3.Activity Diagram Activity  it represents the performance of a task within the workflow. Activity is represented by a lozenge (horizontal top and bottom with convex sides) Start state shows the beginning of a workflow on an activity diagram. There is only one start state.
  63. 63. 3.Activity Diagram A start state is represented by a solid circle. An end state represents a final or terminal state on an activity diagram. A end state is represented by a bull’s eye.
  64. 64. 3.Activity Diagram A state transition shows what activity follows after another. It is represented by a solid line with an arrow.
  65. 65. 3.Activity Diagram A decision is a point in an activity diagram where guard conditions are used to indicate different possible transitions. It is represented by a diamond. Guard conditions control the transition of a set of alternate transitions that follows after the activity has been completed.
  66. 66. 3.Activity Diagram ANDSynchronization bar Joint
  67. 67. 3.Activity Diagram A synchronization bar allows you to show concurrent threads in a work flow of a use case. It represented by a thick horizontal or vertical line.
  68. 68. 3.Activity Diagram A swimlane is used to partition an activity diagram to help us better understand who or what is initiating an activity.
  69. 69. 3.Activity Diagram – Login Use case Cus tom er Enters the login details Sys tem retrives the details Sys tem validates the cus tom er [ Fals e ] Sys tem prompts to reenter [ True ] Sys tem welcomes the cus tom er
  70. 70. 4.Sequence Diagram It shows step by step what must happen to accomplish a piece of functionality provided by the system. It has 2Ds. 1. Vertical dimensions  represents time 2. Horizontal dimensions  represents different objects. Vertical line is called the object’s life line.
  71. 71. 4.Sequence Diagram  Life line  the existence object at a particular time.  Objects are shown at the top.  The object role is shown as a vertical dashed line, the life line.
  72. 72. 4.Sequence Diagram  A message is the communication between 2 objects that triggers an event.  It is represented by a labeled arrow.  Each message is represented by an arrow between the life lines of 2 objects.
  73. 73. 4.Sequence Diagram  A focus of control shows the period of time during which an object is performing an action, either directly or through a subordinate procedure.  It represented by a tall, thin rectangle.
  74. 74. 4.Sequence Diagram – loginsuccess : Customer : LoginForm : LoginController : CustomerInfo Enter Login Detail... Submit( ) Validate( ) getLoginDetails( )
  75. 75. 5.Collaboration Diagram It displays objects and their links to one other. It is also known as an interaction diagram.
  76. 76. 5.Collaboration Diagram It is made up of the following basic elements : 1. Actors 2. Objects 3. Links 4. Messages
  77. 77. 5.Collaboration Diagram 1. Actors  user 2. Objects  data + logic / the representation of some real world entity. 3. Links  a pathway for communication between objects.  represented by a solid line between 2 objects 4. Messages  the communication between objects that triggers an event.  represented by a labeled arrow above the link.
  78. 78. 5.Collaboration Diagram –Login use case 1: Enter Login Details ( ) 2: Subm it( ) : LoginForm : Cus tom er 3: Validate( ) 4: getLoginDetails ( ) : LoginController : Cus tom erInfo
  79. 79. 6. State Chart Diagram It shows the sequence of states. A state is represented as a rounded box, which may contain one or more compartments. Name compartment  holds the name of the state. Internal transition compartment  list of actions / activities Start & end states
  80. 80. 7.Component Diagram It shows relationship between the components in the system. A component may be a software component [for (e.g.) a.h file in C++ (or) a .java file in Java], a run time component [for (e.g.) a.DLL file]
  81. 81. 8. Deployment Diagram It shows the configuration of run time processing elements & the software components, processes & objects that live in them. It shows the nodes in the system & the connections between them.
  82. 82. Review Name the 2 benefits of visual modeling. What is UML? Name three UML diagrams. What are the elements of a use-case diagram? Define a use case. Define an actor. What is meant by a relationship?
  83. 83. Module Summary Visual modeling 1. The interaction of your application with the outside world (use case diagram) 2. Visualize object interaction (sequence & collaboration diagrams) 3. The structure of your system (class diagram) 4. View the system architecture by looking at the defined package. 5. The components in your system (component diagram)
  84. 84. Module Summary UML The UML is a graphical / standard language for visualizing, specifying, constructing & documenting the artifacts of a software system.
  85. 85. Module Summary You can model the following 8 UML diagrams in Rational Rose. 1. Use case diagram 2. Activity diagram 3. Sequence diagram 4. Collaboration diagram 5. Class diagram 6. State chart diagram 7. Component diagram 8. Deployment diagram
  86. 86. Views and Diagrams in Rational Rose  What is model? A model is a simplification of reality or the blueprint of the system.  What is view? A view is a perspective of the model (ie) meaningful to specific stakeholders.
  87. 87. ViewsLogical View Implementation View(Analyst / Designer) (Programmers)Structure Software Management Use case view (end user functionalityProcess View Deployment View(System integrators) (System Engineering)Performance, scalability System topology, Delivery,& throughput installation & Communication
  88. 88. Views  In Rose, you can create the following views 1. Use-case view 2. Logical view 3. Process view 4. Component view (Implementation view) 5. Deployment view These views together create what we call the 4+1 Architectural View
  89. 89. Use Case View It specifies WHAT the system should do? Servers as a contract between customer and developer. Essential to analysis, design and test activities.
  90. 90. Logical View It supports the functional requirements of the system. It includes use-case realizations, class and interaction diagrams. It can also include state chart and activity diagrams.
  91. 91. Process View Addresses the performance, scalability and throughput of the system. Is not necessary for a single Processing environment.
  92. 92. Component / ImplementationView Addresses issues of ease of development, management of software assets, reuse & etc.
  93. 93. Deployment View Addresses issues like deployment, installation and performance. .Used for distributed system only.
  94. 94. Rational Rose Interface It includes the following :  Browser  Diagram window  Diagram toolbar  Documentation window  Log window  Options window The options window is not technically part of the rose interface. However, it is important in your initial setup.
  95. 95. The Browser The browser allow you to textually view and navigate the views and diagrams in rational rose. Display the elements that you have modeled. if an element doesn’t appear in the browser, it not a part of your modeled system.
  96. 96. Diagram window The diagram window allows you to create and update graphical views of the current model.
  97. 97. Diagram Toolbar The diagram toolbar includes the elements to build a diagram. Each diagrams toolbar unique to that diagram. It is active only when the diagram is displayed.
  98. 98. Documentation window Used to create, view or modify text that explains a selected item within a diagram.
  99. 99. Log window Reports progress, result and errors. For (e.g.) code generation commands post progress and error messages to this window. To display log window, go to View menu, click LOG to show or hide the window. To clear the contents of log window, click CLEAR LOG.
  100. 100. Options window Used to set all of your default for modeling. Note that if you change default, existing model elements are not changed.
  101. 101. Basic tool techniques There are two basic tool techniques we will discuss before you begin the labs. They are 1. Deleting diagram elements 2. Adding diagram elements
  102. 102. Deleting diagram elements What happens when you delete an element from the browser? Rose does the following. Removes the selected elements from the model Removes all icons representing the elements from all diagrams on which they appear. Delete the specification for the element .
  103. 103. Deleting Diagram Elements  There are three ways to delete an element. 1. Click the element in the diagram and then press ctrl-D 2. Right click the element in browser, and then click delete 3. Click the element in the browser or diagram. From the edit menu, click delete from model.
  104. 104. Adding diagram elements How do you add diagram elements?  You add elements to a diagram from either the diagram tool bar or browser.
  105. 105. Review What are views? Name a view in rose and discuss its purpose. Name two feature of the rose interface Discuss deleting from the browser versus the diagram.
  106. 106. Module Summary Rational Rose uses views & diagrams to depict varying perspectives and a system’s parts. There are 5 views in Rational Rose : 1. Use case view 2. Logical view 3. Process view 4. Component / implementation view 5. Deployment view
  107. 107. Module Summary Diagrams are a graphical means to view a system’s parts. The browser shows all of your model elements Diagram window is to create a view Diagram toolbar includes the elements to build a diagram. Documentation window is used to create, view or modify text that explains a selected item within a diagram.
  108. 108. Module Summary Log window reports progress, results & errors. Option window allows you to set your defaults. Deleting diagram elements  ctrl D, DEL key (or) go to edit menu, click DELETE FROM MODEL. Adding diagram elements  click the element & then click in the diagram window.
  109. 109. Thank You!